Author of book (year of publication) Title of Book, Place of
publication, Publisher, page reference of item, type of item.
Examples
In-text citation
Full reference
In Figure 1 ‘The probability and extent
of potential harms’ (Bromley et al.,
2009, p. 313)
Bromley, S., Clarke, J., Hinchliffe, S.
and Taylor, S. (2009) Exploring Social
Lives, Milton Keynes, The Open
University, p. 313, figure.
In Table 3 (The Open University,
2009, p.47) ...
The Open University (2009) Offprints
Booklet: Memory and Communication,
Milton Keynes, The Open University,
p. 47, table.
Note that:
If you have viewed the illustration/figure/diagram/table online, your in-text
citation would remain as shown above but you should reference it as you
would any other web page and add the item medium in square brackets:
The Open University (2012) E807 Study Guide [Figure]. Available at
http://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?
id=64592&section=11.2 (Accessed 30 August 2012).
7.7 Secondary referencing in module
materials
If you wish to cite an author whose work is discussed in a module unit but
you haven’t read the original, you need to make this clear in what you
write. For example:
In-text citation:
Original Author (date) cited in Author (date, page) identifies ...
Full reference:
In the references list you would provide details only for the source you
have actually read:
Author of book (year of publication) Title of Book, Place of publication,
Publisher.
X443 Information literacy
28
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Examples
In-text citation
Full reference
Goldberg (1981) cited in McAvoy
(2012, p. 21) described ...
McAvoy, J. (2012) ‘Exposing the
authoritarian personality’, in Brace, N.
and Byford, J. (eds) Investigating
Psychology, Oxford, Oxford University
Press/Milton Keynes, The Open
University, pp. 14–56.
7.8 Citing materials from another module
Citing materials from another module with a named
author
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(Kubiak and Hester, 2010, p. 12) Kubiak, C. and Hester, R. (2010) K115
Learning Guide 2: Effective practice,
Milton Keynes, The Open University.
Citing materials from another module with no
named author
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(The Open University, 2009, p. 9) The Open University (2009) K260
Block 1: The Social Context of Death
and Dying, Milton Keynes, The Open
University.
29
7OU module materials
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7.9 Page numbers
Please note that, in addition to author and date, some faculties also require
you to add a page number (where available) to the in-text citation for
module materials, even when you are not directly quoting material. This is
to assist tutors in locating the section of the module materials you are
referring to.
Example
In-text citation
(Moohan, 2008, p. 24)
This rule applies to some or all modules within the following faculties:
.
Arts (module codes starting A)
.
Education (module codes starting with E)
.
HSC (module codes starting with K)
.
Science (module codes starting with S).
If you are unsure, check your module guidance to see if you need to include
page numbers.
Note that:
If you are using bibliographic management software, you may need to
manually add in page numbers.
7.10 Lectures, seminars and presentations
In-text citation:
Tutor/Lecturer (year) states that …
Full reference:
Tutor/Lecturer (year) Title of seminar/lecture/presentation [Seminar to
Module code tutor group, location], Date.
Example
In-text citation Full reference
X443 Information literacy
30
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(Bloggs, 2014) Bloggs, F. (2014) Which came first: the
chicken or the egg? [Lecture to ZZ123
tutor group, Milton Keynes], 15 May.
Seminars on OU Live
In-text citation:
Tutor/Lecturer (year) states that …
Full reference:
Tutor/Lecturer (year) ‘Title’ OU Live recording for Module code
[Online]. Available at URL (Accessed date).
Example
In-text citation Full reference
(Smith, 2013)
Smith, A. (2013) ‘Week 1: Welcome to
ZZ123’, OU Live recording for ZZ123
[Online]. Available at https://eu1.
bbcollab.com/site/external/something
(Accessed 4 October 2014).
7.11 Student-generated content
TMAs
Referencing your own TMA isn’t generally part of standard academic
practice, as a TMA will not have been formally published. However, if you
are asked to do so, we recommend the following format:
Example
In-text citation Full reference
(Pitt, 2015)
Pitt, B. (2015) ZZ123 TMA 02, submitted
to The Open University as part of ZZ123
assessment.
31
7OU module materials
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Student OU Live presentations
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(Adams et al., 2014) Adams, B., Jones, Z. and Patel, S.
(2014) ‘Our joint production for TMA 04’,
OU Live recording for H817 [Online].
Available at http://learn2.open.ac.uk/
whereveritis (Accessed 5 June).
X443 Information literacy
32
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8Audiovisual materials
See Module audiovisual materials (Section 7.5) for guidance on referencing
DVDs that are part of your module materials.
8.1 TV programmes
In-text citation:
(Title of Programme, year of broadcast) or Title of Programme (year of
broadcast) shows …
Full reference:
Title of Programme (year of broadcast) Channel, date of transmission.
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(The Apprentice, 2008) The Apprentice (2008) BBC 1, 14 June.
Note that:
If you are accessing the programme online, for example via the BBC
iPlayer, then you would amend the reference as follows:
The Apprentice (2008) BBC 1, 14 June [Online]. Available at www.bbc.
co.uk/iplayer (Accessed 16 June 2008).
8.2 Radio programmes
In-text citation:
(Title of programme, year of transmission).
Full reference:
Title of programme (year of transmission), Channel, date of
transmission.
33
8Audiovisual materials
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Example
In-text citation Full reference
(Today, 2013)
Today (2013) BBC Radio 4, 10
December.
Note that:
If you are accessing the radio programme online, for example via the BBC
iPlayer, then you would amend the reference as follows:
Today (2013) BBC Radio 4, 10 December [Online]. Available at www.
bbc.co.uk/iplayer (Accessed 16 December 2013).
8.3 Films
In-text citation:
(Title of film, year of release) or Title of film (year of release) shows ...
Full reference:
Title of Film (year of release) Directed by Director Name [Film]. Place
of distribution if available, Distribution company.
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(Lord of the Rings: The Two
Towers, 2003)
Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers
(2003) Directed by Peter Jackson
[Film]. New York, Newline Productions
Inc.
8.4 DVDs
In-text citation:
X443 Information literacy
34
(‘Title of episode’, year of release) or ‘Title of episode’ (year of
release) shows ...
Full reference:
‘Title of episode’ (year of release) Title of Programme, series number
if available, episode number if available. Directed by Director’s Name.
Written by Writer’s Name. Date of original broadcast if available
[DVD]. Place of distribution, Distribution company.
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(‘The crackpots and these
women’, 2002)
‘The crackpots and these women’
(2002) The West Wing, series 1
episode 5. Directed by Anthony
Drazan. Written by Aaron Sorkin. First
broadcast 1999 [DVD]. Burbank,
Warner Home Video.
8.5 Audio CDs
In-text citation:
(Artist, year of release) or Artist (year of release) shows ...
Full reference:
Artist (year of release) Title [CD]. Place of distribution, Distribution
company.
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(Talking Heads, 1984) Talking Heads (1984) Speaking in
Tongues [CD]. California, Sire Records.
35
8Audiovisual materials
8.6 Songs
On audio CD
In-text citation:
(Artist, year of distribution) or Artist (year of distribution) shows ...
Full reference:
Artist (year of distribution) Title of recording [CD]. Place of
distribution, Distribution company.
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(Sondheim, 2007) Sondheim, S. (2007) Company: A
Musical Comedy [CD]. New York City,
Nonesuch Records.
Song lyrics
In-text citation:
(Lyricist, year of distribution) or Lyricist (year of distribution) shows
...
Full reference:
Lyricist (year of distribution) Title of song. Place of distribution,
Distribution company.
Example
In-text citation Full reference
(Marling, 2010) Marling, L. (2010) Blackberry Stone,
London, Virgin/EMI.
X443 Information literacy
36
Musical scores
In-text citation:
(Composer, year of distribution) or Composer (year of distribution)
shows ...
Full reference:
Composer (year of publication) Title of Score, notes on version of
score. Place of publication, Publisher.
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(Mendelssohn, 1999) Mendelssohn, F. (1999) Fingal’s Cave,
edited from composer’s notes by John
Wilson. London, Initial Music Publishing.
8.7 YouTube item
In-text citation:
(Title of Item, date uploaded) or Title of Item (date uploaded) says ...
Full reference:
Title of Item (date uploaded) YouTube video, added by Name of
uploader [Online]. Available at URL (Accessed date).
Example
In-text citation
Full reference
(Google Privacy: A Look at
Cookies, 2008)
Google Privacy: A Look at Cookies
(2008) YouTube video, added by
googleprivacy [Online]. Available at
www.youtube.com/watch?
v=XfZLztx8cKI (Accessed 12
June 2008).
37
8Audiovisual materials
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested