LogExportandImport
RestrictionsoftheU.S.
PacificNorthwestandBritish
Columbia:PastandPresent
ChristineL.Lane
UnitedStates
Departmentof
Agriculture
ForestService
PacificNorthwest
ResearchStation
GeneralTechnical
Report
PNW-GTR-436
August1998
Changing pdf to powerpoint - control Library system:C# Create PDF from PowerPoint Library to convert pptx, ppt to PDF in C#.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF
Online C# Tutorial for Creating PDF from Microsoft PowerPoint Presentation
www.rasteredge.com
Changing pdf to powerpoint - control Library system:VB.NET Create PDF from PowerPoint Library to convert pptx, ppt to PDF in vb.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF
VB.NET Tutorial for Export PDF file from Microsoft Office PowerPoint
www.rasteredge.com
Author
CHRISTINEL.LANEisaconsultantwithTheWalterGroup,1109FirstAvenue,
Seattle,WA98101.Thisreportwaspreparedwhenshewasaresearcheconomist
withthePacificNorthwestResearchStation,ForestrySciencesLaboratory,4043
RooseveltWayNE,Seattle,WA98105.
control Library system:VB.NET Word: Word Conversion SDK for Changing Word Document into
VB.NET Word - Convert Word to PDF Using VB. How to Convert Word Document to PDF File in VB.NET Application. Visual C#. VB.NET. Home
www.rasteredge.com
control Library system:C# PDF Page Rotate Library: rotate PDF page permanently in C#.net
Enable batch changing PDF page orientation without other PDF reader control. Support to overwrite PDF and save rotation changes to original PDF file.
www.rasteredge.com
Abstract
Lane,ChristineL.1998.LogexportandimportrestrictionsoftheU.S.PacificNorth-
westandBritishColumbia:pastandpresent.Gen.Tech.Rep.PNW-GTR-436.
Portland,OR:U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,PacificNorthwest
ResearchStation.61p.
ExportconstraintsaffectingNorthAmericanwestcoastlogshaveexistedinter-
mittentlysince1831.Recentdevelopmentshavetendedtowardtighterrestrictions.
National,Provincial,andStaterulesaredescribed.
Keywords:Logexports,logimports,logembargoes,logtraderestrictions.
Summary
Frombeinganuisance,andaninhibitorofnationalgrowthandexpansion,topro-
vidingeconomicsecurity,timberhasplayedastrategicroleinthedevelopmentof
boththeU.S.PacificNorthwestandBritishColumbia.Overtheyears,anevolutionin
thinkinghaschangedtheapproachofsomeregulationsbanninglogexportsand,in
otherways,hasfurthersolidifiedexistinglegislation.Thispaperwillspeaktotheevo-
lutionofexportandimportrestrictions,fromtheirinceptiontothepresentday,perti-
nenttotheUnitedStatesandBritishColumbia.Thetypicalevolutionhasbeento
becomeprogressivelymorerestrictiveregardingtheuseoftimberfrompubliclands
untiljudicialproceduresdeemcertainrestrictionsunconstitutional,whichhasoccurred
withincreasingfrequencyovertheyears.Legalremedies,however,tendtofollow
thesedecisionsandtoreinstatesimilarlawslimitingexportsorimports.
Thetoneofthelegislationhasbeentomaintaineconomicstability,providenatural
resourcesfornationalneeds,andmorerecently,topreservetheexistingresource
fromoverharvestingorpestinfestation,orboth,andtoofficiallydirecttheuseof
publicforeststowardmultipleuse.
Theseregulationsareconstantlyevolving,andatprinting,newregulationsareonthe
drawingboardforbothBritishColumbiaandAlaska.Federallegislationnowbansthe
exportoftimber(logs)fromallpubliclands(StateandFederal)inthecontinental
UnitedStateswestoflongitude100oW.undertheForestResourcesConservation
andShortageReliefAmendmentActof1993,whichhasprovisionstobanlogexports
fromStatelandsiftheStaterefusestoenactsuchregulationsabidingbytheamend-
ment.Alaskacannotshipanytimberinlogformfrompubliclandswithinits
boundariesundertheauthorityoftheOrganicActof1927.Meanwhile,British
Columbiahascontrolledlogexportswithrestrictionssimilartothoseinplacein
Alaska.
Duetoharvestrestrictions,supplylimitations,andpricefluctuations,timberbuyersare
beginningtoimporttimberintoNorthAmericainincreasingvolumes.Thisposesa
competitivesituation,aswellasapestanddiseaseriskthatmaybecarriedintoNorth
Americawiththeimportedtimber.Tocautionagainstsuchaninfiltration,boththe
UnitedStatesandCanadaareassessingandimplementingnewregulationstospecif-
icallybantheimportofsomewoodproducts.(Theseregulationsdonotapplytotim-
berexportsbetweenthetwocountries.)TheUnitedStateshasbannedlogimports
fromallbutChileandNewZealand;althoughimportingproceduresforwoodproducts
fromoutsidetheUnitedStatesandCanadahavebeendraftedandareundergoingre-
view.Canada,meanwhile,hasdecidedtoconductapest-riskassessmentforeach
potentialexportingcountry.Sofar,onlyformerSovietUnioncountrieshavebeendi-
rectedtothenecessarypest-riskassessmentproceduresbeforeimportationinto
Canada.
control Library system:VB.NET PDF File Merge Library: Merge, append PDF files in vb.net
Merge Microsoft Office Word, Excel and PowerPoint data to PDF form. together and save as new PDF, without changing the previous two PDF documents at all
www.rasteredge.com
control Library system:C# PDF Convert to Tiff SDK: Convert PDF to tiff images in C#.net
PDF. Supports tiff compression selection. Supports for changing image size. Also supports convert PDF files to jpg, jpeg images. C#
www.rasteredge.com
Specificagencyactions,judicialdecisions,andrestrictionsregardingNativeAmerican
landsareelaboratedoninthetext.Atimelinealsoisprovidedthatsummarizesthe
acts,rulings,agreements,anddecisionsthathaveoccurredoverthecourseofthe
developmentofthesetimberregions.
Contents
1
HistoricalEconomicConditionsinNorthAmerica
3
UnitedStates—FederalRulesandRegulations
3
TheEarlyHistory
3
TheLast25Years
21
BureauofIndianAffairs
22
Alaska
27
PacificNorthwestStates
27
TheStates’RegulatoryAuthority
28
Washington
29
Oregon
32
Alaska
33
California
35
Idaho
36
Montana
37
ExportRestrictionsforBritishColumbia
37
AComparativeHistory
39
EarlyProvincialRegulations
40
ProvincialLegislationThroughWorldWarI
40
ProvincialLegislation:RecentYears
41
CanadianRegulations
41
FederalRegulations,WorldWarIItoPresent
42
BritishColumbiaAgenciesandExportProcedures
43
CurrentProcedures
45
LogExportsfromIndianLandsinBritishColumbia
45
ImportRestrictions
45
UnitedStates
47
Canada
47
Acknowledgments
48
Appendix:Timeline
control Library system:C# PDF Password Library: add, remove, edit PDF file password in C#
Able to perform PDF file password adding, deleting and changing in Visual Studio .NET project use C# source code in .NET class. Allow
www.rasteredge.com
control Library system:C# TIFF: Learn to Convert MS Word, Excel, and PPT to TIFF Image
using RasterEdge.Imaging.PowerPoint; This demo code is for rendering and changing PowerPoint (.pptx) document to Tiff image. // Load your PPT (.pptx) document.
www.rasteredge.com
HistoricalEconomic
ConditionsinNorth
America
Duringthedaysofexplorationandcolonization,logexportswereahighlyprized
commodityvaluedfortheirroleinassuringnavalpower.Thelogsandtheir
derivativeswereusedbythe“mothercountries,”suchasEnglandandFrance,to
buildlargefleetstocontrolthehighseas.Thefirstrecordedshipmentofmastsfrom
theColonieswassentfromVirginiatoEnglandin1609,andothershipmentssoon
flowedfromwhatisnowtheUnitedStatesandCanada.Becauseofthiscontinuous
demand,by1780-81,allmastsontheshipsintheEnglish,French,andSpanish
naviesweremadeofAmericantimbers.
1
Butascommonhistorygoes,theColoniesrebelledagainsttheoccupationofthe
mothercountries,suchasEngland,whountilthattimehad(throughtheBroadArrow
policyof1691)reservedalltreesmorethan24inches(61cm)indiameterforthe
RoyalNavy.ThissuccessfulliberationoftheUnitedStatesledthetimbermarketto
waneaslogsbecamemoreofanuisancetotherapidlyexpandingpopulationofthis
well-forestedcountry.Timberliterallystoodinthewayoftheblossomingpopulation
thatdemandedagriculturalsustenance,notmorewood.Thefirstcoloniallegislation
forlogsandlograftsonwaterwayswasintroducedin1752,basedonthefollowing:
2
First,theforesthadgreatmoneypossibilities.Itsuseshouldberegulated,
therefore,sothatthegreedorcarelessnessforthefewshouldnotinjureto
thedisadvantageofthemany.Second,theexhaustionoftimbereasilygot
atandbroughttomillwaspossible,butthetotalexhaustionofthefor-
estswasutterlyimpossible.Third,eveniftheforestsweretotallycutaway,
itwouldbenocryingmatter,fortheywereinmanyrespectsanuisance.
Thissupposedly“limitlessresource”washamperingeconomicandagriculturalgrowth
anddevelopment.Consequently,withtheresourceinsuchabundanceandminimal
foreignbuyers,thelogexportmarketstagnateduntillateinthe20thcentury.
Thelogexportrevivalwasprimarilyawestcoastphenomenon.Afewentrepreneurs
begantorecognizetheold-growthforestsoftheU.S.PacificNorthwestasapotential,
untappedasset.Theconcurrentdevelopmentofoperableportsandwaterwaysinthe
Northwestencouragedtheemergenceofanunpredictable,sputteringlogexport
market.BritishColumbiatappedthisassetasalucrativerevenuebuilderaswell.
Sincethebeginningofthe20thcentury,however,politicalpressureshavearisenover
whethertocontinuetoallowlogexportsfromtheUnitedStates—particularlyduring
leantimesandrecessionswhentheeconomyisweakenedandjobsgrowscarce.
Thispatternhascontinuedtothepresentday.
Thosearguingagainstlogexportshaveclaimedthattheprocessemploysfewer
peoplethanarerequiredtomanufacturelumberandotherremanufacturedwood
products,andconsequently,fewermanufacturingplantsarebuiltdomesticallyto
processthetimber.Exportingoflogs,purportedly,causesanation’seconomyanda
country’sgeneralwelfaretosuffer.Theseobjectionshavebeeneffectiveinraising
1
Jenks,Cameron.1944.Thedevelopmentofgovernmental
forestcontrolintheUnitedStates.NewYork:DaCapo
Press:14.
2
Cameron1944:18(seefootnote1).
1
control Library system:VB.NET Image: How to Generate Freehand Annotation Through VB.NET
as PDF, TIFF, PNG, BMP, etc. If this VB.NET annotation library is used, you are able to create freehand line annotation in VB.NET application without changing
www.rasteredge.com
control Library system:VB.NET Image: Easy to Create Ellipse Annotation with VB.NET
png, gif & bmp; Add ellipse annotation to document files, like PDF & Word to customize ellipse annotation on your document or image by changing its parameters
www.rasteredge.com
publicconcern,whichhasledtolegislationrestrictingexports.Directbenefitsfrom
suchrestrictionshaveencouragedgrowthinsomeareasofthetimberindustry,such
asdomesticmanufacturing,employment,increasedrevenues,andmorerecently,
protectionofarenewableresourceandtheenvironment.
Ingeneral,duringtheearlyandmid1900s,FederallegislationintheUnitedStates
andCanadawasprimarilypassiveregardinglogexports,inanefforttoavoidinterfer-
ingindomesticcommerce.AfterWorldWarII,NorthAmericadiscoveredthatthe
once-sputteringdemandfortimberexportshadbeenignitedbyforeigndemandand
couldbefueledbyaplentifulsupplyofNorthAmericantimber.Thedemandgenerated
jobsandrevenuesinthedomesticmarket.Overthenext20years,however,asfor-
eignanddomesticdemandforrawtimbercontinuedtorise,supplybegantowane:
old-growthtimberstandswereharvestedfasterthantheycouldbereplaced.Asthe
economyandtimbermarketsfaltered,Federal,State,andProvinciallegislationwas
introduced,oramended,toprovideaprominent,uniformbasisforlogexport
restrictions.
Thispaperwillexaminethepastandpresentexportpoliciesthathaveledtocurrent
logexportprohibitions,andhowtheseregulationsareimplementedbygovernment
agenciesintheUnitedStatesandtheProvinceofBritishColumbia.Also,newly
implementedimportrestrictionshavebeenestablishedtopreventdiseaseandinsect
infestation:thisissuewillbeaddressedtoo.
Theevolutionofrestrictivelogexportandimportrulesandregulationswillbedis-
cussedinchronologicalorder,bycountry,withsomementionofthecontributingeco-
nomicandsocialconditionsthatledtotheirenactment.TheU.S.congressionalde-
cisionsregardinglogexportregulationsandtheroleoftheFederalagenciesinimple-
mentingtheserulesandregulationswillbepresentedinthefirstpartofthispaper,
followedbyStaterestrictionsforWashington,Oregon,Alaska,California,Idaho,and
Montana.BritishColumbia’sProvincialandFederal(Crown)legislationwillthenbe
discussed.Themostrecentadditiontotimbertraderulesregardingimportregulations
fortheUnitedStatesandCanadacanbefoundinthelastsectionofthetext.Atime-
lineisappended.Someoftheinformationincludedinthispaperisrepeatedfrom
earlierreportsbyAustin,
3
Lindell,
4
andHines
5
aswellasaBritishColumbialogex-
porthistorycompiledbyShinn.
6
3
Austin,JohnW.1969.LogexportrestrictionsoftheWestern
StatesandBritishColumbia.Res.Pap.PNW-91.Portland,
OR:U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,Pacific
NorthwestForestandRangeExperimentStation.13p.
4
Lindell,GaryR.1978.LogexportrestrictionsoftheWestern
StatesandBritishColumbia.Gen.Tech.Rep.PNW-63.
Portland,OR:U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,
PacificNorthwestForestandRangeExperimentStation.14p.
5
Hines,JudithA.1987.LogexportrestrictionsoftheWestern
StatesandBritishColumbia.Gen.Tech.Rep.PNW-GTR-208.
Portland,OR:U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,
PacificNorthwestResearchStation.13p.
6
Shinn,CraigW.1993.BritishColumbialogexportpolicy:
historicalreviewandanalysis.Res.Pap.PNW-RP-457.
Portland,OR:U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,
PacificNorthwestResearchStation.52p.
2
control Library system:VB.NET PDF File & Page Process Library SDK for vb.net, ASP.NET
creating, loading, merge and splitting PDF pages and Files, adding a page into PDF document, deleting unnecessary page from PDF file and changing the position
www.rasteredge.com
control Library system:C# Excel - Excel Page Processing Overview
C#.NET programming. Allow for changing the order of pages in an Excel document in .NET applications using C# language. Enable you
www.rasteredge.com
Sometodaywouldbelievethatfrom1831to1905,therestrictionsonlogexportsof
timberfrompubliclandswereasrestrictiveasthelegislationofthe1990s.Thefirst
lawreferringtologexportsbytheU.S.Congresswasissuedlongbefore1900:the
AntitrespassLawof1831.Denyingpurchasersaccesstotimberharvestedfrompublic
landswiththeintenttoexportthelogs,theAntitrespassLawwasoneofthemany
policiesenactedduringthemid1800sthatpromotedagriculturaldevelopment,
settlementofthewest,andeconomicgrowth.
NoneoftheregulationspromotingdevelopmentoftheWesternUnitedStates,how-
ever,containedprovisionsthatencouragedorallowedthegeneralpublictoacquire
anddevelopthevastacreageofwhatwasinterpretedatthetimetobesurplusor
“limitless”timberedlands.Tofosterthedevelopmentofthesetimberedlands“un-
suitable”forfarming,andtopromoteeconomicwelfareandnationalsecurity,Con-
gressenactedtheTimberandStoneActof1878(20Stat.89)tosupersedethe
AntitrespassLaw.Thisactprovided160-acre(64-ha)lotsinWashington,Oregon,
California,andNevadaforsaletothepublic,conditionalonthepurchaser’spromise
toabidebytheprovisionswithintheact,oneofwhichforbadetheremovaloftimber
frompubliclandsforexport.Thisact,intendedtohelpindividualsacquiretimber
lands,wasunfortunatelyabusedbyspeculatorsandthetimberindustry,thereby
leadingtotheenactmentofmorerestrictivelaws.
TheOrganicAdministrationActofJune4,1897,andtheActofMay14,1898,were
twosuchlaws.AlsoknownastheSundryCivilExpensesAppropriationsActof1897,
7
theOrganicActauthorizedthesaleoftimberfromNationalForestsforuseinthe
StateorTerritorywhereitwasharvested,butitprohibitedinterstateexports.Similarly,
theActofMay14,1898,extendedthehomesteadlawstoAlaska,andauthorizedthe
SecretaryoftheInteriortoselltimberfromthepubliclandsinAlaskaforuseinthe
Territory,butnotforexport.
Butby1905,becausetheSecretariesoftheadministeringagenciescouldnotau-
thorizeexports,theOrganicAdministrationActof1897wasfoundtobetoorestric-
tive.Toremedythesituation,aprovisionwasaddedtotheannualAppropriationAct
Keyregulations
Year
AntitrespassLaw
1831
TimberandStoneAct
1878
OrganicAdministrationAct
1897
ActofMay14,1898
1898
AnnualAppropriationActRiders
1905-26
ActofApril12,1926
1926
ActofMay11,1926
1926
SustainedYieldForestManagementAct
1944
SmallBusinessSet-AsideAct
1958
UnitedStates—
FederalRulesand
Regulations
TheEarlyHistory
7
OrganicAdministrationActofJune4,1897,Ch.2,30
Stat.11,asamended;16U.S.C.473-475,477-482,551.
3
in1905
8
allowingtheSecretaryofAgriculturetoauthorizetimberexports.Subsequent
appropriationactriderswereapprovedeachyearuntil1926:Eachriderstatedes-
sentiallythesamething(seefootnote8):
TheSecretaryofAgriculturemay,inhisdiscretion,permittimberandother
forestproductscutorremovedfromthenationalforeststobeexported
fromtheStateorTerritoryinwhichsaidforestsarerespectively.
EachrenewedprovisionessentiallyannulledtheOrganicActof1897fortheensuing
year(“atfirstwiththeexceptionofIdahoandSouthDakota,but[after]1913,without
suchexceptions”).
9
Bythe1920s,thelegalityoflegislatingwithinanappropriationactwaschallenged.
DuringtheHousedebatefortheappropriationbillforfiscalyearendingJune30,1924,
theprovisionwasnotrenewedbasedonthequestionoflegality;theriderwaslater
restoredintheSenateversionofthebill.
Bythistime,bothSecretariessupportedpermanentexportlegislation.Secretaryof
AgricultureJardinewrote(seefootnote9):
Thisdepartmentbelievesthatpermanentlegislationtoreplacetheprohibi-
tionintheActofJune4,1897isverydesirableandnecessaryasasafe-
guardtothebusinessenterprisesbasedontheloggingofnational-forest
timber.
Inlightoftheserecommendationsandtoavoidpossiblelegalcomplications,theAct
ofApril12,1926,
10
waspassed,relaxingbutnotamendingtheOrganicActof1897,
whichstillprohibitedinterstateexportation.
11
TheactgrantedtheSecretariesthe
authoritytoallowlogexports(seefootnote10):
Timberlawfullycutonanynationalforest,oronthepubliclandsinAlaska,
maybeexportedfromtheStateorTerritorywheregrownif,inthe
judgmentoftheSecretaryofthedepartmentadministeringthenational
forests,orthepubliclandsinAlaska,thesupplyoftimberforlocalusewill
notbeendangeredthereby,andtherespectiveSecretariesconcernedare
herebyauthorizedtoissuerulesandregulationstocarryoutthepurposeof
thisAct[emphasisadded].
Localuse,theprimaryqualifierforfutureregulatingdecisions,waslaterinterpretedas
“thesupplyoftimberforlocalconsumptiveuseratherthanthesupplyoftimberto
meettheneedsoflocalmillsprocessingtimberfornon-localmarketsaswellaslocal
8
AgriculturalAppropriationActofMarch3,1905,33Stat.
861,873.
9
Jardine,W.M.1926.LetterfromtheSecretaryofAgriculture,
datedJanuary20,toHon.N.J.Sinnott,chairman,Committee
onthePublicLands,HouseofRepresentatives.
10
U.S.Congress.ActofApril12,1926,Exportationof
Timber,P.L.69-100,Ch.117;44Stat.242,asamended;16
U.S.C.616,617.
11
The1897actwaslateramendedbytheNationalForest
ManagementAct(NFMA)of1976,P.L.94-588,90Stat.2949,
asamended;16U.S.C.472aet.seq.toremovetheban
interstatelogexports.
4
markets.”
12
Thisinterpretationremainstheprimaryauthorityregardingtimbersales
fromNationalForestsinAlaska.
EventhoughthisactgavetheSecretariespermanentauthoritytorestricttheexport
ofNationalForesttimber,theensuingAppropriationActofMay11,1926,
13
permitted
theexportationofforestproducts:“...theSecretaryofAgriculturemaypermittimber
andotherforestproductstobecutandexportedbeyondtheStateinwhichthefor-
estsaresituated.”
Thisopenlogexportpolicyapproachcontinueduntilpublicandindustryconcernsled
tochangeinthelate1960s.
Otherlegislationenactedduringthe1940sand1950salsocontributedindirectlytolog
exportcontrolsbyrequiringprimaryprocessingordomesticmanufacturing.TheSus-
tainedYieldForestManagementActofMarch29,1944,
14
wasenactedtoprovide
timberharvestsonasustained-yieldbasistomaintainthetimberresourceandindus-
tryandtoprovidejobsfortheinvolvedcommunitiesthroughformalagreements.
Stipulationswithintheagreementsindirectlyrestrictedlogexports,fortheyrequired
between80and100percentofthetimbertobemanufacturedwithinthecommunity.
Intime,onecooperativeagreementamongalocalcommunity,theFederalgovern-
ment,andtheSimpsonTimberCompanyemerged,whilefiveFederalSustainedYield
Agreementswerecreatedbetweencommunitiesandthegovernment.
Anotheract,whichstillrestrictslogexports,istheSmallBusinessSet-AsideActof
1958.
15
Thepurposeoftheactistoenablesmalltimbercompanies(lessthan500
employees)inlocalcommunitiestobecompetitivewithlargetimberfirms.Provisions
oftheactpermitthe“set-aside”ofFederaltimberforsmallbusinessesunableto
acquiresufficientsuppliesoftimberfromtheirmarketareasthroughnormalmarket
means.Althoughtheactdidnotspecificallyimposeexportrestrictions,theForestSer-
vicemandatedthatonly30percentofthetimberpurchasedbyarecognizedsmall
businesscouldbesoldwithoutdomesticmanufacturebythepurchaser,whereasin
Alaska,thesmallbusinesseswererequiredtoprocessonly50percentofthelogs
insteadof70percentbecauseofthelargevolumeofpulplogsoftenpresentin
sales.ThesesmallAlaskamills,however,tendedtodomostoftheprimary
manufacturingthemselvesbecausetheyreceivedhigherreturnsfromthemore
labor-intensive,value-addedproducts.
Alltimberfromtheseset-asidesalesmustnowreceivedomesticprocessing,since
thepassageintheearly1970sofFederalregulationsprohibitingtheexportoflogs
fromFederallyownedlands.Purchasesofset-asidetimberarenowsubjecttothe
samelimitationsasthoseaffectingtheNationalForests.
12
BriefSummaryofGeneralCounsel’sMemorandumofJuly
10inReplytotheQuestionsSubmittedbySenatorMorseof
OregonrelativetotheSecretary’sAuthoritytoSellTimber
fromtheNationalForestsforExport.[Dateunknown].
Washington,DC:U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,Officeof
theGeneralCounsel:4.
13
AppropriationsActof1926,Ch.286,44Stat.512.
14
SustainedYieldForestManagementActofMarch29,
1944,54Stat.132(asamended);16U.S.C.583-583i.
15
SmallBusinessSet-AsideActofJuly18,1958,72Stat.
384,asamended,pt.121.
5
TheLast25Years
AfterWorldWarII,timber,thenseenasanoverabundant,inexhaustibleresource,
quicklyenteredtheexportmarket.Theexportmarketwasservingtwopurposes:first,
itwaslookedonfavorablyasanoutletforexcessharvestedtimber;andsecond,the
additionaldemandledtoanincreaseinpricesinboththedomesticandforeignmar-
kets,therebyencouraginghigherreturns.Thisseeminglyunlimiteddemandandrising
priceseventuallyhadtopeak.
In1962,theColumbusDayStormoccurredthatleftabout11,190millionboardfeet
(mmbf;about65millionm3)ofblowdown,orsalvagetimber,inwesternWashington
andwesternOregon—muchmoretimberthancouldbefeasiblyconsumedbythe
domesticmarketatthattime.Asaresult,theindustryandFederalgovernment
cooperativelyencouragedtheexportofsurplusdomestictimberfromtheongoing
salvageoperationsafterthestorm.
16
TherapidgrowthinforeigndemandforrawlogsledtorisingU.S.concernsregarding
thedomesticimpactofthelogexports,especiallytoJapan.Totallogexportvolumes
hadgrownby560percentbetween1962and1967,to1600mmbf(about7.2million
m3),andexportvolumesfor1972wereforecastat4,500mmbf(about20millionm3).
Concernedthatanunharnessedlogexportpolicywouldjeopardizeaviabledomestic
woodprocessingindustryinthePacificNorthwest,woodproductmanufacturersurged
theDepartmentsofAgricultureandtheInteriortorestrictexports.Successive
meetings
occurredbetweenindustryandU.S.andJapanesegovernmentrepresentativesto
alleviatetheseconcernsandfindanequitablesolution.Asaresultoftheseefforts,
jointdeterminationswereissuedbytheSecretariesoftheInteriorandAgriculture.
JointdeterminationsbytheSecretariesofAgricultureandtheInterior—
Keyprovisions
Prohibitedexportofallbut350mmbf(about1.6millionm3)ofFederaltimber
fromwesternWashingtonandwesternOregon.
DeterminedPort-Orford-cedar(
Chamaecyparislawsoniana
(A.Murr.)Parl.)and
Alaska-cedar(
C.nootkatensis
(D.Don)Spach)
17
tobesurplustodomestic
needs.
IssuedApril16,1968,bytheSecretariesofAgricultureandtheInterior,thejoint
determinationsspecifiedaprimaryprocessingrequirementforlogsoriginatingfrom
WashingtonandOregon,effectiveApril22.
18
Theannouncedrationalebehindthejoint
determinationswastoensureanamplesupplyoftimbertomeetdomesticdemand
whileimprovingtheNationalForestsforfuturegenerations.Restrictingtheexportof
16
Exportrestrictionsdidnotyetexist,exceptforanegligible
numberofSmallBusinessSet-AsideSalesorfrom
cooperativeagreements,sothiswaspurelyamatterof
marketing.
17
AlsocommonlyknownasAlaskayellow-cedar.
18
TheauthorityfortheSecretaryofAgriculture’sactionis
containedintheOrganicAdministrationActofJune4,1897,
16U.S.C.475,551.InthecaseoftheSecretaryofthe
Interior,theOregonandCaliforniaRailroadActamendments
ofAugust28,1937,50Stat.874,providedtheenabling
legislation.
6
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested