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Images
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(k) explaintherepresentationofanimageasaseriesofpixelsrepresentedinbinary
(l) explaintheneedformetadatatobeincludedinthefilesuchasheight,widthandcolour
depth
(m) discusstheeffectofcolourdepthandresolutiononthesizeofanimagefile.
Sound
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(n) explainhowsoundcanbesampledandstoredindigitalform
(o) explainhowsamplingintervalsandotherconsiderationsaffectthesizeofasoundfileand
thequalityofitsplayback.
Instructions
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(p) explainhowinstructionsarecodedasbitpatterns
(q) explainhowthecomputerdistinguishesbetweeninstructionsanddata.
2.1.5
Databases
Thedatabaseconcept
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) describeadatabaseasapersistentorganisedstoreofdata
(b) explaintheuseofdatahandlingsoftwaretocreate,maintainandinterrogateadatabase.
TheDBMS
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(c) describehowaDBMSallowstheseparationofdatafromapplicationsandwhythisis
desirable
(d) describetheprincipalfeaturesofaDBMSandhowtheycanbeusedtocreatecustomised
datahandlingapplications.
Relationaldatabases
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(e) understandtherelationshipbetweenentitiesandtables
(f) understandthecomponentsofarelationaldatabase,suchastables,forms,queries,reports
andmodules
(g) understandtheuseoflogicaloperatorsinframingdatabasequeries
(h) explaintheuseofkeyfieldstoconnecttablesandavoiddataredundancy
(i) describemethodsofvalidatingdataasitisinput.
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©OCR2010GCSEComputingFebruary2010
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2.1.6
Computercommunicationsandnetworking
Networks
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) explaintheadvantagesofnetworkingstand-alonecomputersintoalocalareanetwork
(b) describethehardwareneededtoconnectstand-alonecomputersintoalocalareanetwork,
includinghub/switches,wirelessaccesspoints
(c) explainthedifferentrolesofcomputersinaclient-serverandapeer-to-peernetwork
(d) describe,usingdiagramsorotherwise,thering,busandstarnetworktopologies
(e) describethedifferencesbetweenalocalareanetworkandawideareanetworksuchasthe
Internet
(f) explainthetermsIPaddressing,MACaddressing,packetandprotocols
(g) explaintheneedforsecuritymeasuresinnetworks,suchasuseraccesslevels,suitable
passwordsandencryptiontechniques
(h) describeandjustifynetworkpoliciessuchasacceptableuse,disasterrecovery,failover,back
up,archiving.
TheInternet
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(i) describethenatureoftheInternetasaworldwidecollectionofcomputernetworks
(j) describethehardwareneededtoconnecttotheInternetincludingmodems,routersetc
(k) explaintheneedforIPaddressingofresourcesontheInternetandhowthiscanbe
facilitatedbytheroleofDNSservers
(l) explaintheimportanceofHTMLanditsderivativesasastandardforthecreationofweb
pages
(m) describecommonfilestandardsassociatedwiththeInternetsuchasJPG,GIF,PDF,MP3,
MPEG
(n) explaintheimportanceofcompressingfilesthataretransmittedviatheInternet
(o) describethedifferencesbetweenlossyandlosslesscompression.
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2.1.7
Programming
Algorithms
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) understandalgorithms(writteninpseudocodeorflowdiagram),explainwhattheydo,and
correctorcompletethem
(b) producealgorithmsinpseudocodeorflowdiagramstosolveproblems.
Programminglanguages
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(c) explainthedifferencebetweenhighlevelcodeandmachinecode
(d) explaintheneedfortranslatorstoconverthighlevelcodetomachinecode
(e) describethecharacteristicsofanassembler,acompilerandaninterpreter
(f) describecommontoolsandfacilitiesavailableinanintegrateddevelopmentenvironment
(IDE):editors,errordiagnostics,run-timeenvironment,translators,auto-documentation.
Controlflowinimperativelanguages
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(g) understandandusesequenceinanalgorithm
(h) understandanduseselectioninanalgorithm(IFandCASEstatements)
(i) understandanduseiterationinanalgorithm(FOR,WHILEandREPEATloops).
Handlingdatainalgorithms
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(j) definethetermsvariableandconstantasusedinanimperativelanguage
(k) usevariablesandconstants
(l) describethedatatypesinteger,real,Boolean,characterandstring
(m) selectandjustifyappropriatedatatypesforagivenprogram
(n) performcommonoperationsonnumericandBooleandata
(o) useone-dimensionalarrays.
Testing
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(p) describesyntaxerrorsandlogicerrorswhichmayoccurwhiledevelopingaprogram
(q) understandandidentifysyntaxandlogicerrors
(r) selectandjustifytestdataforaprogram,statingtheexpectedoutcomeofeachtest.
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©OCR2010GCSEComputingFebruary2010
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2.2
UnitA452:
Practicalinvestigation
Thisunitisdesignedtoprovidecandidateswithanopportunitytocarryoutapracticalinvestigation
intoacomputingissueandengagethemwithcomputingintherealworld.
Theunitdeliberatelyextendsthecandidate’sworkbeyondthetopicsinUnitA451inordertoprovidea
stimulatingexperience.
CandidatesshouldstudyonefromarangeoftopicswhichwillbesuppliedbyOCR.Candidateswillbe
expectedtocarryoutpracticalinvestigationsofthetopic(s)andanysupplementaryresearch
necessarytocompletetheseinvestigations. Theywillproduceareportinwhichthetopicisanalysed,
justifiedandevaluatedshowingevidenceofthepracticalworkundertaken.
Candidateswillbeexpectedtoproduceareportwhichwillthenbeassessedunderthefourheadings:
Practicalactivity
Effectivenessandefficiencyofthesolution
Technicalunderstanding
Testing,evaluation,judgementsandconclusions
Thefinishedworkwillbeassessedaccordingtoabestfitapproachtothemarkingcriteria.
2.2.1
Practicalactivity
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) planandcarryoutapracticalinvestigationofatopic
(b) usepracticalskillseffectivelyandefficientlytodevelopsolutionstoproblems
(c) testtheirsolutions
(d) evaluateandmodifythesesolutionsinlightoftestresults.
2.2.2
Effectivenessandefficiency
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) selectsuitabletechniquesforthedevelopmentoftheirsolution
(b) usesuitabletechniquestosolveallaspectsoftheproblem
(c) deploypracticaltechniquesinanefficientandlogicalmanner.
2.2.3
Technicalunderstanding
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) showanunderstandingoftherelevantinformationbypresentingevidenceofthe
developmentoftheirsolutions
(b) showanunderstandingofthetechnicalterminology/conceptsthatarisefromtheir
investigationthroughtheiranalysisofthedatacollected
(c) usetheterminology/conceptssurroundingtheirtopicandcontainedintheinformation
collectedcorrectlywhenitcomestoproducingtheiranalysisinthesupportingscript.
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2.2.4
Testing,evaluationandconclusions
Candidatesshould:
(a) produceafullreportcoveringallaspectsoftheinvestigation
(b) presenttheinformationinaclearformwhichisunderstandablebyathirdpartyandwhichis
easilynavigable
(c) criticallyappraisetheevidencethattheyhavepresented
(d) testtheirownsolution
(e) presenttheirevaluationinarelevant,clear,organised,structuredandcoherentformat
(f) usespecialisttermscorrectlyandappropriately
(g) presentaconclusiontothereport
(h) justifytheirconclusionsbasedontheevidenceprovided.
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2.3
UnitA453:
Programmingproject
OCRwillissuearangeofassessmenttaskseachconsistingofuptothreesubtasks.Thesetoftasks
withinthecontrolledassessmentwillprovideopportunitiesforthecandidatetodemonstratepractical
abilitytousetheskillsoutlinedinthespecificationforthisunit.
Candidateswillneedtocreatesuitablealgorithmswhichwillprovideasolutiontothestatedproblem
thencodetheirsolutionsinasuitableprogramminglanguage.Thesolutionsmustbetestedateach
stagetoensuretheysolvethestatedproblemusingasuitabletestplanwithappropriatetestdata.
Thecodemustbesuitablyannotatedtodescribetheprocess.Testresultsshouldbeannotatedto
showhowtheserelatetothecode,thetestplanandtheoriginalproblem.
Candidateswillneedtoprovideanevaluationoftheirsolutionbasedonthetestevidence.
Therearenorestrictionsontheprogramminglanguagechosenprovidingithasthefeaturesindicated
withinthespecification. Itisanticipatedthattheworkforthisunitwillfollowonfromtheprogramming
elementsinunitA451andthatthesameprogramminglanguagemay,therefore,beappropriate. The
tasksaresetsothattheycanbecompletedinawiderangeoflanguagesincludingthosefrequently
usedto‘teach’programmingtechniquesincludingallformsofBASICandC. Theremaybeaquestion
whichstatesthattheworkmustbecompletedwithinaspecificpackage.Ifthisisthecase,that
packagewillbeavailableforfreeandlegaldownload,forexample‘SCRATCH’fromMITand‘ALICE’
fromCarnegie.
2.3.1
Programmingtechniques
Standardprogrammingtechniques
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) identifyandusevariables,operators,inputs,outputsandassignments
(b) understandandusethethreebasicprogrammingconstructsusedtocontroltheflowofa
program:Sequence;Conditionals;Iteration
(c) understandandusesuitableloopsincludingcountandconditioncontrolledloops
(d) usedifferenttypesofdataincludingBoolean,String,IntegerandRealappropriatelyin
solutionstoproblems
(e) understandandusebasicstringmanipulation
(f) understandandusebasicfilehandlingoperations:open,read,writeandclose
(g) defineandusearraysasappropriatewhensolvingproblems.
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©OCR2010GCSEComputingFebruary2010
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2.3.2
Design
Designingacodedsolutiontoaproblem
analysetheproblem
developsuitablealgorithms
designsuitableinputandoutputformats
identifysuitablevariablesandstructures
identifytestprocedures.
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) analyseandidentifytherequirementsforasolutiontotheproblem
(b) designsuitablealgorithmstorepresentthesolutiontoaproblem
(c) designsuitableinputandoutputformatsandnavigationmethodsfortheirsystem
(d) identifythedatarequirementsfortheirsystem
(e) identifysuitablevariablesandstructureswithappropriatevalidationfortheirsystem
(f) identifytestprocedurestobeusedduringandafterdevelopmenttochecktheirsystem
againstthesuccesscriteria.
2.3.3
Development
Createacodedsolution
fullyannotatethedevelopedcodetoexplainitsfunction.
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) developasolutiontotheidentifiedproblemusingasuitableprogramminglanguage
(b) demonstratetestingandrefinementofthecodeduringdevelopment
(c) explainthesolutionusingsuitableannotationandevidenceofdevelopment.
2.3.4
Testingandevaluation
Testtheirsolution
toshowfunctionality
toshowhowitmatchesthedesigncriteria
identifysuccessandanylimitations.
Candidatesshouldbeableto:
(a) useasuitabletestplananddatatotestthefunctionofthesystem
(b) testthesystemagainstthesuccesscriteria
(c) providegoodevidenceoftestprocedures
(d) modifythesystem,ifrequired,tomeetsuccesscriteriawherethesearenotmet;
(e) evaluatethesystemagainstthesuccesscriteriatoestablishhowsuccessful,orotherwise,
theirimplementationhasbeen.
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3.1
Overviewof theassessmentinGCSEComputingJ275
UnitA451:
Computersystemsandprogramming
40%ofthetotalGCSE
1hour30minutes
writtenpaper
80marks
Questionpaperincludesshortanswerquestionsandessaytype
questions.
UnitA452:
Practicalinvestigation
30%ofthetotalGCSE
Controlledassessment
Approx20hours
45marks
Practicalinvestigativetask.OCRsetscenariowithchoiceof
researchtasks.
UnitA453:
Programmingproject
30%ofthetotalGCSE
Controlledassessment
Approx20hours
45marks
Programmingtasksthatenablecandidatestodesign,developand
testasolutiontoaproblem.OCRsettasks.
3 AssessmentofGCSEComputing
3.2
Tiers
Thisschemeofassessmentisuntiered,coveringalloftheabilityrangegradesfromA*toG.
CandidatesachievinglessthantheminimummarkforGradeGwillbeungraded.
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©OCR2010GCSEComputingFebruary2010
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3.3
Assessmentobjectives
Candidatesareexpectedtodemonstratethefollowinginthecontextofthecontentdescribed:
AO1
Recall,selectandcommunicate
• Candidatesdemonstratetheirabilitytorecall,selectandcommunicate
theirknowledgeandunderstandingofcomputertechnology
AO2
Applyknowledge,understandingandskills
• Candidatesdemonstratetheirabilitytoapplyknowledge,understandingand
skillstosolvecomputingorprogrammingproblems
AO3
Analyseandevaluate
• Candidatesdemonstratetheirabilitytoanalyse,evaluate,makereasoned
judgementsandpresentconclusions
AOweightings–GCSEComputing
Therelationshipbetweentheunitsandtheassessmentobjectivesoftheschemeofassessmentis
showninthefollowinggrid:
UnitA451:Computingsystemsandprogramming
21
14
5
40
UnitA452:Practicalinvestigation
4
18
8
30
UnitA453:Programmingproject
5
16
9
30
Total
30
48
22
100
AO1
%ofGCSE
AO2
AO3
Total
Unit
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©OCR2010GCSEComputingFebruary2010
3
GCSEresultsareawardedonthescaleA*toG.Unitsareawardeda*tog.Gradesareindicatedon
certificates.However,resultsforcandidateswhofailtoachievetheminimumgrade(Gorg)willbe
recordedasunclassified(Uoru)andthisisnotcertificated.
GCSEareunitisedschemes.Candidatescantakeunitsacrossseveraldifferentseriesprovidedthe
terminalrulesaresatisfied.Theycanalsore-situnits.
Whenworkingoutcandidates’overallgradesOCRneedstobeabletocompareperformanceonthe
sameunitindifferentserieswhendifferentgradeboundarieshavebeenset,andbetweendifferent
units.OCRusesaUniformMarkScaletoenablethistobedone.
Acandidate’suniformmarkforeachunitiscalculatedfromthecandidate’srawmarksonthatunit.The
rawmarkboundarymarksareconvertedtotheequivalentuniformmarkboundary.Marksbetween
gradeboundariesareconvertedonaproratabasis.
Whenunitresultsareissued,thecandidate’sunitgradeanduniformmarkaregiven.Theuniform
markisshownoutofthemaximumuniformmarkfortheunit,eg100/120.
ThespecificationisgradedonaUniformMarkScale.Theuniformmarkthresholdsforeachofthe
assessmentsareshownbelow:
3.4
Gradingandawardinggrades
40%
120
108 96
84
72
60
48
36
24
0
30%
90
81
72
63
54
45
36
27
18
0
(GCSE)
UnitWeighting
MaximumUnit
UniformMark
a*
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
u
UnitGrade
Thewrittenpaperwillhaveaweightingof40%andcontrolledassessmentaweightingof60%.
Acandidate’suniformmarkforeachpaperwillbecombinedwiththeuniformmarkforthecontrolled
assessmenttogiveatotaluniformmarkforthespecification.Thecandidate’sgradewillbedetermined
bythetotaluniformmark.
Candidate’suniformmarksforeachunitareaggregatedandgradesforthespecificationare
generatedonthefollowingscale:
GCSE
300
270
240
210
180
150
120
90
60
0
Qualification
Maximum
uniform
mark
A*
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
U
QualificationGrade
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