1.5. BMP
19
Figure1.7:TheBitMapHeader
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20
CHAPTER1. IMAGEFILEINPUTANDOUTPUT
TheBMPcolortablehasfourbytesineachcolortableentry.Thebytes
arefortheblue,green,andredcolorvalues.Thefourthbyteispaddingand
isalwayszero. Fora256grayshadeimage,thecolortableis4x256bytes
long.Theblue,green,andredvaluesequaloneanother.
ThenalpartoftheBMPleistheimagedata.Thedataisstoredrow
byrowwithpaddingontheendofeachrow.Thepaddingensurestheimage
rows aremultiplesoffour. . Thefour,justlikein n the colortable,makes it
easiertoreadblocksandkeeptrackofaddresses.
1.5.1 TheBMPCode
ThecodeinListing1.3readsimagearraysfromandwritesthemtoBMP
les. Thecodeworkswitheight-bitgrayscaleBMPimages.Itsitsonelevel
closertothelesthanthegeneralroutinesgiveninlisting1.1.
Listing1.4(cips.hshownlater)containsthe#includeles,constantsand
thedatastructures. Thestructuresbmpleheaderandbitmapheader r hold
theinformationfromtheBMPleheaderandbitmapheader.
Listing1.3beginswiththefunctionsthatreadtheessentialheaderinfor-
mationfromaBMPle. Thefunctionread
bmp
le
headerreadstherst
informationintheBMPle.Thefunctionread
bm
headerreadsthebitmap
headerinformation. Thefunctionread
color
tablereadstheessentialcolor
table.
Nextcomesreadingimagedatafromlewithread
bmp
image.Thiscalls
theabovefunctionstolearntheheaderinformation. Itseekstothestartof
theimagedataandreadsthedataonebyteatatime.Thisfunctionusesthe
colortableinformationtoconvertthereadbytetothepropershortvalue.If
necessary, ip
image
arrayiscalledtoturntheimageright-sideup.
Thenextfunctionscreateablank BMPleondisk. . Thefunctioncre-
ate
bmp
le
if
neededchecksthelenamegivenitdoes
not
exist.Ifitdoes
not,create
bmp
le
if
neededcallscreate
allocate
bmp
letocreateandll
the blank BMP le. . It t writes thenecessary header information andcolor
tablebeforewritingzerostothele.
Thefunctionwrite
bmp
imagewritesanarray ofnumbers intoaBMP
le. First,itreadstheheaderinformationandseekstothecolortableloca-
tion. Afterwritingthecolortabletole,itloopsovertheheightandwidth
ofthearrayofnumbers. Itwritestheimagedatatodiskbyllingabuer
withonerowofimagedataatatimeandwritingthisbuertodisk.
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1.6. ASIMPLEPROGRAM
21
Theremainingfunctionsinlisting1.3areutilities.Thefunctionis
a
bmp
looksatalenameandthentheinformationintheleheadertodetermine
ifaleisaBMPimagele. Thefunctioncalculate
padcalculatestheextra
bytespaddedtotheendofarowofnumberstokeepthefour-byteboundaries
inplace. Thefunction n equate
bmpleheaders sets the essentialle header
informationequalfortwoheaders,and ip
image
array ipstheimagenum-
bersright-sideup.
1.6 ASimpleProgram
Listing1.5showshowasimpleprogramcanusetheI/Oroutinespresented
earlier. This s listingshowstheround d programthat t roundsoapartofan
inputle andstoresittoanoutputle. . Thebasicuseofthis s programis
tocreateanewle that containsthedesiredpartofanexistingle. . The
userspeciesthedesiredstartingpointintheexistingleandthesizeofthe
outputle.
Theprogramrstinterpretsthecommandlinetoobtainthelenames
andoutput image size. . It t calls theis
aroutinesto determinethetype of
lebeingused. Thenext t callscreate the desiredoutputle. . Calls s tothe
previously discussed d routines allocated d two arrays of shorts and read the
inputimage. Theloopoverout
lengthandout
widthcopythedesiredpart
oftheinputimagetoanoutputimagearray.Thenalcallswritetheoutput
imagetotheoutputleandfreethememoryusedbythetwoimagearrays.
1.7 ConvertingBetweenTIFFandBMP
Thenaltwolistingsinthischaptershowshortprogramsthatconvertbe-
tweentheTIFFandBMPimageleformats.Listing1.6showsthetif2bmp
program.Itchecksthecommandlineparameterstoensuretheuserentered
theproperlenames.TheprogramobtainsthesizeoftheinputTIFFimage
le,allocatesanimagearrayofthatsize,andcreatesanoutputBMPimage
lealsoofthatsize. It t thenreadstheimagedatafrom the inputleand
writesittotheoutputle.
Listing1.7showsthebmp2tiprogram. Thisprogramissimilartothe
tif2bmp program described above. . It t reads data from m aBMPimage e le,
creates a a TIFF image e le, reads the data a from the BMP image le, and
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CHAPTER1. IMAGEFILEINPUTANDOUTPUT
writesittotheTIFFle.
1.8 Conclusions
This chapter has discussed image e le e input t and d output. . Image e I/O is a
fundamentalpartofimageprocessing. Imagesareeasiertondtodaythan
everbefore.ThesecondeditionofthisbookisbasedonthenewimageI/O
routinesdescribedinthischapter.Theseroutinesallowtheimageprocessing
programmertoconcentrateonimageprocessingoperators.ThecurrentI/O
routinesworkwith8-bitgrayscaleTIFFimagesand8-bitgrayscaleBMP
images. Inexpensivesoftware e productsareavailable toconvert almostany
imagetooneoftheseformats.
1.9 References
1.1.\TIFFRevision6.0,"Final,June3,1993,AldusDevelopersDesk,Aldus
Corporation,411FirstAvenueSouth,Seattle,WA98104-2871,(206) 628-
6593.Seealso
http:www.adobe.comsupportservicedevrelationsPDFSTNTIFF6.pdf.
1.2. \EncyclopediaofGraphics s FileFormats," JamesD.Murray,William
vanRyper,O’ReillyandAssociates,1996.
1.3. \TheBMPFileFormat: : PartI,"DavidCharlap,Dr. Dobb’sJournal,
March1995.
1.4. \TheBMPFileFormat:PartII,"DavidCharlap,Dr. Dobb’sJournal,
April1995.
1.5. ftp://ftp.mv.com/pub/ddj/1995/1995.03/bmp.zip
1.6. ftp://ftp.mv.com/pub/ddj/1995/1995.04/bmp.zip
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Chapter2
ViewingandPrintingImage
Numbers
2.1 Introduction
Imageprocessingis avisualtask. . Therefore,displayingimages s invarious
formsisanecessity.Thischapterpresentstechniquestodisplaythenumbers
inanimage onascreen, , print t the numbers inanimage,anddisplayand
printtheimagelikeaphotograph.
2.2 DisplayingImageNumbers
Therearetimes whenthebesttechniqueanimageprocessorcanuseis to
lookattherawimagenumbers.Thenumberstellexactlywhatishappening.
Theyshowwhattheimageoperatorsaredoingtotheimage.
Therstmethodoflookingatimagenumbersistodisplaythemonthe
screen.Therstprogrampresentedinthischaptershowstheimagenumbers
onaDOStextwindowonaPC.Thiswouldalsoworkinatextwindowon
aUNIXmachine.
Listing2.1presentstheshowiprogram.Itreadstheimagenumbersfrom
theinputleandshowsaportionofthenumbersonthescreen. Theuser
canalterwhichpartoftheimageisdisplayedviakeystrokes.Thisisashort,
simpleprogramthatisquiteusefulwhentryingtohaveaquickviewofthe
imagenumbers.
23
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24
CHAPTER2. VIEWINGANDPRINTINGIMAGENUMBERS
2.3 PrintingImageNumbers
Printingimagenumbersonpapergivestheimageprocessorsomethingnoth-
ingelsewill|ahardcopyoftheimageinyourhandtostudy.Theprogram
inlisting2.2takestheeasy routebydumpingalltheimagenumbersto a
textle. Commonwordprocessors s candothework ofprintingtopaper.
Whentheimageexceedspagewidth(whichhappensalmost allthe time),
theuser canadjust fontsize andpage orientationandresorttothattried
andtruetechniqueoftapingpagestogether.
Listing 2.2showsthe dumpi i program. . It t reads theentireinput image
intoanarrayandwritesthenumbersineachlinetoabuer. Theprogram
writeseachbueredlineofnumberstoatextle.
2.4 ViewingandPrintingImages
Viewingandprintingimages likephotographs is easier today thaneverin
the past. . Discretion n is thebetter part ofvalor,so Ioptedoutof writing
viewing and printing programs s for the Windows s environment. . There e are
many excellent programs available atlittleor no cost. . As s inchapter 0, , I
recommendVuePrintfromHamrickSoftware(http://www.hamrick.com).
Thisapproachalsoimprovesportability.UsersofUNIXsystemscanalso
ndfreeorinexpensiveimageviewersandprinters.
Wordprocessorsaremuchbettertodaythanveyearsago. Almostany
wordprocessorcanimportale andprint italoneandinadocument. . It
seemsalongtimeagowhenthatwasnotpossible. ThatiswhyIstruggled
withphotographingCRTdisplaysandincludedthosephotographsintherst
editionofthisbook.Thoselessthanwonderfulpicturesareabsentfromthis
edition. Thepublisher,andalmostanyoneelse,cannowimporttheimage
lesintoapublishingpackagewithmuchbetterresults.
Usewhatisavailableinthemarketplacetoviewandprintimages. This
continueswith the spiritof the CImage Processing System. . Concentrate
onimageoperatorsandleavethedetailsofimageI/O(includingdisplay)to
someoneelse.
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2.5. CONCLUSIONS
25
2.5 Conclusions
Thischapterhasdiscussedmethodsofviewinganimage.Often,thereisno
substituteforlookingattherawimagenumbers. Thischapterpresenteda
programtoseethenumbersonthescreenandanotheronethatdumpsthe
imagenumberstoatextle. Wordprocessorscanprintthosenumbersto
paper for examination. . Viewingandprintingimages s in visualformat has
beenlefttoothers.Inexpensiveprogramsthatdisplayimagesonthescreen
are available. . Today’s s word processors are muchmore powerfulthanve
yearsago.Theycanimportandprintimagestopaper.
26
CHAPTER2. VIEWINGANDPRINTINGIMAGENUMBERS
Chapter3
Halftoning
3.1 Introduction
Black andwhiteprintersput grayshade images onpaperviathepresence
orabsenceofblackinkonpaper. Printersdonotcontaininkwithvarying
shadesofgray. Theseblackandwhiteoutputdevicescreatetheillusionof
shadesofgrayviahaltoning.
This chapterpresentsahalftoningalgorithmthat convertsagrayscale
imageintoanimagecontainingonly1sand0s.Theimagedisplaysourcesof
chapter2canoutputtheresultingimage.
Thischapteralsopresentsaprogramthatdumpsthe1/0imagetoatext
leasspacesandasterisks.Awordprocessorcanprintthattextleallowing
theusertomakealargewalldisplayofanimage.
3.2 TheHalftoningAlgorithm
Figure3.1showsthebasichalftoningalgorithm.Reference[3.1]isthesource
of theoriginalalgorithm. . The e basis ofthe algorithm isan error-diusion
technique. Whenthe\error"reaches s acertain value,turnapixelonand
resettheerror. Iftheerrorisnotgreatenough,leavethepixelturnedo.
Errors result from approximating a gray shade image with only ones and
zeros.
Figure3.1showstheinputimageIwithRrowsandCcolumns.E
p
(m;n)
isthesumoftheerrors propagatedtoposition(m,n)duetoearlier1or0
assignments.E
g
(m;n)isthetotalerrorgeneratedatlocation(m,n).C(I;J)
27
28
CHAPTER3. HALFTONING
Define:
I(R,C) - - input image e with R R rows and d C C columns
Ep(m,n) - sum of f the errors s propogated to o position (m,n) ) due
to prior r assignments
Eg(m,n) - the total error r generated at t position (m,n).
C(i,j) - - the error distribution function n with I I rows and J
columns
1. Set t Ep(m,n) ) = = Eg(m,n) ) = = 0 for R R rows and d C C columns
2. loop p m=1,R
3. loop p n=1,C
4. Calculate e the e total l propogated error at (m,n) due to
prior assignments
5. Sum m the current t pixel value e and d the total propogated
error: T T = = I(m,n) ) + Ep(m,n)
6. IF F T T > > threshold
THEN do o steps s 7. . and d 8.
ELSE do o steps s 9. . and d 10.
7. Set t pixel l (m,n) on
8. Calculate e error generated at t current t location
Eg(m,n) = = T T - - 2*threshold
9. Set t pixel l (m,n) off
10. Calculate error generated at t current t location
Eg(m,n) = = threshold
3. end d loop over n
2. end d loop over m
Figure3.1:TheBasicHalftoningAlgorithm
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