CHAPTER1. OVERVIEWOFCOMPUTERLANGUAGESANDUSERINTERFACES
3
movement
– Acceptanceoffreeopen-source
APACHE Web Server
by the commercial
world and maturity of Linux has spearheaded this movement
a
– Canseeallcode,changeit,learnfromit
– Qualitygenerallyquitegood
– Morerapidupdates
– Nooneobligatedtoassistusersbutmostproductshaveanactiveand
helpful user news group
– LackssomebellsandwhistlessuchasextensiveGUI
1.2 User Interfaces
·
Graphical (GUI, mouse, menus)
– Easiertolearn
– Lessflexible
– Becomesrepetitivewhentasksrepeated
– Hardtoreproduceresults
·
Command languages
– Hardertolearn
a
APACHE
isthe numberoneWebserverintheworldintermsofpopularity,soonoutdistancingMicrosoft serversbya 2:1margin.
APACHE
is
usedbymajorcorporationsforcriticalWebapplications.SeeRebelCodebyGlynMoody;CambridgeMS:PerseusPublishing,2001.
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CHAPTER1. OVERVIEWOFCOMPUTERLANGUAGES ANDUSERINTERFACES
4
– Moreflexibleandpowerful
– Cansavecommandsinscriptstoreplaywhendataupdatedorcorrected,
or to do similar analyses
– Canwritegenericcommands(macros,functions)tomakeiteasytorun
different analyses that have same structure
1.3 Command Languages
·
Specific purpose (e.g., draw a tree diagram, HTML)
– Example:
graphviz
from
www.research.att.com/sw/tools/
dot
program for drawing directed graphs (Emden Gansner, AT&T Re-
search)
– Examplecode(infile
clust1.dot
):
digraph G {
subgraph cluster_c0 {a0 -> a1 -> a2 -> a3;}
subgraph cluster_c1 {b0 -> b1 -> b2 -> b3;}
x -> a0;
x -> b0;
a1 -> a3;
a3 -> a0;
}
– ProgramrunwiththefollowingDOS/Unix/Linuxcommandlinetoproduce
PostScript graphic file
clust1.ps
dot -Tps clust1.dot -o clust1.ps
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CHAPTER1. OVERVIEWOFCOMPUTERLANGUAGES ANDUSERINTERFACES
5
a0
a1
a2
a3
b0
b1
b2
b3
x
Figure1.1:
Adirected graph produced by the
dot
programfrom the
graphviz
package.
See Section 2.1.2 for an example in which L
A
T
E
Xis used to draw a dia-
gram.
·
Other specific-purpose languages include HTML, T
E
X, L
A
T
E
Xfor web presen-
tation or typesetting
·
General purpose (C, C++, Python, Perl, Fortran, Java, S, Basic)
– Compiledintomachinecodeforfastestexecution
C, C++, Fortran
– Interpreted-runeachstatementasit’sencountered
Allows executing statement by statement, selective execution of parts
of code, very fast bug correction
Examples: Perl, Python, Java, S, Basic
·
Procedural vs. functional languages
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CHAPTER1. OVERVIEWOFCOMPUTERLANGUAGES ANDUSERINTERFACES
6
– Procedural:SAS
DATA new; SET old;
htcm=htinches*2.54;
PROC means; VAR htcm;
– Functional:Fortran,C,C++,Python,Perl,Java,S,Basic
2.54*mean(htinches)
mean(htinches*2.54)
round(quantile((2*diastolic.bp+systolic.bp)/3))
·
Common Functions:
Algebraic Form Computer Language
|x|
abs(x)
ln x
log(x)
e
x
exp(x)
x
sqrt(x)
min(x
1
,x
2
,x
3
)
min(x1,x2,x3)
or
min(x), x
avector
1.4 How to Learn Functional Languages
·
Learn thesyntax,especiallyhow arguments(parameters, options) are passed
to functions
·
Finding the right function for the job is the most difficult task
·
Find functions by key words or phrases
– Search S-P
LUS
and R functions:
http://hesweb1.med.virginia.edu/
biostat/s/splus.html
b
b
Thiswebpagealsohasalinktoonesetofexamplesorganizedbytypeoftask.
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CHAPTER1. OVERVIEWOFCOMPUTERLANGUAGES ANDUSERINTERFACES
7
– SearchS-P
LUS
functions by keywords:
Contents
button in
Help
GUI for
S-P
LUS
Language
·
SCheatsheet
1.5 Types of Variables
·
integer
·
floating point (scientific notation, e.g. 1.2e5 =
1.2 × 10
5
)
– singleprecision(7significantdigits)
– doubleprecision(15digits)
·
character string, e.g. ‘Jim’
·
categorical (“choice”), e.g., 1=good 2=better 3=best
·
logical:
TRUE, FALSE, T, F, 1, 0
·
missing values: blank,
?, NA, .
1.6 Complex Data Types
·
vector
·
matrix:
r× c
·
multi-dimensional array:
r× c× p,p =
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CHAPTER1. OVERVIEWOFCOMPUTERLANGUAGES ANDUSERINTERFACES
8
·
irregular structure (“list”or “tree”)e.g. states having variable numberof coun-
ties having varying number of cities, data = population of city in 2000, popu-
lation in 1990.
1.7 Variables
·
Name of variable can be more than one letter; rules for names depend on
language being used, e.g.
age.yrs, X2, cholesterol, Age
;may be case-
sensitive
·
Depending on language, variable name may stand for only one value of the
variable at a time or it may stand for complex objects such as vectors, matri-
ces, lists
·
Variables vs. literals: ‘Jim’ is a particular value.
Jim
might be a variable
containing a series of values.
·
Examples
sex <- ’female’
x
<- 7+2
age.yrs <- age.days / 365.25
1.8 Types of User Files
·
Text —documents, simple data, commands
c
·
Binary —Word documents,
pdf
files, datasets
c
Compiledlanguagesrequireallthecommandstobeinafile.Thisisallowedininterpretedlanguagesbutsuchlanguagesalsoallowyouto
enteronecommandatatime.
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CHAPTER1. OVERVIEWOFCOMPUTERLANGUAGES ANDUSERINTERFACES
9
·
Graphics files —PostScript, Windows MetaFiles,
jpeg, gif, tiff
Chapter 2
L
A
T
E
X
2.1 The Language
·
Text processing markup language by Leslie Lamport based on Knuth’s T
E
X
language
·
Used for compiling reports, books, articles
·
Handles all details (microjustification, etc.) and is wonderful for math, chem-
istry, and other symbols
·
Interpreted command language
·
Input is plain ASCII text, not binary, so can edit with any editor
a
·
Example 1: Article style using enumerated list (auto-numbered); this is the
“Bare bones plain L
A
T
E
Xexample”at
biostat.virginia.edu/latex
a
Editorssuch as
Emacs
havespecialmodesto makeeditingL
A
T
E
Xcodeeasier, and near-WYSIWYGsystemssuch as
texmacs, lyx
,and
Scientific Word
takethisideafurther.
10
CHAPTER2. L
A
T
E
X
11
\documentclass{article}
% or report, book, ...
\begin{document}
\title{Project 3}
\author{Jane Q. Public}
\date{\today}
% or \date{2Jan01} for example
\maketitle
% the \thanks line following is optional
\thanks{I neither gave nor received help on this project --- J.Q.P.}
\begin{enumerate}
\item My answer to this question is unclear.
\item Problem two was harder than problem 1.
The more I thought about it the less I knew.
\item
% skip third problem
\item
% stuff for 4th problem
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}
To use bullet items substitute
itemize
for
enumerate
·
Here is an example where
\section
commands are used to automatically
number (and optionally title) sections of the report.
\documentclass{article}
% or report, book, ...
\begin{document}
\title{Project 3}
\author{Jane Q. Public}
\date{\today}
% or \date{2Jan01} for example
\maketitle
\section{}
% Section 1, no title
\section{Second Part}
My answer to this question is unclear.
\section{Third Part}
Problem three was harder than problem 2.
The more I thought about it the less I knew.
\end{document}
CHAPTER2. L
A
T
E
X
12
·
To use Greek letters or other math symbols, go into math mode
– Use
$ $
within a line:
The result was $\tau=0.34$ and $R^{2}=0.65$, with $\alpha\geq 0.1$.
Compare with $\frac{\gamma}{\gamma+\sqrt{\delta}}$.
This prints
The result was
τ= 0.34
and
R
2
=0.65
,with
α≥ 0.1
.Compare with
γ
γ+
δ
.
– Orsetoffequations:
\begin{equation}
f(\gamma) = \sin^{-1}(\gamma)
\end{equation}
The result is
f(γ) = sin
−1
(γ)
(2.1)
Note that
\sin
is special to L
A
T
E
X, preventing
sin
from being italicized.
·
Make sure that any characters that are special to L
A
T
E
X are “escaped”by
prefixing them with
\
.For example, to print
& % $ or #
as regular characters
change them to
\& \% \$ \#
in L
A
T
E
X. If you leave
%
alone it will serve as the
comment character for L
A
T
E
X, causing the text to the right of it not to print.
·
Make sure that any characters that L
A
T
E
Xneeds to see only in math mode
are somewhere surrounded by
$ $
.This pertains especially to
< > _ ^
if by
the latter two you mean subscript and superscript. For example, replace
R^2
with
$R^2$
,
a < 10
with
$a < 10$
,
b > 10
with
$b > 10$
.For
<=
and
>=
use
\leq
and
\gte
but with the whole expression surrounded by
$ $
.
·
To subscript or superscript an expression be in math mode and enclose the
expression in
{}
and use
^
for superscript,
_
for subscript:
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