Memory for serial order 111
Table2
(Continued)
AncillaryAssumptions
Model
Output
Locusof
Interference
SimilarityEects
SRN(Botvinick&Plaut,2006)
7
Encoding+Retrieval
SIMPLE(Brownetal.,2007)
3
Encoding+Retrieval
OSCAR(Brownetal.,2000)
3
7
Burgess&Hitch(1992)
7
Retrieval
Burgess&Hitch(1999)
7
Retrieval
Burgess&Hitch(2006)
7
Retrieval
Farrell(2012)
3
7
SEM(Henson,1998a)
7
Retrieval
SOB(Farrell&Lewandowsky,2002)
7
7
C-SOB(Lewandowsky&Farrell,2008a)
3
Encoding+Retrieval
LISTPARSE(Grossberg&Pearson,2008)
7
7
Featuremodel(Nairne,1990;Neath,1999)
7
Encoding+Retrieval
Primacymodel(Page&Norris,1998)
7
Retrieval
Primacymodel(Page&Norris,2009)
7
Retrieval
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Memory for serial order 112
Table3
Phenomenaofserialorder,theshort-termmemory(STM)domainsinwhichtheyhavebeendemonstrated,andthetheoretical
constructstheycanbeattributedtobasedontheprecedinganalysis.Note:PM=PositionMarking;PG=PrimacyGradient;
RS=ResponseSuppression;CM=CumulativeMatching;OI=OutputInterference;SE=Similarity-At-Encoding;SR=
Similarity-At-Retrieval.
STMdomain
Phenomenon
RepresentativeStudy
Verbal
Spatial
Visual
InferredConstructs
ForwardSPC
Primacy(inputposition)
Oberauer(2003)
3
?
?
PG
Primacy(outputposition)
Oberauer(2003)
3
?
?
OI
Conditionalrecency
Farrell&Lewandowsky(2012)
3
?
?
RS
Errorpatterns
Transpositionlatencies
Farrell&Lewandowsky(2004)
3
?
?
PG+PM+RS
Fill-in:inllratio
Surprenantetal.(2005)
3
3
?
PG+RS
Protrusions
Henson(1999)
3
?
?
PM
Repetitions
Duncan&Lewandowsky(2005)
3
?
?
RS
Temporalgroupingeects
Groupingadvantage
Hitchetal.(1996)
3
3
?
PM
AccuracySPC
Hitchetal.(1996)
3
3
?
PM
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Memory for serial order 113
Table3
(Continued)
STMdomain
Phenomenon
RepresentativeStudy
Verbal
Visual
Spatial
InferredConstructs
Interpositions
Ryan(1969a)
3
7
?
PM
LatencySPC
Farrell&Lewandowsky(2004)
3
3
?
PM
Itemsimilarityeects
Mixed-sequenceadvantage
Farrell&Lewandowsky(2003)
3
?
?
PG+SE
Ranschburgeect
Henson(1998b)
3
?
?
RS
Hebbrepetitioneect
Sensitivetosequencestart
Schwartz&Bryden(1971)
3
?
?
CM
Sensitivetogroupingpattern
Hitchetal.(2009)
3
?
?
CM+PM
Insensitivetoitemsimilarity
Hitchetal.(2009)
3
?
?
SR
Absenceofitem-positiontransfer
Cummingetal.(2003)
3
?
?
CM
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Memory for serial order 114
Figure Captions
Figure 1. Serial position curves for forward and backward recall of verbal sequences.
Panels show data for recall accuracy (A), and inter-response latency (B). Serial position is
represented as input (presentation) position. In forward recall, input and output
(retrieval) position are perfectly positively correlated, whereas in backward recall they are
perfectly negatively correlated: Input position 6 corresponds to output position 1, input
position 5 corresponds to output position 2, input position 4 corresponds to output
position 3, and so forth. Accuracy data from Guerard and Saint-Aubin (2012; Experiment
1a); latency data from Haberlandt et al. (2005).
Figure 2. Transposition error gradients (A), and transposition latencies (B) for forward
recall of 6-item verbal sequences. Data from Farrell and Lewandowsky (2004).
Figure 3. Temporal grouping eects in forward recall of verbal sequences. Panels show
accuracy serial position curves (A), transposition gradients (B), and inter-response latency
serial position curves (C) for 9-item sequences temporally grouped into threes and
ungrouped sequences. Data from Hurlstone (2010; Experiment 7).
Figure 4. Accuracy serial position curves for alternating sequences of phonologically
similar (S) and dissimilar (D) items|with similar items at odd positions (SDSDSDS) or
even positions (DSDSDSD)|and purely phonologically dissimilar sequences
(DDDDDDD). Data from Henson et al. (1996; Experiment 2).
Figure 5. Schematic of a two-layer competitive queuing sequence planning and control
mechanism comprising a parallel planning layer (upper eld of nodes) and a competitive
choice layer (lower eld of nodes). The columns in the parallel planning layer represent
the activation levels of the various nodes representing items in the to be recalled sequence.
Lines terminating with arrows represent excitatory connections, whereas lines terminating
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Memory for serial order 115
with semi-circles represent inhibitory connections. Note that each node in the lower
competitive choice layer has an inhibitory connection to every other node in the same
layer, but for simplicity only adjacent-neighbor inhibitory connections are shown.
Similarly, each node in the competitive choice layer has an inhibitory connection to its
corresponding node in the parallel planning layer, but to avoid visual clutter only feedback
connections for the leftmost and rightmost nodes are illustrated. See main text for further
details.
Figure 6. Varieties of positional representations of serial order: (A) a temporal
representation of position based on the endogenous clock envisaged in OSCAR (Brown et
al., 2000); (B) an absolute representation of position based on the moving window of
activation scheme employed by Burgess and Hitch (1992); and (C) a relative
representation of position based on the start and end markers in Henson’s (1998a) SEM.
Note that the numbers in each graphic refer to the order of item presentations. Figure
adapted from Henson (1999b).
Figure 7. Initial state of a primacy gradient (A), followed by suppression of the rst two
emitted items (B).
Figure 8. Predicted accuracy serial position curves (A), transposition gradients (B),
latency serial position curves (C), and transposition latencies (D) of ve models of serial
recall built from dierent combinations of principles for representing serial order. PM =
Position Marking; PG = Primacy Gradient; RS = Response Suppression; OI = Output
Interference. The models were implemented in a common neural network architecture
resembling the competitive choice layer in competitive queuing models of serial behavior.
Figure 9. Accuracy serial position curves for alternating sequences of phonologically
similar (S) and dissimilar (D) items|with similar items at odd positions (SDSDSD) or
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Memory for serial order 116
even positions (DSDSDS)|and purely phonologically dissimilar sequences (DDDDDD).
Contrary to the analogous data depicted in Figure 4, these data show a mixed-sequence
advantage: Dissimilar items in mixed sequences are recalled more accurately than their
counterparts in pure dissimilar sequences. Data from Lewandowsky and Farrell (2008b;
Experiment 2).
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Memory for serial order, Figure 1
A
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0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
Accuracy SPC
Input Serial Position
tcerroC noitroporP
1
2
3
4
5
6
Forward Recall
Backward Recall
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Latency SPC
Input Serial Position
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1
2
3
4
5
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Memory for serial order, Figure 2
A
B
sesnopseR noitroporP
Transposition Gradients
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Memory for serial order, Figure 3
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Memory for serial order, Figure 4
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Serial Position
Proportion Correct
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