theMontanaDepartmentofStateLandsproposalissuedspecificallytodefineand
prohibitsubstitutionofStatetimberforprivatelogsheadingforexport.Itisanact
prohibitingtheuseofunprocessedtimberfromStatelandsasasubstitutefor
unprocessedtimberexportedfromtheUnitedStates.
HR724amendedRule26.6.411
84
asanagreementnottoexportlogsfromState
lands.ThedefinitionswereadoptedfromFRCSRA1990.Therulestatesthatany
personpurchasingtimberfromtheStateofMontanamustsignanonexportagree-
menttocertifythattheyarenotexportinglogsfromtheirlandsorfromStatelands.
Thisagreementstatesthat:
85
...unprocessedtimber,asdefinedinthe[ForestResourcesConservation
andShortageRelief]Act,originatingfromlandsownedbytheStateof
MontanashallnotbeexportedfromtheUnitedStates,orbesold,traded,
exchanged,orotherwisegiventoanypersonunlessthatpersonagrees
nottoexportsuchunprocessedtimberfromtheUnitedStatesandagrees
torequiresuchprohibitioninanysubsequentresale.
SubstitutionoccurswhenapersonpurchasingtimberfromtheStateofMontanahas
exportedunprocessedtimberfromprivatelandsintheStateanytimeintheyearprior
tothepurchasedate.SurplusspeciesarethosedeemedsobytheSecretaryof
Commerce.
NoregulationshavebeenadoptedtoincorporateHR724todate.Thereisno
enforcementmechanismavailableeither,becauseofnegligibleexportactivity.
ExportRestrictions
forBritishColumbia
ThefirstcommercialrecordoflogexportsfromBritishColumbia,whichoccurredlate
inthe1800s,wasashipmentdestinedforPugetSound.
86
This,however,wasone
ofanegligiblenumberoflogexportsfromBritishColumbiasincetheProvincewas
recognizedin1869—aresultofprogressivelyrestrictivelogexportrestrictionsatthe
ProvincialandFederallevels.LogexportlimitationsandrestrictionsinBritish
Columbiawerefirstenactedwithin20yearsofitsbecomingaProvincewithinthe
Canadianconfederacy.Sincebeforethestartofthe20thcentury,logexportrestric-
tions,taxation,feesandpenaltieshavemerelyplayedvariationsonthethemeofex-
portbanswithoutadrasticallyprogressivechangeintheoverallscorethroughouttime.
AComparativeHistory
Legislativefoundation
Year
CanadianConstitutionAct
1867
Landownershipandlegislative
designations
Various
84
AgreementNottoExportStateLogs.Mont.AdminR.
26.6.411(1990).
85
Mont.AdminR.26.6.411,Sect(2)(a)(ii)(1990).
86
Shinn,1993:4(seefootnote6).
37
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TheCanadianFederalgovernmentenactedtheCanadianConstitutionAct,alsocalled
theBritishNorthAmericaAct,in1867.ThisactcreatedCanadaandassignedthe
Provincesmanagementofnaturalresources.Asaresult,whenBritishColumbia
formallybecameamemberoftheCanadianConfederacy4yearslater,theProvince
retainedhercontrolofthenaturalresourceslocatedwithin,whiletheFederalGovern-
mentremainedresponsibleforoverseeinginternationaltrade.Consequently,British
Columbiahasledthewayinregulatinglogexportsalmostsinceitsinceptionintothe
confederation.TheFederalGovernmenthasadoptedregulationsmimickingtheProv-
ince’stoobtainthesameobjectives,butthisdidnothappenuntilWorldWarII.
TheoverallpurposeoftheProvincialandFederalpolicieshasbeentomaintainand
enhanceProvincialdevelopment,providejobs,ensurethatallaspectsofthetimber
industryremainsolventduringtheupsanddownsoftheeconomy,andensurethat
essentiallyalltimbercutwithintheProvinceissubjecttothesameexportcontrols.
Althoughtheserestrictionsseemhighlyprotectionary,leniencyhasexistedduring
timesofrecession,essentiallybecauseharvestlevelstendtobegreaterthanthe
volumeindemand.Duringthesetimes,logexportshavebeenpermitted,oratleast
factoredintolegislationtomaintainemploymentlevelssothatforestproductswould
remainaviableindustry.Butthosecaseshavebeenrarehistorically.
Since1901,BritishColumbiahasdirectlyprohibitedexports,eventhoughtheProvince
employedtaxesandfeesasearlyas1888onlogsbounddirectlytotheexportmarket
todeterpotentialexporters.
WhethertheProvinceortheDominionexercisesexportcontroldependsonthelands
beingadministered.Therearefourrelevantcategories:
Designation
Definition
Control
Nonroyaltylands
Grantedbefore1887
Federalonly
Pre-1906land
Includethemajority
Federal
grantsor
ofprivatelands
Crowngrants
Post-1906land
Grantedafter1906
Provincial
grants;also
Crowngrants
Non-Provincial
Indianreserves,
Federal
lands
NationalDefense
Lands,andFederal
reserves
Historically,thelogexportrestrictionsofBritishColumbiahavebeenmonitoredmore
closelyandhavebeenmoreprohibitivethanthoseoftheUnitedStates,andthepri-
maryreasonrestsonthescaleoflandownershipintheProvincevs.theU.S.Pacific
Northwest.Oneprimaryfactorleadingtothesignificantdifferencesinscopeofthe
restrictionsisthepercentageoflandscoveredbytherestrictions.In1991,forestre-
sourceownershipinBritishColumbiawas95percentProvincial,1percentFederal,
and4percentprivate.
38
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AdifferenceinexportpolicybetweenthePacificNorthwestandBritishColumbiais
thattheProvincialgovernmentofBritishColumbiagenerallyimplementedtherestric-
tionsfirst,whichtheFederalGovernmenteventuallyadoptedforthecountry(although
sometimesupto35yearslater).Theprocesstendstohavebeentheoppositeinthe
UnitedStates,withFederallawssettingthestandardandStatessubsequently
instigating,oreventuallyadoptingbydecree,similarrestrictions.
ThissectionwillfirstdiscussBritishColumbialogexportrestrictionandthenhighlight
thelaterFederallegislation.MuchofthehistoryofCanadianFederalandProvincial
legislationisbasedonmaterialprovidedfromShinn(seefootnote6).
Keyprovisions
Year
BritishColumbiaLandAct
1891
BritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentAct
1901
BritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentAct
1903
TimberManufactureAct
1906
TimberManufactureAct
1909
BritishColumbiaForestAct
1912
BritishColumbiahascontinuallyrefinedandredesigneditslogsexportrestrictions
sinceitsfirstyearsasamemberoftheCanadianDominion.Theevolutionofexport
policieshasbeenbasedonensuringmanufacturewithintheProvinceandmaintain-
ingahealthyProvincialforestindustry.
Beginningin1888,justayearafterjoiningtheCanadianDominion,BritishColumbia
enacteditsfirstregulatoryventure:levyingataxonalllogsexportedfromtheProv-
ince.Amoredirectmethodofexportcontrol,however,quicklyfollowed.
TheBritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentof1891restrictedtheexportoflogscut
fromCrownlandstowithin-Provinceuse.ThentheBritishColumbiaLandActAmend-
mentActof1901amendedthe1891actbyaddingthepossibilityofallowingspecific
exceptiontoexportlogs.Yetwhilerecognizingthepossibilityofexportinglogsinthe
LandActof1901,thenextLandAct,theLandActof1903,extendedtheexportre-
strictionstoincludenonroyaltylands.ThisLandActimposedaconditionalrefundable
taxontimberfromnonroyaltylandstoberefundedifthetimberwasforlocaluseor
manufacture.(Thistaxeventuallywasdeclaredunconstitutionalin1926.)
RapidindustrygrowthsoonledtomorelegislationasCanadianshurriedtomeetthe
surgeinU.S.demandfortimberforconstructionaftertheSanFranciscofires.Toreg-
ulatetheboomingindustry,theTimberManufactureActof1906,alsoknownasthe
ForestAct,extendedtheexportbanofthe1891LandAmendmentActtoinclude
landsgrantedbytheCrownafterMarch12,1906,sothatlandssubjecttothePro-
vincialexportrestrictionswouldincludeareasgrantedinthefuture.Theactof1906,
however,didnotrenewtheexemptionclausepermittinglogexportsprovidedforin
theLandActAmendmentActof1901.Norestrictiononexportappliedtologsfrom
Federallandatthispoint(seefootnote86),althoughtothisday,nonroyaltylandsare
accountableonlyforexporttaxesandfees.AccordingtoShinn(seefootnote6),this
actistreatedinpolicydiscussionsastheinitialrestrictivepolicymeasureregarding
logexports.
EarlyProvincial
Regulations
39
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Theproductiongrowthin1906dramaticallyreverseditselfoverthenext3years.This,
coupledwithotherdeterioratingmarketconditions,ledtoapoorforesteconomy,and
demandfellprecipitously.Consequently,asacorrectivemeanstomaintainsomein-
dustryactivitywithintheProvince,theTimberManufactureActof1909wasenactedto
renewtheprovisionsof1906andaddtheexportexemptionpossibilitythathadexisted
intheBritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentActof1891.
By1912,theProvincialgovernmentrealizedtheneedforanorganizationtooversee
thetimberresourcesoftheProvince;thereforetheForestActof1912establishedthe
BritishColumbiaforestrybranch,whichalsoconsolidatedtheLandActAmendment
Actof1903andtheTimberManufactureAmendmentActof1909.The1912acten-
abledtheProvincialgovernmenttorestricttimbercutonCrownlandsgrantedafter
1906tousewithintheProvince,unlessthetimberwasspecificallyexemptedbythe
Lieutenant-GovernorinCouncil.Thelegislationhasremainedvirtuallyunchanged
since1909.
Keyprovisions
Year
TimberandRoyaltyAct
1914
BritishColumbiaForestActAmendmentAct
1916
OrderinCouncil
1918
WiththeonsetofWorldWarI,BritishColumbiapassedtheTimberandRoyaltyActof
1914,allowingtheLieutenant-Governortoissueanexemptionfromalllogexportre-
strictionstogainmorerevenuesfortheProvincialgovernment.Thisreleaseoftimber
wastohavebeendoneinconjunctionwitharoyaltytaximposedonexportsinanother
efforttomakemoneyfortheGovernment(seefootnote6).In1916,theForestAct
AmendmentActrenewedthisblanketexemptionoption.
Undertheauthorityoftheselaws,by1918theLieutenant-Governorhadorderedthe
speciesexemptionsbereimposedexceptforgrade3cedar.
87
Theselawsalsopro-
videdfortheformationoftheLogExportAdvisoryCommittee(LEAC),whosepurpose
wastoadvisetheLieutenant-Governoronexportexemptions.
TheseProvincialregulationsremainedinplaceuntilthemid-1970sandweremodels
forfutureFederallegislation,whichwasintroducedin1947,someofwhichsuper-
sededtheProvinciallegislation.
Keyprovisions
Year
BritishColumbiaForestAct
1974
BritishColumbiaForestAct
1978
GeneralOrder
1984
OrderinCouncilNo.1252
1987
OrderinCouncil
1988
BritishColumbiahistoricallyhashadvariouslevies,fees,andtaxes;however,through-
outthe1970sand1980s,extensiveincreasesinthefeesinlieuofexportwerein-
curredforlogexports.
ProvincialLegislation
ThroughWorldWarI
ProvincialLegislation:
RecentYears
87
Yellow-cedarorAlaska-cedar.Whetherwesternredcedar
wasincludedisnotclear.
40
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Thefirsttaxonlogspermittedforexportwaspassedin1888.Bythe1950s,the
ratewasC$0.50percunit(100cubicfeet;2.8m3),andby1973,itwasincreased
toC$2.00percunit.BythefollowingMay,thetaxesonlogexportsbecameC$2per
cunitforlog-gradepulpwood,C$5percunitforcottonwood,C$40percunitfor
cypress(yellow-cedar),andC$10percunitforallotherspecies.
The1970salsobroughtthefirstmajorchangesintheProvinciallegislationsince
WorldWarI.Section92oftheBritishColumbiaForestActof1978,readthat:
88
AlltimbercutonCrownlands,oronlandsgrantedafterthetwelfthdayof
March,1906,oronlandsheldunderpre-emptionrecord,shallbeusedin
theProvinceorbemanufacturedintheProvinceintoboards,deal,joists,
laths,shingles,orothersawnlumber,orintochemicalwood-pulporpaper,
exceptashereinafterprovided;andallloggingandmanufacturingcamps
orpremisesusedoroccupiedforanypurposeoforinconnectionwiththe
cuttingormanufactureofsuchtimbershallbelocatedintheProvince.
Sections95-97oftheactalsograntedtheLieutenant-GovernorinCounciltheright
toauthorizeexportsofpiles,poles,railwayties,crib-timber,woodchips,mechanical
woodpulpandanyother“unmanufacturedtimber...uponsuchtermsandconditions
asheseesfit”ifwithin-Provincemanufacturingproblemsduetotopographicalrea-
sonsoccurred.Withtheloomingrecession,however,legislatinglogexportrestrictions
becamemorefrequent.
TheForestActof1979elaboratedonexportexceptionqualificationstothewithin-
Provincemanufacturerule.Theactidentifiedlogexportexceptionsfortimbersurplus
todomesticneedwithnoeconomicallyfeasibleusewithintheProvince,orthatwould
otherwisebewastedfromdecayorlackofreforestationofanold,unmarketablestand.
Thenin1986,timberstandsintheMidCoast,NorthCoast,andQueenCharlotteTim-
berSupplyAreasofBritishColumbiaweredeterminedtobeuneconomicalbecause
ofage,disease,remoteness,andassociatedtransportationcoststoharvestandproc-
essthetimberwithintheProvince.Therefore,anOrderinCouncilwasissuedpro-
vidingforablanketexemptionfromwithin-Provincemanufacturefortheseareas.
Canadian
Regulations
FederallegislationregardinglogexportsdidnotexistuntilWorldWarII.Provincial
landgrantedbefore1906andFederallandwereregulatedonlybytheProvince;logs
were,hence,freelyexportableuntilthattime.CrownregulationsissuedduringWorld
WarII,however,appliedtoallBritishColumbialogexports.
Keyprovisions
Year
WarMeasuresAct(2acts)
1940
NationalEmergencyTransitionPower
Act(NETPA)
1945
ExportandImportPermitsAct
1947
ExportandImportsPermitAct
1970
ExportandImportAct
1974
FederalRegulations,
WorldWarIItoPresent
88
StatutesofBritishColumbia1978,c23,s135,136,137.
41
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ThefirstFederalactpassedwastheWarMeasuresAct,inJuly1940,toprohibitthe
exportofunmanufacturedDouglas-fir(
Pseudotsugamenziesii
(Mirb.)Franco).By
December1940,anotherWarMeasuresActexpandedthespeciesconcernedto
includealltruefirs(
Abies
spp.)andprohibitedtheexportofallunmanufactured
woodproductsunlessspecificallyexempted.
By1945,therestrictionswerewrittenintotheNationalEmergencyTransitionPower
Act(NETPA)andthenagainintotheExportandImportPermitsActof1947.The
ExportandImportActremainsthestatutorybasisforFederallogexportrestrictions
today.
SincetheenactmentoftheCanadianConstitutionActin1867,whichgrantedthe
ProvincesrightsovernaturalresourcesandtheCrowncontrolofinternationaltrade,
theProvincehadbeenincontrolofexportsofforestproducts.WhentheCanadian
governmentenactedtheExportandImportsPermitActof1970,
89
theFederalGov-
ernmentwasgrantedauthorityoverallexports,includingthosefromprivatelands.The
FederalGovernmentreturnedexportcontroloverProvinciallandstotheProvinces,
whileitretainedcontroloverallremaininglands(exceptforIndianreservelandsand
Crown-grantedlandsbefore1906).Timberfromtheseprivatelands,Indianreserves,
Federallands,andlandsgrantedbytheCrownbefore1906,whichhadbeenfreeto
exportlogs,werenowunderFederalrestrictions.AFederalexportpermitisnowre-
quiredforalllogsleavingCanada,andtheFederalauthoritiesacceptProvincialde-
cisionsontimberunderitsjurisdiction.
TheExportandImportActof1974changedthefocusfromoneofpromotingnational
security,whichhadbeencarriedalongsincetheExportImportActof1947,topromot-
ingdomesticmanufacturingviaexportrestrictions.
BritishColumbia
AgenciesandExport
Procedures
TheMinistryofForestsofBritishColumbiaisinchargeofdefiningtheregulations
associatedwiththelawsoftheProvince.TheFederalMinistryofForeignAffairs
andInternationalTraderegulatesexportsfortheentirecountry.InitiallytheLogEx-
portAdvisoryCommittee(LEAC)and,later,theTimberExportAdvisoryCommittee
(TEAC)playedanadvisoryroleintheissuanceofexportpermitstothosewhoqualify.
TheLEACwasformedin1918andincludedamixofloggers,exporters,manufac-
turers andmembersoftheBritishColumbiaForestService.Itreviewedpermitap-
plicationsandadvisedtheMinisterofForestsandtheLieutenant-Governoronwhether
anexportpermitshouldbegranted.Criteriafortheseexemptionshavebeenmodified
overtimeonspecies,surplus,renewability,sustainability,andmarketarea.
In1918,physicalsurplusofharvestedlogswasallthatwasneededtoestablishthe
needforapermit.Thecriteriathenevolvedsothatanapplicantneededtoprovethat
theharvestedtimberwasactuallysurplustotheirmarketareabyshowingevidenceof
refusalbythreemillstopurchaseharvestedtimber.Thirtyyearslater,LEACchanged
therequirementtothreerefusalsfrommillsactuallyusingthetypeoflogthepermit
89
ExportandImportsPermitAct,R.S.C.1970,C.E-17,as
amended.
42
requestwasforandthatthelogsmusthavebeenavailabletodomesticbuyersforat
least60days.Thisphysicalsurplusdeterminant,availability,wasloweredto30days
in1969,andthento2weeksofadvertisinginappropriatepaperswithoutreceivinga
purchaseofferin1975.
90
Thisremainstruetoday.Federalpolicyalsochangedin
1975tomirrortheLEACchangeregarding2-weekadvertising.
TheFederalGovernmenttookaseatonLEACin1968.Thenin1969,theCanadian
MinistryofIndustry,Trade,andCommercechangedthepermittingprocesssothat
theFederallegislationandtheProvince’swouldbemoresimilar.Thepermitting
applicationandapprovalprocessisstilloverseenbytheProvince,althoughallex-
portsrequireaFederalexportpermitaswell.Ingeneralpractice,iftheProvincial
Lieutenant-Governorissuesalogexportpermit,thentheFederalDepartmentof
Industry,Trade,andCommercealsoissuesone.
91
Timberintendedforexportfrom
landsgrantedbytheCrownbefore1906(i.e.,notsubjecttoProvincialrestrictions)
aregrantedFederalpermitsontherecommendationofLEAC.In1975,theCanadian
GovernmentharmonizedtheirrestrictionswiththeProvince’sandhassincekeptup
withProvincialchanges.
Toexamineexemptionsandblanketapplications,asof1975,LEACmettoadviseon
permitapplicationsforsurplustimberfromProvinciallandsgrantedafter1906and
fromlandsrestrictedbyFederalpolicy.ThentheProvincialLieutenant-Governorin
CouncilandtheFederalMinisterofIndustry,Trade,andCommercemadethefinal
decisionastowhetherthetimberwasactuallysurplustoProvincialneedsorwasto
receiveprimaryprocessing.
In1984,theMinisterofForestsrefinedhisinterpretationoftheBritishColumbiaFor-
estActof1979,whichbasedexemptiononsurplus,economics,anduse.Thisre-
visionprovidedforexemptionsofstandinggreentimbertobeissuedforapercent-
ageofhemlock-balsam(hemlockandtruefirs)stands,ifitcouldbedemonstratedthat
harvestingwouldbeuneconomicalunlessthelogswerepredestinedtoreceiveda
premiumpriceontheexportmarket.Tobeapprovedfortheexemption,thelogshad
tocomefromremoteanduneconomicallyharvestableareasandhadtobeharvested
aspartofotheroperations.
TheLEACwasdisbandedin1986anditsadvisoryfunctionsgiventoTEAC.The
initialpurposeofTEACwastorecommendpermitstoexportstandinggreentimber
basedoneconomicneed.MembershipinTEACincludesindividualsinthelogtrade
communityandoperatesasanadvisorycommitteetothisday.
CurrentProcedures
TimberfromlandsgrantedbytheCrownpriortoMarch12,1906(exceptwhenthe
timberhasbeenincludedinatreefarmlicense),isconsideredexportableunderpart
12oftheForestActof1979andtherebynotsubjecttoProvincialexportcontrols.
Accordingtotheact,thetimberisnotsubjecttotherestrictionsandexemptionproc-
ess.Federalauthorities,however,requirethataProvincialexportpermitisobtained.
90
Shinn1993:8(seefootnote6).
91
Austin1969:13(seefootnote3);alsoShinn1993(see
footnote6).
43
Exemptionregulation
92
isbasedonthe1979ForestAct:
TheLieutenant-Governormayexemptfromuseormanufacturewithinthe
Province,aspeciesoftimberoravolumeoftimberforaperiodorsuc-
cessiveperiodsoftime,whetherstandingorfelled.Exemptionsofhar-
vestedvolumesover15000cubicmeters[3.3millionbd.ft.]orexemption
priortoharvestrequiresapprovalbytheLieutenant-GovernorinCouncil
throughanOrderinCouncil.
TheLieutenant-GovernorinCouncilmayexemptharvestedorstandingtimber.The
Ministercanexemptonlyharvestedtimberonapplicationslessthan15000cubic
meters(3.3millionbd.ft.)involume.Accordingtotheact,theMinisterofForests
mayexemptvolumesofharvestedtimberforexportaslongastheydonotexceed
15000cubicmeters(cum;3.3millionbd.ft.).Toestablishwhetherharvestedtimber
issurplustolocalneedsandmaybeexported,thelocationfromwherethetimber
originatedmustbeknown.Thisisbecausetimberfromthecoastissubjectto
inclusionintheVancouverRegionalBi-WeeklyExportList,andtimberfromtheinterior
mustgothroughaprescribedformofsurplustesting.Ifafterthistimberhasbeen
advertisedandreceivesnooffers,orhasbeenqualifiedassurplustimber,the
applicationissubmittedtoTEACforreviewandrecommendations.
SubstitutionregulationsexistinBritishColumbia,aswell,althoughtheyarenotas
restrictiveasthoseintheUnitedStates.AccordingtocurrentTEACpolicy,TEACwill
not
93
...consideroffersforlogsbeingadvertised...byanycompanyorindividual
whohasexportedlogsdirectlyorindirectlyfromtheProvinceforthepre-
viousthreemonths...norwilltheyrecommendanyapplicationsforexport
fromacompanyorindividualwhohassubmittedavalidofferforlogsbeing
advertisedontheBi-Weeklylistforathreemonthperiod.
Allstandingtimberapplications,wheretheMinistryhasconcludedthatforcoastal
timberunusualcircumstanceswarrantsuchanexemption,arereviewedbyTEAC.
General(orblanket)standingtimberexemptionsusuallyspecifyvolume,speciesand
timberqualityeligibleforexport,andinmostcases,theyencompassoneormoregeo-
graphicareasoftheProvince.
94
Long-termstandingtimberexemptionsalsoexist.
TheytooaregrantedbytheLieutenant-GovernorthroughanOrderinCouncil.A1990
OrderinCouncil,exemptingstandingtimberforMidCoast,NorthCoast,andQueen
CharlotteIslandmarketloggers,hasexpiredwithoutrenewal.
Feesinlieuofmanufacturestillexistandmustbepaidbyallwhoexporttimberfrom
Provinciallands.Forconiferoussawlogsmeetingthesurpluscriteria,afeeof100
percentoftheexportpremium(thedifferencebetweentheexportpriceandthe
domesticprice)mustbepaid.Forpulplogs,thefeeis40percent.Iftheexportex-
emptionisbasedoneconomiccriteriaoronusagecriteria,thefeeisthen15percent.
AminimumofC$1percummustbepaid.
92
BritishColumbiaMinistryofForests.1992.Provinceof
BritishColumbiaProceduresforExportofTimber.20700-02,
ExportProceduresDocument.October14:2.
93
BritishColumbiaMinistryofForests.1992:7(seefootnote92).
94
BritishColumbiaMinistryofForests.1992:8(seefootnote92).
44
AllProvincialfeesmustbepaidbythosewhohavebeenapprovedforanexportper-
mitbytheProvince.TheFederalGovernmentapprovestheexportexemption(asit
usuallydoes),andchargesaC$15Federalexportpermitfee.TheFederalfeemust
alsobepaidfortimberexportedfromlandsthatarenotsubjecttotheProvincialrules.
LogExportsFromIndian
LandsinBritish
Columbia
Indianbands
95
inBritishColumbiahavebeengiventherightstousetheresources
onfederallyownedlandwithinBritishColumbiaandtherestoftheDominion.Indian
timberregulationswerepromulgatedundertheIndianAct.Essentiallythetimberis
ownedbytheFederalGovernmentandissharedforuseandbenefitoftheIndians.
Rightstousethetimberareownedbythebandasawhole,whereeachmemberhas
equalrightstothetimber.Theproceedsfromanysale,forexportorotherwise,there-
foregotoatrustaccountfortheband,nottoaparticularindividual.
ThelandsareunderthejurisdictionoftheCanadianDepartmentofIndianandNorth-
ernAffairsandarenotrestrictedbytherulesandregulationsoftheBritishColumbia
ForestService.Therefore,thebanddoesnothavetogetapprovalforaProvincial
permitbeforeapplyingforaFederalpermit.Ifthebandwantstoexportgoods,they
mustdosothroughtheCanadianDepartmentofForeignAffairsinOttawa.Anaddi-
tionalapprovalisrequiredfromtheDepartmentofIndianandNorthernAffairsafter
thebandhasproventhatthereisnolocaluseforsuchtimber.
ImportRestrictions
Keydevelopments—
EarlyAnimalPlantandHealthInspectionService
(APHIS)ImportRestrictions
APHISLogImportRestrictionsSpecifictoNewZealandandChile
GeneralizedRulesforLogandLumberImports
MoratoriumonImportsunderAPHISRules
SinceitsEuropeanoccupancy,NorthAmericahasseentheaccidentalimportation
ofmorethan300insectsanddiseasesaffectingtreesandshrubs.Otherinsectsand
diseaseshaveaffectedfarmcropsandlivestock.Topreventfurtherincursions,the
AnimalandPlantHealthInspectionService(APHIS)wasestablishedintheU.S.De-
partmentofAgriculture.
EarlyAPHISregulationprohibitinglogimportsintotheUnitedStatesstemmedfrom
detailedpestriskassessments,whichfoundthatdangerousplantpestscouldbe
introducedtodomesticstandswiththeimportationoflogscontainingsuchthreats.
LogimportsintotheUnitedStatesfromcountriesotherthanCanadawereinlimited
quantities,though,becauseofthevastresourcesavailablehere,andtherewere
diseconomiesofscaleforanyonewhoundertooksuchaventure.TheAPHISimport
regulationsthereforecalledforinspectiononlyatportofarrival,followedbytreatment
orreexportifcertainplantpestswerefound.
AstheavailabletimbersupplyintheWesternUnitedStatesandCanadahasde-
clined,demandhasshiftedtonontraditionalsources.Woodmanufacturersarebegin-
ningtousetheforeignsourcestooffsetexpectedharvestreductions,andtoprovide
rawmaterialsfortheirfacilitiesatpricescompetitivewithorbetterthandomestic
UnitedStates
95
IndianbandscorrespondtoU.S.NativeAmericantribes.
45
prices.Thesources,particularlyNewZealandandChile,havedevelopedacommer-
cialinterestandexpertiseinforestmanagementandareenteringthelogexportmar-
ketwithincreasinglylargevolumesoftimberatcompetitiveprices.
AsdomesticmillsturnedtonewmarketsforviablesubstitutesforthedecliningNorth-
westtimbersupply,APHISrecognizedtheneedtoprotectthedomesticforeststands
frompeststhatmaybeimportedwiththetimberfromnontraditionalregions.Thepri-
marysourceoftimberhadbecome(andremains)NewZealand,soapestriskassess-
mentforradiatapine(
Pinusradiata
)andDouglas-firfromNewZealandwascon-
ductedbytheUSDAForestService.Itwasfoundthatfumigationandheattreatment
wouldberequiredto,respectively,killtheinsectsanddestroythefungifoundinthe
logsbeforetheywereimported.Asaresult,APHISamendeditsforeignquarantine
regulationstospecifyanexceptionforlogimportsfromNewZealandintheformofan
interimrule.
GuidelinesweresetbyAPHISforcareandhandlingofthelogsuntiltheyreceived
processingatafacilityintheUnitedStates.Beforebeingeligibleforimportintothe
UnitedStates,thetimberhadtobesawnfromlive,healthytreesthatwerefreefrom
decay,whichhadbeendebarkedtohelpidentifydeepboringwoodpestinfestations
andtoremoveotherpestshousedinthebarkofthetrees.Theregulationsalso
requiredthatthetimberbefumigatedwithmethylbromidewithin45daysoffelling.
Atthetimeofimport,theimportermusthaveheldanimportpermitoracertificate
issuedbytheNewZealandPlantProtectionServicesayingthatthelogshadbeen
treatedasrequiredbeforeimportation,withdocumentationstatingthetype,quantity,
andoriginofthelogsandverifyingthattherequiredphytosanitationtreatmentwas
done.
Animportinspectormightthenvisuallyinspectthelogsandevenrequireadditional
treatmentifthelogsdidnotmeetthenecessaryrequirements.Afterinspection,the
logswererequiredtogodirectlytothefacilitywheretheyweretobesawnandbe
heattreatedimmediately.
WithimportsfromChileincreasing,andinvolvingthesamespeciesasfromNew
Zealand,APHISextendedandmodifiedtheNewZealandprocedurestoembrace
bothsourcenations.
96
Thebroadenedrulesalsoaddedelementsofleniency.For
example,certificatescouldnowbesignedbyanauthorizedgovernmentemployee,
notspecificallyaplantinspectionperson,ashadbeenrequiredearlier.Inaddition,it
allowedwoodproductstobetransportedinthesameholdorsealedcontainerwith
anywoodarticles.APHISdidstipulatethatatleast7daysadvancenoticehadtobe
givenbeforethearrivalintotheport.
In1995APHISexpandedtoallsourcecountriestheirimportrulesforunmanufactured
woodarticles.
97
Thebroadenedrulesaddressedheattreatment,fumigation,irradia-
tion,andothermeansofpestcontrol.SoftwoodlogsfromsourcesotherthanCanada,
96
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,AnimalandPlantHealth
InspectionService.1993.ImportationofMontereypinelogs
fromChileandMontereypineandDouglas-firlogsfromNew
Zealand.FederalRegister58,No.215(November9,1993):
59348-59353.
97
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,AnimalandPlantHealth
InspectionService.1995.Importationoflogs,lumber,and
otherunmanufacturedwoodarticles.FederalRegister60,No.
101(May25,1995):27665-27682.
46
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested