Grain:   
World Markets and Trade 
Approved by the World Agricultural Outlook Board - USDA 
United States 
Department of 
Agriculture 
Foreign 
Agricultural 
Service 
April 2016 
Southeast Asian Wheat and Corn Imports Double in Past Decade  
As U.S. Market Share Slides 
For email subscription, click here to register:  https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDAFAS/subscriber/new 
Since 2006/07, combined imports of wheat and corn by Southeast Asian countries* more than 
doubled, fueled by growing populations and stable economic growth.  Consumption is up for both 
food and feed as regional diets increasingly incorporate animal protein and western-style foods.  
Wheat food consumption has increased nearly 50 percent in the last decade, while feed use of 
wheat has more than tripled, with wheat being a preferred feed for aquaculture.  With negligible 
production of wheat, the region is entirely reliant on imports.  Indonesia, the Philippines, and 
Thailand are the primary wheat importers.  Corn feed consumption is up 70 percent during the last 
decade.  For much of the region, corn production largely satisfies demand.  Malaysia is the only 
major importer that is largely dependent on imports, while Indonesia and Vietnam both produce 
and import large amounts of corn.   
The U.S. market share is trending downward for both commodities. The United States struggles to 
compete with Canadian and Australian milling wheat on price and proximity, respectively.  
Ukraine and Argentina primarily meet the demand for feed wheat.  Brazil and Argentina dominate 
the Southeast Asian corn market, supplying over 90 percent of imports.  However, Malaysia and 
Vietnam, the largest importers of corn, are signatories of the Trans-Pacific Partnership.  Once 
implemented, the agreement could boost U.S. competitiveness in those countries for both 
commodities as tariffs are gradually reduced or eliminated.  
*
For list of countries, see Endnotes to Grain: World Markets and Trade 
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Southeast Asia Imports 
Corn
Wheat
MMT 
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
U.S. Market Share 
Corn
Wheat
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2
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
World Markets and Trade: Commentary and Current Data 
Wheat ................................................................................................................. 4 
Rice .................................................................................................................... 9 
Coarse Grains ................................................................................................... 15 
Historical Data Series for Selected Regions and Countries ............................ 36 
Endnotes to Grain: World Markets and Trade ............................................... 55 
The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) updates its production, supply and distribution (PSD) 
database for cotton, oilseeds, and grains at 12:00 p.m. on the day the World Agricultural Supply 
and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report is released.  This circular is released by 12:15 p.m.  
To download the tables in the publication, go to Production, Supply and Distribution Database 
(PSD Online): (http://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/psdHome.aspx), scroll down to Reports, and 
Click the plus sign [+] next to Grains.   
FAS Reports and Databases: 
Current World Markets and Trade and World Agricultural Production Reports:  
http://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/psdDataPublications.aspx  
Archives World Markets and Trade and World Agricultural Production Reports: 
http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewTaxonomy.do?taxonomyID=7  
Production, Supply and Distribution Database (PSD Online):  
http://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/psdHome.aspx 
Global Agricultural Trade System (U.S. Exports and Imports):  
http://apps.fas.usda.gov/gats/default.aspx  
Export Sales Report:  
http://apps.fas.usda.gov/esrquery/  
Global Agricultural Information Network (Agricultural Attaché Reports):  
http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Pages/Default.aspx  
Other USDA Reports: 
World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE):  
http://www.usda.gov/oce/commodity/wasde/  
Economic Research Service:  
http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops  
National Agricultural Statistics Service:  
http://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/  
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
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All Grain Summary Comparison
Million Metric Tons
Marketing Year
Wheat
Rice, Milled
Corn
2015/16
2014/15
2013/14
2015/16
2014/15
2013/14
2015/16
2014/15
2013/14
Production
United States
(Jun-May)
58.1
55.1
55.8
6.1
7.1
6.1
351.3
361.1
345.5
Other
656.8
670.3
677.3
472.3
471.7
464.5
639.2
651.7
626.6
World Total
714.9
725.4
733.1
478.4
478.8
470.6
990.5
1,012.8
972.1
Domestic Consumption
United States
(Jun-May)
34.3
31.6
31.9
4.0
4.2
3.9
293.0
301.9
301.5
Other
656.0
667.7
674.2
473.8
475.4
478.2
648.7
660.2
676.9
World Total
690.3
699.3
706.1
477.8
479.6
482.1
941.7
962.1
978.4
Ending Stocks
United States
(Jun-May)
16.1
20.5
26.6
1.0
1.6
1.4
31.3
44.0
47.3
Other
177.8
194.3
212.7
106.4
102.0
88.8
143.7
163.6
161.6
World Total
193.9
214.8
239.3
107.4
103.6
90.2
175.0
207.6
208.9
TY Imports
United States
(Jun-May)
4.8
4.0
3.2
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8
1.3
Other
155.5
154.4
156.8
40.3
38.6
39.1
124.4
121.2
127.7
World Total
160.3
158.4
160.0
41.1
39.4
39.9
125.1
122.0
129.0
TY Exports
United States
(Jun-May)
31.5
22.8
21.3
3.0
3.5
3.3
50.7
46.8
42.0
Other
130.9
138.6
141.2
41.1
39.2
38.4
79.7
81.2
91.8
World Total
162.4
161.4
162.5
44.1
42.7
41.7
130.4
128.0
133.8
Note: Consumption in this table has not been adjusted for differences in marketing year imports and 
exports and therefore differs from global totals shown elsewhere.Marketing years for U.S. grains are: 
Wheat (Jun-May), Rice (Aug-Jul), Corn (Sep-Aug).'Marketing Year' column is germane for U.S. wheat 
only.
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
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4
WHEAT: WORLD MARKETS AND TRADE 
OVERVIEW 
World wheat production for 2015/16 is up as larger crops in Argentina and the EU more than 
offset reductions in Ethiopia and Pakistan.  Global trade is up fractionally this month, with 
upward revisions for Algeria, China, and others offset by diminished imports for Brazil, Iran, and 
Sudan.  Exports for Argentina and Kazakhstan are raised, while the EU is revised downward.  
U.S. exports are also trimmed, and the season-average farm price is lowered from last month. 
U.S. PRICES: 
Domestic: Prices across most U.S. wheat classes rose through early March on weather concerns 
in the southern U.S. plains.  Smaller-than-anticipated U.S. plantings at month’s end preserved the 
upward trend for most classes.  While Hard Red Winter (HRW) slipped fractionally $2/ton to 
$205, both Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Soft Red Winter (SRW) ended $6/ton up at $231 and 
$197, respectively.  Soft White Wheat (SWW) ended the month unchanged at $191.    
175
200
225
250
275
$/MT 
U.S. Weekly FOB Export Bids 
HRS
HRW
SRW
SWW
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
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5
TRADE CHANGES IN 2015/16 
Selected Exporters 
Argentina is raised 500,000 tons to 7.5 million on a larger crop and a continuing strong 
pace of shipments, particularly to Southeast Asian markets. 
The European Union is cut 500,000 tons to 32.0 million on account of lagging export 
licenses and greater domestic usage. 
Iran is slashed 300,000 tons to 200,000 due to weak demand and increased regional 
competition.   
Kazakhstan is lifted 500,000 tons to 7.0 million on a steady pace of shipments and a 
competitive advantage over other regional exporters due to a weak currency. 
Turkey is elevated 300,000 tons to 5.0 million, a quarter-century high, based on the 
robust pace of flour and products trade. 
United States is trimmed 200,000 tons to 21.3 million owing to the slow pace of new crop 
sales.  (The marketing year estimate is unchanged) 
Selected Importers 
Algeria is boosted 400,000 tons to 8.1 million due to a strong import pace.  The country is 
taking advantage of low world prices to build its stocks of milling wheat. 
Brazil is down 500,000 tons to 5.8 million on account of slow pace to date and static 
domestic consumption. 
China is raised 500,000 tons to 3.0 million due to persistent demand for premium quality 
milling wheat. 
Iran is lowered 700,000 tons to 3.3 million based on a significantly weaker pace of 
imports resulting from a good domestic crop and government policy.  The policy restricts 
imports of wheat effective in the new Iranian calendar year, which began March 20. 
Sudan is reduced 500,000 tons to 2.3 million on a very sluggish pace to date as the 
country grapples with low growth and high inflation.  
Syria is elevated 300,000 tons to 1.3 million due to greater-than-expected trade to date. 
Thailand is boosted 300,000 tons to 3.8 million on account of strong shipments to date, 
particularly from Ukraine and Argentina. 
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
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World Wheat, Flour, and Products Trade
July/June Year, Thousand Metric Tons
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
2014/15
2015/16
Mar
2015/16
Apr
none
TY Exports
7,500
7,000
4,200
1,675
7,450
11,951
Argentina
16,500
16,500
16,575
18,339
21,269
23,031
Australia
1,300
1,300
1,688
81
1,753
1,860
Brazil
22,000
22,000
24,825
22,156
18,584
17,603
Canada
32,000
32,500
35,418
32,032
22,786
16,728
European Union
7,000
6,500
5,507
8,000
6,801
11,069
Kazakhstan
1,100
1,100
1,104
1,322
729
790
Mexico
23,000
23,000
22,800
18,609
11,308
21,627
Russia
5,000
4,700
4,134
4,293
3,583
3,678
Turkey
15,500
15,500
11,269
9,755
7,190
5,436
Ukraine
10,342
10,742
11,177
14,659
18,063
11,826
Others
141,242
140,842
138,697
130,921
119,516
125,599
Subtotal
21,300
21,500
22,752
31,518
27,734
28,142
United States
162,542
162,342
161,449
162,439
147,250
153,741
World Total
none
TY Imports
2,200
2,200
2,000
2,050
1,600
2,200
Afghanistan
8,100
7,700
7,257
7,484
6,484
6,500
Algeria
4,000
3,800
3,915
3,354
2,725
2,039
Bangladesh
5,800
6,300
5,869
7,061
7,547
7,053
Brazil
3,000
2,500
1,926
6,773
2,960
2,933
China
11,000
11,000
11,063
10,122
8,343
11,616
Egypt
2,400
2,400
1,100
670
1,344
1,550
Ethiopia
6,300
6,300
5,975
3,976
5,276
7,362
European Union
8,100
8,100
7,478
7,391
7,146
6,457
Indonesia
3,300
4,000
5,006
6,600
5,600
2,400
Iran
2,700
2,700
2,253
3,246
3,948
3,784
Iraq
5,700
5,700
5,878
6,123
6,598
6,354
Japan
4,500
4,500
3,942
4,288
5,439
5,188
Korea, South
4,400
4,400
4,476
4,639
3,823
5,020
Mexico
3,000
3,000
4,086
3,928
3,825
3,671
Morocco
4,400
4,400
4,244
4,580
4,168
3,901
Nigeria
4,300
4,300
5,055
3,476
3,620
4,022
Philippines
3,300
3,300
3,487
3,429
1,921
2,904
Saudi Arabia
2,000
2,000
1,901
1,849
1,558
1,542
South Africa
2,300
2,800
2,632
2,664
1,793
2,360
Sudan
3,800
3,500
3,488
1,684
1,840
2,646
Thailand
3,800
3,800
5,960
4,149
3,312
4,413
Turkey
2,400
2,400
2,230
2,224
1,863
2,698
Uzbekistan
2,600
2,600
2,296
2,157
1,671
2,711
Vietnam
3,300
3,300
3,245
3,425
3,207
2,667
Yemen
50,136
49,836
47,635
48,153
43,569
44,570
Others
156,836
156,836
154,397
155,495
141,180
148,561
Subtotal
2,506
2,306
3,065
2,159
2,594
2,143
Unaccounted
3,200
3,200
3,987
4,785
3,476
3,037
United States
162,542
162,342
161,449
162,439
147,250
153,741
World Total
TY=Trade Year, see Endnotes.
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
World Wheat Production, Consumption, and Stocks
Local Marketing Years, Thousand Metric Tons
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
2014/15
2015/16
Mar
2015/16
Apr
none
Production
11,300
11,000
12,500
10,500
9,300
15,500
Argentina
24,500
24,500
23,076
25,303
22,856
29,905
Australia
27,600
27,600
29,420
37,530
27,205
25,288
Canada
130,190
130,190
126,208
121,930
121,023
117,400
China
8,100
8,100
8,300
8,250
8,500
8,400
Egypt
160,000
158,457
156,828
144,585
133,949
138,182
European Union
86,530
86,530
95,850
93,506
94,882
86,874
India
14,000
14,000
13,000
14,500
13,800
12,400
Iran
13,748
13,748
12,996
13,941
9,841
22,732
Kazakhstan
8,000
8,000
5,100
6,934
3,878
6,018
Morocco
25,100
25,478
25,979
24,211
23,473
25,214
Pakistan
61,044
61,000
59,080
52,091
37,720
56,240
Russia
19,500
19,500
15,250
18,750
16,000
18,800
Turkey
27,274
27,250
24,750
22,278
15,761
22,324
Ukraine
7,200
7,200
7,150
6,800
6,700
6,300
Uzbekistan
53,218
53,923
54,807
55,710
52,097
51,036
Others
677,304
676,476
670,294
656,819
596,985
642,613
Subtotal
55,840
55,840
55,147
58,105
61,298
54,244
United States
733,144
732,316
725,441
714,924
658,283
696,857
World Total
none
Total Consumption
10,250
10,250
10,050
9,850
9,450
8,950
Algeria
10,200
10,600
10,700
11,400
10,900
11,200
Brazil
8,800
8,800
9,139
9,418
9,501
9,867
Canada
112,000
114,000
116,500
116,500
125,000
122,500
China
19,200
19,200
19,100
18,500
18,700
18,600
Egypt
128,800
125,750
123,500
117,300
119,250
127,234
European Union
90,030
90,030
93,130
93,848
83,824
81,408
India
7,950
7,950
7,365
7,165
6,950
6,250
Indonesia
18,000
18,000
17,500
17,000
16,000
15,200
Iran
9,800
9,800
9,000
9,000
8,300
8,800
Morocco
24,400
24,600
24,500
24,100
23,900
23,100
Pakistan
37,000
37,000
35,500
34,100
33,550
38,000
Russia
18,000
18,000
17,500
17,750
17,650
18,100
Turkey
12,500
12,500
12,000
11,500
11,400
14,950
Ukraine
9,300
9,300
8,900
8,400
8,000
7,800
Uzbekistan
157,932
159,005
153,331
150,219
146,648
145,734
Others
676,754
677,177
673,001
663,600
641,341
665,827
Subtotal
31,932
32,197
31,554
34,287
37,768
31,962
United States
708,686
709,374
704,555
697,887
679,109
697,789
World Total
none
Ending Stocks
96,295
93,795
76,105
65,274
53,960
55,946
China
19,325
20,160
13,825
9,940
10,711
13,522
European Union
13,192
13,200
17,192
17,830
24,200
19,950
India
7,121
7,321
7,821
7,221
5,086
825
Iran
5,219
5,070
4,269
4,321
2,674
3,524
Morocco
8,029
7,982
6,285
5,177
4,933
10,899
Russia
4,502
4,478
5,178
3,670
2,579
5,363
Ukraine
59,014
59,290
63,646
64,417
53,202
67,494
Others
212,697
211,296
194,321
177,850
157,345
177,523
Subtotal
26,559
26,294
20,477
16,065
19,538
20,211
United States
239,256
237,590
214,798
193,915
176,883
197,734
World Total
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
Regional Wheat Imports, Production, Consumption, and Stocks
Thousand Metric Tons
2011/12
2012/13
2013/14
2014/15
Mar
2015/16
Apr
2015/16
TY Imports
none
8,554
North America
7,784
9,866
8,953
8,085
8,085
1,666
Central America
1,654
1,833
1,834
1,795
1,795
13,779
South America
14,422
14,866
13,132
14,115
13,615
7,362
European Union - 28
5,276
3,976
5,975
6,300
6,300
1,911
Other Europe
1,632
1,858
1,760
1,895
1,895
8,022
Former Soviet Union - 12
7,229
7,472
7,675
7,690
7,690
23,023
Middle East
24,220
28,374
26,905
24,750
24,350
24,821
North Africa
21,990
25,218
25,193
25,100
25,500
19,088
Sub-Saharan Africa
18,531
20,492
20,945
23,355
22,855
16,865
East Asia
17,352
19,463
14,113
15,110
15,610
5,428
South Asia
5,308
6,721
8,149
7,751
7,951
17,956
Southeast Asia
16,294
17,101
20,541
20,875
21,175
3,123
Others
2,964
3,040
3,209
3,215
3,215
151,598
Total
144,656
160,280
158,384
160,036
160,036
Production
none
83,160
North America
91,734
99,012
88,254
87,200
87,200
26,131
South America
18,011
19,762
22,722
20,345
20,643
138,182
European Union - 28
133,949
144,585
156,828
158,457
160,000
3,597
Other Europe
3,431
4,059
3,856
4,132
4,032
114,985
Former Soviet Union - 12
77,802
103,885
112,735
117,528
117,596
39,285
Middle East
36,884
41,708
35,414
40,855
40,830
18,584
North Africa
17,328
19,656
17,010
20,000
19,910
6,234
Sub-Saharan Africa
6,716
7,154
7,144
6,871
6,414
118,775
East Asia
122,490
123,248
127,648
131,564
131,563
117,450
South Asia
126,412
125,917
130,154
120,238
119,840
30,288
Oceania
23,345
25,751
23,490
24,925
24,925
186
Others
181
187
186
201
191
696,857
Total
658,283
714,924
725,441
732,316
733,144
Domestic Consumption
none
49,429
North America
53,894
50,355
47,543
47,997
47,732
26,085
South America
26,212
27,126
26,862
27,189
26,789
127,234
European Union - 28
119,250
117,300
123,500
125,750
128,800
4,871
Other Europe
4,721
4,757
4,810
4,890
4,890
79,970
Former Soviet Union - 12
71,725
72,750
75,860
78,105
78,105
56,723
Middle East
56,636
58,717
58,112
59,820
60,120
40,927
North Africa
41,290
42,425
42,651
43,725
43,725
23,261
Sub-Saharan Africa
23,993
26,331
26,838
29,750
28,387
137,357
East Asia
140,071
130,201
129,378
127,151
125,151
115,930
South Asia
121,007
132,041
132,330
130,006
129,806
16,665
Southeast Asia
16,515
16,560
19,265
20,405
20,395
7,824
Oceania
8,111
8,280
8,569
8,600
8,600
3,379
Others
3,366
3,494
3,551
3,594
3,594
689,655
Total
686,791
690,337
699,269
706,982
706,094
Ending Stocks
none
26,718
North America
24,925
26,790
28,080
31,242
31,507
4,204
South America
3,538
6,834
6,756
4,199
3,924
13,522
European Union - 28
10,711
9,940
13,825
20,160
19,325
1,439
Other Europe
1,057
941
1,074
1,321
1,036
26,373
Former Soviet Union - 12
14,269
15,688
20,045
21,270
20,871
12,395
Middle East
14,039
18,540
18,416
18,132
18,146
14,285
North Africa
11,704
13,683
12,628
12,872
13,463
2,315
Sub-Saharan Africa
2,399
2,837
2,861
2,808
2,848
58,935
East Asia
57,209
68,307
79,352
97,620
99,839
25,129
South Asia
27,995
21,661
23,167
19,223
19,397
4,615
Southeast Asia
3,718
3,466
3,892
3,665
3,812
7,432
Oceania
4,978
4,861
4,289
4,719
4,729
372
Others
341
367
413
359
359
197,734
Total
176,883
193,915
214,798
237,590
239,256
NOTES:  Regional definitions appear on last page of this circular. Imports are reported on a trade year basis. All other data are 
reported using local marketing years.
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
9
RICE: WORLD MARKETS AND TRADE 
OVERVIEW 
Global production for 2015/16 is cut from last month, mostly on crop reductions for Brazil, 
Pakistan, and the Philippines.  Trade is revised down slightly, as higher exports for India are 
more than offset by declines for Pakistan and Egypt, and smaller imports for Turkey.  Global 
stocks are revised lower this month largely on a reduction for Japan (primarily due to higher 
consumption).  The U.S. season-average farm price is lowered. 
From 2012 to 2015, rice consumption in the European Union (EU) rose marginally and steadily 
alongside population growth.  Because the region does not produce rice in large quantities, the 
EU relies on imports to meet domestic demand.  Recently, Thailand, India, and Pakistan have 
accounted for the largest share of imports. 
Over the past 4 years, however, an increasing proportion of imports have come from other 
origins.  Under the Everything-But-Arms arrangement, rice imports from Cambodia and Burma 
gained duty free access, which expanded in 2009 due to the expiration of the quantitative limits 
on imported rice.  Imports from Guyana doubled last year, as exporters diverted more shipments 
away from Venezuela and to EU.  In all, EU imported a record 1.8 million tons in 2015, nearly 
40 percent of which arrived from Cambodia, Burma, and Guyana.  Long grain rice shipments 
from these sources are expected to remain strong and to account for a significant portion of the 
EU’s imports this year.
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
2,000
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016f
EU Imports from Cambodia, Burma and Guyana 
Rise Substantially 
Guyana
Myanmar
Cambodia
Other
Thousand Metric Tons
Burma 
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
10
Although total imports have declined since 2012, basmati (fragrant) rice has accounted for an 
increasing share of Iraqi imports over the past 4 years.  In 2015, Iraq imported 450,000 tons of 
basmati rice from India.  Combined basmati imports from India and Pakistan comprised a mere 2 
percent of Iraq’s total rice imports in 2010; however, last year, 
Indian basmati rice alone 
accounted for nearly half of total imports.  The majority of these basmati imports are of the 
sharbati variety, which is quoted at lower prices than other premium quality varieties, although 
higher than non-fragrant long-grain.  The increase in basmati rice imports may suggest a shift in 
consumer preferences in Iraq, although a demand for non-fragrant rice imports remains. 
Iraq was a significant market for U.S. rice, routinely receiving more than 100,000 tons annually 
in prior decades.  Along with a small amount of private trading, Iraq administers open tenders 
and invites selected countries to bid for rice imports.  In 2015, a U.S. supplier won a share of a 
tender and shipped slightly more than 60,000 tons. 
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016f
Thousand Metric Tons
Iraq Importing* Less Long-Grain, 
More Basmati Rice 
Pakistan (Basmati)
Other
India (Non-Basmati)
United States
Uruguay
Pakistan (Non-Basmati)
India (Basmati)
Thailand
*import data derived from reported exporters data 
Foreign Agricultural Service/USDA                                                                                                                                                                        April 2016
Office of Global Analysis
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