4Secondary referencing
Youmaywanttouseaquotationoranideafromasourcereferencedina
workyouhaveread.Youhaven’treadtheoriginal,buthavediscoveredit
throughasecondarysource.Thisisknownas‘secondaryreferencing’.You
couldtrytogetholdof theoriginal,butifyoucan’tthenyouneedtomake
itclearinyourworkthatyouhavenotreadtheoriginalandarereferencing
thesecondarysource,forexample:
In-textcitation:Bloggs(2004),citedinSmith(2007),loveschocolate.
Inthereferencelistyouwouldprovidedetailsforthesourceyoureaditin,
forexample:
Smith,J.(2007)MusingsfromChocolateLovers,Bicester,JFJPress.
IfyoursecondarysourceispartofyourOUmodulematerials,see
Secondaryreferencinginmodulematerials(Section7.7)forguidance.
X443 Informationliteracy
8
Convert pdf file into ppt - application control tool:C# Create PDF from PowerPoint Library to convert pptx, ppt to PDF in C#.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF
Online C# Tutorial for Creating PDF from Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation
www.rasteredge.com
Convert pdf file into ppt - application control tool:VB.NET Create PDF from PowerPoint Library to convert pptx, ppt to PDF in vb.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF
VB.NET Tutorial for Export PDF file from Microsoft Office PowerPoint
www.rasteredge.com
5Books, book chapters and
ebooks
5.1 Books
In-textcitation:
(Author,yearofpublication)or Author(yearofpublication)says…
Fullreference:
Author,A.(yearof publication) TitleofBook,Placeofpublication,
Publisher.
Examples
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Chalke,2003)
Chalke,S. (2003)HowtoSucceedas
aWorkingParent,London,Hodder&
Stoughton.
(Winder,2002)
Winder,S.(2002)AnalogandDigital
FilterDesign,2ndedn,Boston,
Newnes.
Notethat:
If thebookhasaneditionnumber,youshouldrecordthisafterthetitleas
intheexampleabove.Forguidanceabouthowtociteworkswithmultiple
authors,seeIn-textcitations(Section2ofthisguide).
5.2 Book chapters
In-textcitation:
...andothersagree(Authorofchapter,yearofpublication)orAuthor
ofchapter(yearofpublication)states...
Fullreference:
Authorofchapter,A.(yearofpublication)‘Titleofchapter’,inAuthor
A.(ed[s])TitleofBook,Placeofpublication,Publisher,pageextent.
9
5Books,bookchaptersandebooks
application control tool:Online Convert PowerPoint to PDF file. Best free online export
Convert a PPTX/PPT File to PDF. Just upload your file by clicking on the blue button or drag-and-drop your pptx or ppt file into the drop area.
www.rasteredge.com
application control tool:How to C#: Convert PDF, Excel, PPT to Word
Program.RootPath + "\\" Output.docx"; // Load a PDF document How to C#: Convert Excel to Word. RootPath + "\\" Output.docx"; // Load an Excel (.xlsx) file.
www.rasteredge.com
Example
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Mason,1994)
Mason,R.(1994)‘Theeducational
valueofISDN’,inMason,R.and
Bacsich,P.(eds)ISDN:Applicationsin
EducationandTraining,Exeter,Short
RunPress,pp.58–83.
5.3 Translated books
In-textcitation:
(Author,yearofpublication)or Author(yearofpublication)says...
Fullreference:
Author,A.(yearof publicationoftranslatedversion[yearof
publicationoforiginalworkifavailable])TitleofBook(trans.A.
Translator),Placeofpublication,Publisher.
Examples
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Foucault,1991)
Foucault,M.(1991[1977])Discipline
andPunish:TheBirthofthePrison
(trans.A. Sheridan),London,
Penguin.
(Golomstock,1990)
Golomstock,I.(1990)TotalitarianArt
intheSovietUnion,theThirdReich,
FascistItalyandthePeople’s
RepublicofChina(trans.from
RussianbyR.Chandler),London,
CollinsHarvill.
Notethat:
Ifthereisinformationavailableabouttheoriginallanguageanditwouldbe
helpfulforyoutoincludethat,youcanformatyourreferenceasshownin
thesecondexampleabove.
5.4 Modern editions
In-textcitation:
X443 Informationliteracy
10
application control tool:How to C#: Convert Word, Excel and PPT to PDF
Program.RootPath + "\\" Output.pdf"; // Load an Excel (.xlsx) file. XLSXDocument doc = new XLSXDocument(inputFilePath); // Convert Excel to PDF.
www.rasteredge.com
application control tool:C# TIFF: Learn to Convert MS Word, Excel, and PPT to TIFF Image
In order to convert Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint to Tiff image file Visual C#.NET It is quiet easy to integrate this SDK into your C# program, by
www.rasteredge.com
(Author,yearoforiginalpublication)or Author(yearoforiginal
publication)says...
Fullreference:
Author,A.(yearof originalpublication)TitleofBook,Editor,A.and
Editor,B.(eds),Placeof publication, Publisher (thiseditionyear).
Examples
In-textcitation Fullreference
(Hume,1839) Hume,D.(1839)ATreatiseofHuman
Nature,Selby-Bigge, L.andNidditch,P.
(eds),Oxford,ClarendonPress(this
edition1978).
5.5 Sacred texts
In-textcitation:
(Bookandchapter/Surah:verse)
Fullreference:
SacredtextexceptforBible.Bookandchapter/Surah:verse,versionof
Bibleonly.
Examples
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Matthew5:3–12) Matthew5: : 3–12,Revisedstandard
versionof theBible.
(Qur’an20:26)
Qur’an20:26.
(Shemot3:14)
Torah.Shemot3:14.
11
5Books,bookchaptersandebooks
application control tool:VB.NET PowerPoint: Convert & Render PPT into PDF Document
image source into PDF document file which may be to save converted image source to PDF format, RasterEdge offers other encoding APIs to convert rendered image
www.rasteredge.com
application control tool:VB.NET PowerPoint: Process & Manipulate PPT (.pptx) Slide(s)
how to split one PPT (.pptx) document file into smaller sub slides and merge/split PPT file without depending & profession imaging controls, PDF document, image
www.rasteredge.com
5.6 Ancient texts
Referencingancienttextspresentsspecificchallenges.Forexample,titles
maynotbeconsistentlyreferenced:theymaynothaveexistedinthe
modernsenseor maybesubjecttodifferenttranslations.Itisimportantto
citeinformationsuchthatareaderwillbeabletofindtheexactpassageyou
arereferringtoinanyeditionofthework.Tothisend,youalwaysneedto
givethenameoftheauthorandthetitleofthework(unlessonlyonework
survivesbythatauthor,inwhichcasethetitleisnotneeded).When
referencingancienttextswithinthebodyofyourassignment,youshould
whereverpossiblerefertothebookand/orlineorchapternumbersofthe
workinquestion,ratherthanthepagenumberofthemoderntranslation.
Eachancienttexthasaconventionalwayinwhichitisdividedinto
sections.Formostancienttextsthefollowingwillapply:
Prosetexts(e.g.historicalworks,letters,speeches,essays)aredividedinto
books,chaptersand(sometimes) sections:
Tacitus, Annals4.31
Strabo,7.5.1(notitleneededasonlyoneworksurvives)
Poetic/dramaticworks(e.g.poems,plays)aresometimesdividedinto
booksorscenesinthefirstinstance,andalwaysintoindividuallines:
Virgil,Aeneid3.466
Aristophanes,Lysistrata1235-41
Inyour bibliography,youarerequiredtogivedetailsnotjustoftheauthor,
title,theplaceanddateofpublicationbutalsoofthetranslatorandthetitle
ofthemodernpublication.Thepublicationdateisthemodernrather than
theancientdate.
TheguidanceherediffersslightlyfromthatinthesectiononTranslated
books(Section5.3ofthisguide)andreflectsthepracticeusedinthe
DepartmentofClassicalStudiesattheOU.
Example
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Homer,TheOdyssey
1.4)
Homer,TheOdyssey,trans.R.Fagles
(2006)London,Penguin.
Notethatyoumaysometimeshavetogiveapproximatelinenumbersif a
moderntranslatorhaschosennottorendereachlineofancienttextwith
exactlyonelineofmoderntext.
X443 Informationliteracy
12
application control tool:C# PDF Convert: How to Convert MS PPT to Adobe PDF Document
VB.NET Read: PDF Image Extract; VB.NET Write: Insert text into PDF; FILE_TYPE_UNSUPPORT: Console.WriteLine("Fail: can not convert to PDF, file type unsupport
www.rasteredge.com
application control tool:VB.NET PowerPoint: Read & Scan Barcode Image from PPT Slide
barcode scanning SDK to detect PDF-417 barcode advanced Codabar barcode scanning function into PPT processing projects that is contained in .pptx document file.
www.rasteredge.com
5.7 Ebooks online
In-textcitation:
(Author,yearofebookpublication) orAuthor(yearofebook
publication)states...
Fullreference:
Author,A.(yearof ebookpublication)TitleofBook[Online],Placeof
publicationif available,Publisherifavailable.AvailableatURL
(Accesseddate).
Examples
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Willie,2003)
Willie,S.S. (2003)ActingBlack:
College,IdentityandthePerformanceof
Race[Online],NewYork,Routledge.
Availableathttp://library.open.ac.uk/
linking/index.php?id=311027(Accessed
10April2010).
(SpeakeandLaFlaur,1999) Speake,J.andLaFlaur,M. . (1999)The
OxfordEssentialDictionaryofForeign
TermsinEnglish[Online],Oxford,Oxford
UniversityPress.AvailableatOxford
Reference(Accessed10
December2013).
Ifyouaccessedyourebookviaadatabase,youshouldreferencethe
databasename(seesecondexampleabove).Ifyour ebookhassectiontitles
ornumberedsectionsinsteadofpagenumbers,youshouldusetheseto
indicatethelocationofanyquotations.
Forguidanceaboutreferencingonlinefigures,diagramsandtables,see
Figures,diagrams andtables(Section7.6of thisguide).
5.8 Ebooks on readers
In-textcitation:
(Author,yearofebookpublication) orAuthor(yearofebook
publication)states...
Fullreference:
13
5Books,bookchaptersandebooks
Author,A.(yearof ebookpublication)TitleofBook[ebookreader],
Placeof publication,Publisher.
Example
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Matthews,2010) Matthews,D.J.(2010)WhatCatsCan
TeachUs[ebookreader],London,
Penguin.
Notethat:
Ebookreadershavedifferentstandardsforpresentingpagelocations,and
pagenumberingcanvarydependingonthetypeofreaderandthesettings
youareusing.Instead,youshouldusesectionnumbers(or,ifthesearenot
available,sectiontitles)toindicatethelocationofanyquotations:
(PikeandPrice,2011,Section1.1)
X443 Informationliteracy
14
6Journal and newspaper articles
6.1 Printed journal articles
In-textcitation:
(Author,yearofpublication)or Author(yearofpublication)states...
Fullreference:
Author,A.(yearof publication) ‘Titleofarticle’,TitleofJournal,
volume[abbreviatedtovol.],number[abbreviatedtono.],page
number(s)[abbreviatedtop.orpp.].
Example
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Thompson,2003) Thompson, , K.(2003)‘Fantasy,
franchises,andFrodoBaggins:TheLord
oftheRingsandmodernHollywood’,
TheVelvetLightTrap,vol.52,no.3,
pp.45–63.
6.2 Ejournal articles
Pleasemakesurethatyoureferencetheformatofajournalarticlethatyou
haveactuallyused.Ifyouconsultedaprintcopyofajournal(Section6.1),
youshouldreferenceitaccordingly.If,however,youhaveusedan
electroniccopyofanarticlefromanejournal,youshouldreferencethat
version.
In-textcitation:
(Author,yearofpublication)or Author(yearofpublication)states...
Fullreference:
Author,A.(yearof publication) ‘Titleofarticle’,TitleofJournal,
volume[abbreviatedtovol.],number[abbreviatedtono.],page
number(s)ifknown[abbreviatedtopp.] [Online].AvailableatURL
(Accesseddate).
Example
In-textcitation
Fullreference
15
6Journalandnewspaperarticles
(Jonesetal.,2005) Jones,H.M.,McKay,J.,Alvarado,F.,
Plath,E., Jordan,A., Porter,M.,Allsop,
S.(2005)‘Theattractionsofstupidity’,
TheSt. Croixe-Review, vol.30,no.2,
pp.6–10[Online].Availableathttp://
st_croix_e-review.com/index.php/articles/
view/30/6/(Accessed28October2010).
Notallonlinejournalshavepagenumbers,inwhichcaseitiscorrectto
formatreferenceswithoutthese.
Forarticlesthathavebeenacceptedforpublicationbyajournalfor a
forthcomingissuewhichyoumayhavebeenabletoaccessonlinebefore
thepublicationdate,use‘Forthcoming’inplaceofthedate.
Forguidanceaboutreferencingonlinefigures,diagramsandtables,see
‘Figures,diagramsandtables’(Section7.6).
URLs and DOIs for ejournals
Ifthearticleisnotfromadatabase,youshouldusethestandardURL
provided,asintheexampleabove.
Ifyouaccessthearticleviaalibrarysubscriptiondatabase,youshould
includetheDOI(DigitalObjectIdentifier)inyourreference,ifaDOI is
available.ADOIisapermanentlinkforanelectronicdocument.Thistakes
theformofauniquenumberthatidentifiesthearticleandshouldbeplaced
after‘[Online]’inthereference.
Somedatabasesandelectronicjournalsprovidepersistentlinksor
permalinks(aURLthatshouldgetyoudirectlytothearticle).If thereis
noDOI,usethepersistentlinkorpermalink.Ifthereisnopersistentlinkor
permalinkavailableandyourarticleisfromadatabase,wewould
recommendjustlistingthenameof thedatabaseyougotitfrom.Thisis
becauseifyoucopytheURLintheaddressbarfromthedatabasefollowing
asearch,itisunlikelytoworkforsomeoneelseusingittofindthearticle.
ExamplesshowingDOI,persistentlinkanddatabasename
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(MillerandPole,2010) Miller,E.andPole,A.(2010)‘Diagnosis
blog:checkinguponhealthblogsinthe
blogosphere’,AmericanJournalof Public
Health, vol.100,no.8,pp.1514–1519
[Online].DOI:10.2105/
AJPH.2009.175125(Accessed15
December2011).
X443 Informationliteracy
16
(Callahan,2011)
Callahan,D.(2011)‘Rationing:theory,
politics,andpassions’,HastingsCenter
Report,vol.41,no. 2,pp.23–27
[Online].Availableathttp://libezproxy.
open.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.
ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
direct=true&db=cmedm&AN=21495512&-
site=eds-live&scope=site(Accessed8
December2011).
(Jonesetal.,2011)
Jones, C.,Orr,B.andEiser,J.(2011)
‘Whenisenough,enough?Identifying
predictorsofcapacityestimatesfor
onshorewind-powerdevelopmentina
regionoftheUK’,EnergyPolicy,vol.39,
no.8[Online].AvailableatGreenFILE,
EBSCOhost(Accessed13
December2011).
Systematic reviews
Asystematicreviewcollectspublishedandunpublishedresearchonthe
sameintervention,topicorquestion.Itassessesthequalityofeachstudy
andprovideshealthprofessionalswithasummaryofevidencefromthe
best.
Example
In-textcitation
Fullreference
(Pidalaetal.,2011) Pidala,J.,Djulbegovic,B.,Anasetti,C.,
Kharfan-Dabaja,M.andKumar,A.
(2011)Allogeneichematopoieticcell
transplantationforadultacute
lymphoblasticleukemia(ALL)infirst
completeremission,CochraneDatabase
of SystematicReviews,issue10,art.
no.:CD008818[Online]DOI:10.1002/
14651858.CD008818.pub2(Accessed12
December2013).
6.3 Printed newspaper articles
In-textcitation:
(Author,yearofpublication)or Author(yearofpublication)says…
Fullreference:
17
6Journalandnewspaperarticles
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested