Chapter6:Layout
12
6.3 \flushbottom
The\flushbottomdeclarationmakesalltextpagesthesameheight,addingextravertical
spacewherenecessarytofilloutthepage.
Thisisthedefaultiftwocolumnmodeisselected(seeSection4.1[Documentclassop-
tions],page5).
6.4 \raggedbottom
The\raggedbottomdeclarationmakesallpagesthenaturalheightofthematerialonthat
page. Norubberlengthswillbestretched.
6.5 Pagelayoutparameters
\headheight
Heightoftheboxthatcontainstherunninghead. Defaultis‘30pt’,exceptin
thebookclass,whereitvarieswiththetypesize.
\headsep Verticaldistancebetweenthebottomoftheheaderlineandthetopofthemain
text. Defaultis‘25pt’,exceptinthebookclass,whereitvarieswiththetype
size.
\footskip
Distancefromthebaselineof the lastlineof text tothebaselineof thepage
footer.Defaultis‘30pt’,exceptinthebookclass,whereitvarieswiththetype
size.
\linewidth
Widthofthecurrentline,decreasedforeachnestedlist(seeSection9.16[list],
page24).Specifically,itissmallerthan\textwidthbythesumof\leftmargin
and\rightmargin(seeSection9.14[itemize],page22).Thedefaultvarieswith
thefontsize,paperwidth,two-columnmode,etc. For r anarticledocument
in‘10pt’,it’ssetto‘345pt’;intwo-columnmode,thatbecomes‘229.5pt’.
\textheight
Thenormalverticalheight ofthepagebody;thedefaultvarieswiththefont
size,documentclass,etc. Foranarticleor r reportdocument in‘10pt’,it’s
set to ‘43\baselineskip’; ; for r book, , it’s s ‘41\baselineskip’. . For‘11pt’,it’s
‘38\baselineskip’andfor‘12pt’,‘36\baselineskip’.
\textwidth
Thefullhorizontalwidthoftheentirepagebody;thedefault variesasusual.
Foranarticleorreportdocument,it’s‘345pt’at‘10pt’,‘360pt’at‘11pt’,
and‘390pt’at‘12pt’. Forabookdocument,it’s‘4.5in’at‘10pt’,and‘5in’
at‘11pt’or‘12pt’.
Inmulti-columnoutput,\textwidthremainsthewidthoftheentirepagebody,
while\columnwidthisthewidthofonecolumn(seeSection6.2[\twocolumn],
page11).
Inlists(seeSection9.16[list],page24),\textwidthremainsthewidthofthe
entire pagebody (and \columnwidththe widthof theentirecolumn), while
\linewidthmaydecreasefornestedlists.
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Chapter6:Layout
13
Inside a a minipage e (see Section n 9.18 8 [minipage], page e 25) ) or \parbox (see
Section 21.5 5 [\parbox], , page 69), , all l the width-related parameters s are e set
to the specified d width, and revert to o their r normal l values s at t the e end of the
minipageor\parbox.
For completeness: : \hsize e isthe T
E
Xprimitiveparameter usedwhentext is
brokenintolines. ItshouldnotbeusedinnormalL
A
T
E
Xdocuments.
\topmargin
SpacebetweenthetopoftheT
E
Xpage (one inchfromthetopofthepaper,
by default) and d the top p of f the e header. . The e default is computed d based on
manyotherparameters: \paperheight 2in \headheight \headsep 
\textheight \footskip,andthendividedbytwo.
\topskip Minimumdistancebetweenthetopof f thepagebodyandthebaselineofthe
first lineoftext. . For r the standardclases,the defaultis the sameas thefont
size,e.g.,‘10pt’at‘10pt’.
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Chapter7:Sectioning
14
7 Sectioning
Sectioningcommandsprovidethemeanstostructureyourtextintounits:
\part
\chapter (reportandbookclassonly)
\section
\subsection
\subsubsection
\paragraph
\subparagraph
Allsectioningcommandstakethesamegeneralform,e.g.,
\chapter[toctitle]{title}
Inadditiontoprovidingtheheadingtitleinthemaintext,thesectiontitlecanappear
intwootherplaces:
1. Thetableofcontents.
2. Therunningheadatthetopofthepage.
Youmaynot wantthesametextintheseplacesas inthemaintext. . Tohandlethis,
thesectioningcommandshaveanoptionalargumenttoctitlethat,whengiven,specifiesthe
textfortheseotherplaces.
Also,allsectioningcommandshave*-formsthatprinttitleasusual,butdonotinclude
anumberanddonotmakeanentryinthetableofcontents.Forinstance:
\section*{Preamble}
The\appendixcommandchangesthewayfollowingsectionalunitsarenumbered. The
\appendixcommanditselfgeneratesnotextanddoesnotaffectthenumberingofparts.
Thenormaluseofthiscommandissomethinglike
\chapter{A Chapter}
...
\appendix
\chapter{The First t Appendix}
Thesecnumdepthcountercontrolsprintingofsectionnumbers.Thesetting
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{level}
suppresses heading numbers at t any y depth h > level, where chapter r is level zero. . (See
Section14.4[\setcounter],page46.)
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Chapter8:Crossreferences
15
8 Crossreferences
Onereasonfornumberingthingslikefiguresandequationsistoreferthereadertothem,
asin“SeeFigure3formoredetails.”
8.1 \label
Synopsis:
\label{key}
A\labelcommandappearinginordinarytextassignstokeythenumberofthecurrent
sectionalunit;oneappearinginsideanumberedenvironmentassignsthatnumbertokey.
Akey name e canconsist ofany sequence ofletters, digits, or punctuationcharacters.
Upperandlowercaselettersaredistinguished.
Toavoidaccidentallycreatingtwolabelswiththesamename,itiscommontouselabels
consistingofaprefixandasuffixseparatedbyacolonorperiod.Someconventionally-used
prefixes:
ch
forchapters
sec
forlower-levelsectioningcommands
fig
forfigures
tab
fortables
eq
forequations
Thus,alabelforafigurewouldlooklikefig:snarkorfig.snark.
8.2 \pageref{key}
Synopsis:
\pageref{key}
The\pageref{key}commandproducesthepagenumberoftheplaceinthetextwhere
thecorresponding\label{key}commandappears.
8.3 \ref{key}
Synopsis:
\ref{key}
The\refcommandproducesthenumberofthesectionalunit,equation,footnote,figure,
...,ofthecorresponding\labelcommand(seeSection8.1[\label],page15).Itdoesnot
produceanytext,suchastheword‘Section’or‘Figure’,justthebarenumberitself.
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Chapter9:Environments
16
9 Environments
L
A
T
E
Xprovidesmanyenvironmentsformarkingoffcertaintext. Eachenvironmentbegins
andendsinthesamemanner:
\begin{envname}
...
\end{envname}
9.1 abstract
Synopsis:
\begin{abstract}
...
\end{abstract}
Environmentforproducinganabstract,possiblyofmultipleparagraphs.
9.2 array
Synopsis:
\begin{array}{template}
col1 text&col1 1 text&coln}\\
...
\end{array}
Matharraysareproducedwiththe arrayenvironment,normally withinanequation
environment (see Section 9.9 9 [equation], , page 19). . It t has s a a single mandatory template
argumentdescribingthenumberofcolumnsandthealignmentwithinthem.Eachcolumn
colisspecifiedbyasingleletterthattellshowitemsinthatrowshouldbeformatted,as
follows:
c
centered
l
flushleft
r
flushright
Columnentriesareseparatedby&.ColumnentriesmayincludeotherL
A
T
E
Xcommands.
Eachrowofthearrayisterminatedwith\\.
Inthetemplate,theconstruct@{text}putstextbetweencolumnsineachrow.
Here’sanexample:
\begin{equation}
\begin{array}{lrc}
left1 & & right1 1 & centered1 \\
left2 & & right2 2 & centered2 \\
\end{array}
\end{equation}
The \arraycolsepparameter defineshalfthewidthof the space separatingcolumns;
thedefaultis‘5pt’. SeeSection9.24[tabular],page31,forotherparameterswhichaffect
formattinginarrayenvironments,namely\arrayrulewidthand\arraystretch.
Thearrayenvironmentcanonlybeusedinmathmode.
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Chapter9:Environments
17
9.3 center
Synopsis:
\begin{center}
line1 \\
line2 \\
\end{center}
The centerenvironment allows youtocreateaparagraphconsistingoflines thatare
centeredwithin the left t andright margins onthe currentpage. . Eachline e is terminated
withthestring\\.
9.3.1 \centering
The\centeringdeclarationcorrespondstothecenterenvironment.Thisdeclarationcan
beusedinsideanenvironmentsuchasquoteorinaparbox. Thus,thetextofafigureor
tablecanbecenteredonthepagebyputtinga\centeringcommandatthebeginningof
thefigureortableenvironment.
Unlikethecenterenvironment,the\centeringcommanddoesnotstartanewpara-
graph;itsimplychangeshowLAT
E
Xformatsparagraphunits. Toaffectaparagraphunit’s
format,thescopeofthedeclarationmustcontaintheblanklineor\endcommand(ofan
environmentsuchasquote)thatendstheparagraphunit.
Here’sanexample:
\begin{quote}
\centering
first line \\
second line \\
\end{quote}
9.4 description
Synopsis:
\begin{description}
\item [label1] item1
\item [label2] item2
...
\end{description}
The descriptionenvironment isusedtomakelabelledlists. . Eachlabelis s typesetin
bold,flushright.Theitemtextmaycontainmultipleparagraphs.
Another variation: : since e the bold style e is s applied d to the e labels, , if you typeset t a la-
bel in n typewriter r using \texttt, , you’ll l get bold typewriter: : \item[\texttt{boldand
typewriter}]. This s may be too bold, , among other r issues. . To o get just typewriter,use
\tt,whichresetsallotherstylevariations: \item[{\ttplaintypewriter}].
Fordetailsaboutlistspacing,seeSection9.14[itemize],page22.
Chapter9:Environments
18
9.5 displaymath
Synopsis:
\begin{displaymath}
math
\end{displaymath}
or
\[math\]
The displaymathenvironment(\[...\]isasynonym)typesetsthemathtextonits
own line, centeredby y default. . The e global fleqn option makes equations flush left; see
Section4.1[Documentclassoptions],page5.
Noequationnumberisaddedtodisplaymathtext;togetanequationnumber,usethe
equationenvironment(seeSection9.9[equation],page19).
9.6 document
Thedocumentenvironmentenclosesthebodyofadocument.ItisrequiredineveryL
A
T
E
X
document. SeeChapter3[Starting&ending],page4.
9.7 enumerate
Synopsis:
\begin{enumerate}
\item item1
\item item2
...
\end{enumerate}
The enumerate environment produces a numbered list. . Enumerations s can n be nested
within one another, , up p to o four levels s deep. . They y can n also be nested d within other
paragraph-makingenvironments,suchasitemize(seeSection9.14[itemize],page22)and
description(seeSection9.4[description],page17).
Eachitemofanenumeratedlistbeginswithan\itemcommand.Theremustbeatleast
one\itemcommandwithintheenvironment.
Bydefault,thenumberingateachlevelisdonelikethis:
1. 1.,2.,...
2. (a),(b),...
3. i.,ii.,...
4. A.,B.,...
The enumerateenvironment usesthecounters\enumi through\enumivcounters (see
Chapter14[Counters],page45).Iftheoptionalargumentto\itemisgiven,thecounteris
notincrementedforthatitem.
The enumerateenvironmentuses thecommands\labelenumithrough\labelenumiv
toproduce the default label. . So,youcanuse e \renewcommand tochange the labels s (see
Section13.1[\newcommand&\renewcommand],page42). Forinstance,tohavethefirst
leveluseuppercaseletters:
Chapter9:Environments
19
\renewcommand{\labelenumi}{\Alph{enumi}}
9.8 eqnarray
First,acaveat:theeqnarrayenvironmenthassomeinfelicitieswhichcannotbeovercome;
thearticle“Avoideqnarray!”byLarsMadsendescribesthemindetail(http://tug.org/
TUGboat/tb33-1/tb103madsen.pdf).Thebottomlineisthatitisbettertousethealign
environment(andothers)fromtheamsmathpackage.
Nevertheless,hereisadescriptionofeqnarray:
\begin{eqnarray} (oreqnarray*)
formula1 \\
formula2 \\
...
\end{eqnarray}
Theeqnarrayenvironmentisusedtodisplayasequenceofequationsorinequalities. It
isverymuchlikeathree-columnarrayenvironment,withconsecutiverowsseparatedby
\\andconsecutiveitemswithinarowseparatedbyan&.
\\*canalsobeusedtoseparateequations,withitsnormalmeaningofnotallowinga
pagebreakatthatline.
Anequationnumberisplacedoneverylineunlessthatlinehasa\nonumbercommand.
Alternatively,The*-formoftheenvironment(\begin{eqnarray*}...\end{eqnarray*})
willomitequationnumberingentirely,whileotherwisebeingthesameaseqnarray.
Thecommand\lefteqnisusedforsplittinglongformulasacrosslines. Ittypesetsits
argumentindisplaystyleflushleftinaboxofzerowidth.
9.9 equation
Synopsis:
\begin{equation}
math
\end{equation}
Theequationenvironmentstartsadisplaymathenvironment(seeSection9.5[display-
math], page 18), e.g.,centeringthe mathtext t onthe page,andalsoplaces anequation
numberintherightmargin.
9.10 figure
\begin{figure[*]}[placement]
figbody
\label{label}
\caption[loftitle]{text}
\end{figure}
Figuresareobjectsthatarenotpartofthenormaltext,andareinstead“floated”toa
convenientplace,suchasthetopofapage. Figureswillnotbesplitbetweentwopages.
When typesetting in n double-columns, , the starred d form m produces a a full-width h figure
(acrossbothcolumns).
Chapter9:Environments
20
The optional l argument [placement] determines s where e LAT
E
X will try y to place e your
figure.TherearefourplaceswhereL
A
T
E
Xcanpossiblyputafloat:
t
(Top)—atthetopofatextpage.
b
(Bottom)—at the bottomofatext page. . However, , b b isnotallowedforfull-
widthfloats(figure*)withdouble-columnoutput. Toamelioratethis,usethe
stfloats or dblfloatfix x package, but t see e the e discussion at t caveats s in n the
FAQ:http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=2colfloat.
h
(Here)—atthepositioninthetextwherethefigureenvironmentappears.How-
ever,thisisnotallowedbyitself;tisautomaticallyadded.
To absolutely forcea figureto appear “here”, youcan \usepackage{float}
andusethe Hspecifier whichit defines. . For r further discussion,see the FAQ
entryathttp://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=figurehere.
p
(Pageoffloats)—onaseparatefloatpage,whichisapagecontainingnotext,
onlyfloats.
!
Usedinadditiontooneoftheabove;forthisfloatonly,LAT
E
Xignoresthere-
strictionsonboththenumberoffloatsthatcanappearandtherelativeamounts
offloatandnon-floattextonthepage.The!specifierdoesnot mean“putthe
floathere”;seeabove.
Thestandardreportandarticleclassesusethedefaultplacementtbp.
Thebodyofthefigureismadeupofwhatevertext,LAT
E
Xcommands,etc.youwish.
The\captioncommandspecifiescaptiontextforthefigure. Thecaptionisnumbered
bydefault.Ifloftitleispresent,itisusedinthelistoffiguresinsteadoftext(seeSection24.1
[Tablesofcontents],page78).
Parametersrelatingtofractionsofpagesoccupiedbyfloatandnon-floattext:
The maximum m fraction of f the page e allowed to be occuped by floats at the
bottom;default‘.3’.
\floatpagefraction
Theminimumfractionofafloatpagethatmustbeoccupiedbyfloats;default
‘.5’.
\textfraction
Minimumfractionofapagethatmustbetext;iffloatstakeuptoomuchspace
topreservethismuchtext,floatswillbemovedtoadifferentpage.Thedefault
is‘.2’.
\topfraction
Maximumfraction at t the top p of a page that t may be occupiedbefore floats;
default‘.7’.
Parametersrelatingtoverticalspacearoundfloats:
\floatsep
Spacebetweenfloats at thetop p or r bottomofa page; ; default t ‘12ptplus2pt
minus2pt’.
Chapter9:Environments
21
\intextsep
Spaceaboveandbelowafloat inthe middle ofthe maintext; ; default t ‘12pt
plus2ptminus2pt’for ‘10pt’and‘11pt’styles,‘14ptplus4ptminus4pt’for
‘12pt’.
\textfloatsep
Spacebetweenthelast(first)floatatthetop(bottom)ofapage;default‘20pt
plus2ptminus4pt’.
Parametersrelatingtothenumberoffloatsonapage:
\bottomnumber
Maximumnumberoffloatsthatcanappearatthebottomofatextpage;default
1.
\topnumber
Maximumnumberoffloatsthatcanappearatthetopofatextpage;default
2.
\totalnumber
Maximumnumberoffloatsthatcanappearonatextpage;default3.
The principalT
E
XFAQentry relating to floats: : http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/
texfaq2html?label=floats.
9.11 filecontents: Createexternalfiles
Synopsis:
\begin{filecontents}{filename}
contents-of-file
\end{filecontents}
...
\documentclass{my-document-class}
Thefilecontentsenvironmentisaninitialcommand,meaningthatitcanbeusedonly
beforethe\documentclasscommand,asinthesynopsisabove.
L
A
T
E
Xwillcreateafilenamedfilename withthecontentcontents-of-file precededbya
headercommentindicatinghowandwhenthefilewasgenerated. Ifthefilealreadyexists
thennothingwillhappen.
Youcanalsousethefilecontentspackage,whichhasthefollowingadvantages:
 Ifthefilealreadyexists,thenitwillbeoverwritten.
 You u can use the e filecontents environment t at any y point t after r the e declaration
\usepackage{filecontents},notjustbefore\documentclass.
 Thefilecontentspackagealsoprovidesafilecontents*environmentwhichisused
inthe same way as the filecontents s environment t except that it won’t insert any
leadingcomment,soitisbettersuitedtocreatefileswhicharen’tinL
A
T
E
Xformat.
The filecontents environment only creates the file, and d is unrelated to o using g the
createdfile. Soyouneedtouse,forinstance,\inputor\usepackageor\bibliography
orwhateverisapplicable,tousethecreatedfile.
Thisenvironmentis alsousefultomakeaself-containeddocument,forexample,fora
bugreport,ortokeepa.bibfilewiththemaindocument.
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