edited by M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock (Academic Press, San Diego,
1998), Chap. 9, pp. 263–277.
6 V. V. Muzychenko and S. A. Rybak, “Amplitude of resonance sound scat-
tering by a ﬁnite cylindrical shell in a ﬂuid,” Akust. Zh. 32, 129–131 (1986)
[Sov. Phys. Acoust. 32, 79–80 (1986)].
7 M. Stremel and T. Carolus, “Experimental determination of the ﬂuctuating
pressure on a rotating fan blade,” on the CD-ROM: Berlin, March 14–19,
Collected Papers, 137th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America
and the 2nd Convention of the European Acoustics Association (ISBN
3-9804458-5-1, available from Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Akustik, Fach-
bereich Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany), pa-
8 ANSI S12.60-2002 (R2009) American National Standard Acoustical Perfor-
mance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools (American
National Standards Institute, New York, 2002).
2. Alphabetical bibliographic list style
American National Standards Institute (2002). ANSI S12.60 (R2009)
American National Standard Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design
Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools (American National Standards
Institute, New York).
Ando, Y. (1982). “Calculation of subjective preference in concert halls,” J.
Acoust. Soc. Am. 71(Suppl. 1), S4–S5.
Bacon, S. P. (2000). “Hot topics in psychological and physiological acous tics:
Compression,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 2864(A).
Flatté, S. M., Dashen, R., Munk, W. H., Watson, K. M., and Zachariasen, F.
(1979). Sound Transmission through a Fluctuating Ocean (Cambridge
University Press, London), pp. 31–47.
Hamilton, W. R. (1837). “Third supplement to an essay on the theory of
systems of waves,” Trans. Roy. Irish Soc. 17(Pt. 1), 1–144; reprinted in: The
Mathematical Papers of Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Vol. II: Dynam ics,
edited by A. W. Conway and A. J. McConnell (Cambridge University Press,
London), pp. 162–211.
Helmholtz, H. (1859). “Theorie der Luftschwingungen in Röhren mit of-
fenen Enden” (“Theory of air oscillations in tubes with open ends”), J. reine
ang. Math. 57, 1–72.
Kim, H.-S., Hong, J.-S., Sohn, D.-G., and Oh., J.-E. (1999). “Development of
an active mufﬂer system for reducing exhaust noise and ﬂow restriction in a
heavy vehicle,” Noise Control Eng. J. 47, 57–63.
Simpson, H. J., and Houston, B. H. (2000). “Synthetic array measurements
for waves propagating into a water-saturated sandy bottom for a smoothed
and roughened surface,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 2329–2337.
van Bergeijk, W. A., Pierce, J. R., and David, E. E., Jr. (1960). Waves and the
Ear (Doubleday, Garden City, NY), Chap. 5, pp. 104–143.
Other examples may be found in the reference lists of
papers recently published in the Journal.
D. Figure captions
The illustrations in the Journal have ﬁgure captions
rather than ﬁgure titles. Clarity, rather than brevity, is de-
sired, so captions can extend over several lines. Ideally, a
caption must be worded so that a casual reader, on skimming
an article, can obtain some indication as to what an illustra-
tion is depicting, without actually reading the text of the
article. If an illustration is taken from another source, then
the caption must acknowledge and cite that source. Various
examples of captions can be found in the articles that appear
in recent issues of the Journal.
If the ﬁgure will appear in black and white in the printed
edition and in color online, the statement “(Color online)”
should be added to the ﬁgure caption. For color ﬁgures that
will appear in black and white in the printed edition of the
Journal, the reference to colors in the ﬁgure may not be
included in the caption, e.g., red circles, blue lines.
The section giving acknowledgments must not be num-
bered and must appear following the concluding section. It
is preferred that acknowledgments be limited to those who
helped with the research and with its formulation and to
agencies and institutions that provided ﬁnancial support.
Ad ministrators, administrative assistants, associate editors,
and persons who assisted in the nontechnical aspects of
the manuscript preparation may also be acknowledged. In
many cases, sponsoring agencies require that articles give
an ac knowledgment and specify the format in which the
acknowl edgment must be stated—doing so is fully acceptable.
Gen erally, the Journal expects that the page charges will be
honored for any paper that carries an acknowledgment to a
F. Mathematical equations
Authors are expected to use computers with appropriate
software to typeset mathematical equations.
Authors are also urged to take the nature of the actual
layout of the journal pages into account when writing math-
ematical equations. A line in a column of text is typically 60
characters, but mathematical equations are often longer. To
ensure that their papers look attractive when printed, authors
must seek to write sequences of equations, each of which ﬁts
into a single column, some of which deﬁne symbols appear ing
in another equation, even if such results in a greater number
of equations. If an equation whose length will ex ceed that
of a single column is unavoidable, then the authors must
write the equation so that it is neatly breakable into distinct
segments, each of which ﬁts into a single column. The casting
of equations in a manner that requires the type setting to revert
to a single column per page (rather than two columns per
page) format must be assiduously avoided. To make sure that
this possibility will not occur, authors familiar with desk-top
publishing software and techniques may ﬁnd it convenient to
temporarily recast manuscripts into a form where the column
width corresponds to 60 text characters, so as to see whether
none of the line breaks within equations will be awkward.
Equations are numbered consecutively in the text in
the order in which they appear, the number designation is in
parentheses and on the right side of the page. The numbering
of the equations is independent of the section in which they
appear for the main body of the text. However, for each
appendix, a fresh numbering begins, so that the equations in
Appendix B are labeled (B1), (B2), etc. If there is only one
appendix, it is treated as if it were Appendix A in the num-
bering of equations.
G. Phonetic symbols
The phonetic symbols included in a JASA manuscript
should be taken from the International Phonetic
Alphabet (IPA), which is maintained by the International
Phonetic Association, whose home page is https://www.
internationalphoneticassociation.org. The display of the most
recent version of the alphabet can be found at https://www.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 138, No. 3, September 2015
Information for Contributors 625
The total set of phonetic symbols that can be used by
AIP Publishing during the typesetting process is the set
included among the Unicode characters. This includes most
of the symbols and diacritics of the IPA chart, plus a few
compiled combinations, additional tonal representations, and
separated diacritics. A list of all such symbols is given in
the ﬁle phonsymbol.pdf which can be downloaded by going
to the JASA website http://scitation.aip.org/content/asa/
journal/jasa/info/authors and then clicking on the item List of
Phonetic Symbols. This ﬁle gives, for each symbol (displayed
in 3 different Unicode fonts, DoulosSIL, GentiumPlus, and
CharisSILCompact): its Unicode hex ID number, the Unicode
character set it is part of, its Unicode character name, and
its IPA deﬁnition (taken from the IPA chart). Most of these
symbols and their Unicode numbers are also available from
Professor John Wells of University College London at http://
without the Unicode character names and character set names.
The method of including such symbols in a manuscript
is to use, in conjunction with a word processor, a Unicode-
compliant font that includes all symbols required. Fonts that
are not Unicode-compliant should not be used. Most computers
come with Unicode fonts that give partial coverage of the IPA.
Some sources where one can obtain Unicode fonts for Windows,
MacOS, and Linux with full IPA coverage are http://www.
phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/ipa-unicode.htm and http://scripts.
information about which fonts contain a desired symbol set can
be found at http://www.alanwood.net/unicode/fontsbyrange.
html#u0250 and adjacent pages at that site. While authors
may use any Unicode-compliant font in their manuscript, AIP
Publishing reserves the right to replace the author’s font with
a Unicode font of its choice (currently one of the SIL fonts
Doulos, Gentium, or Charis, but subject to change in the future).
For LaTeX manuscripts, EM’s LaTeX-processing
environment (MikTeX) supports the use of TIPA fonts. TIPA
fonts are available through the Comprehensive TeX Archive
Network at http://www.ctan.org/ (download from http://www.
Each ﬁgure should be manifestly legible when reduced
to one column of the printed journal page. Figures requiring
the full width of a journal page are discouraged, but excep-
tions can be made if the reasons for such are sufﬁciently
evident. The inclusion of ﬁgures in the manuscript should be
such that the manuscript, when published, should ordinarily
have no more than 30% of the space devoted to ﬁgures, and
such that the total number of ﬁgures should ordinarily not be
more than 20. In terms of the restriction of the total space for
ﬁgures, each ﬁgure part will be considered as occupying a
The ﬁgures are numbered in the order in which they are
ﬁrst referred to in the text. There must be one such referral
for every ﬁgure in the text. Each ﬁgure must have a caption,
and the captions are gathered together into a single list that
appears at the end of the manuscript.
A chief criticism of many contemporary papers is that
they contain far too many computer-generated graphical il-
lustrations that present numerical results. An author develops
a certain general computational method (realized by soft-
ware) and then uses it to exhaustively discuss a large number
of special cases. This practice must be avoided. Unless there
is an overwhelmingly important single point that the se-
quence of ﬁgures demonstrates as a whole, an applicable rule
of thumb is that the maximum number of ﬁgures of a given
type must be four.
The clarity of most papers is greatly improved if the
authors include one or more explanatory sketches. If, for
example, the mathematical development presumes a certain
geometrical arrangement, then a sketch of this arrangement
must be included in the manuscript. If the experiment is car-
ried out with a certain setup of instrumentation and appara-
tuses, then a sketch is also appropriate.
Color ﬁgures can be included in the online version of the
Journal with no extra charge provided that these appear suit-
ably as black and white ﬁgures in the print edition.
Tables are numbered by capital roman numerals (TABLE
III, TABLE IV, etc.) and are collected at the end of the
manuscript, following the references and preceding the ﬁgure
captions, one table per page. There should be a de scriptive
caption (not a title) above each table in the manu script.
Footnotes to individual items in a table are designated
by raised lowercase letters (0.123
, etc.) The foot-
notes as such are given below the table and should be as
brief as practicable. If the footnotes are to references
already cited in the text, then they should have forms such
Firestone (1935)—depending on
the citation style adopted in the text. If the reference is
not cited in the text, then the footnote has the same form
as a textual footnote when the alphabetical bibliographic
list style is used. One would cast the footnote as in the
second example above and then include a reference to a
1935 work by Fir estone in the paper’s overall bibliographic
list. In general, it is recommended that no footnote refer to
references that are not already cited in the text.
VI. THE COVER LETTER
The contents of the cover letter are usually perfunctory.
There are, however, some circumstances where material in a
cover letter ﬁle might be advisable or needed:
(1) If persons who would ordinarily have been included
as authors have given permission or requested that their names
not be included, then that must be so stated. (This requirement
is imposed because some awkward situations have arisen in
the past in which persons have complained that colleagues
or former colleagues have deliberately omit ted their names
as authors from papers to which they have contributed. The
Journal also has the policy that a paper may still be published,
even if one of the persons who has con tributed to the work
refuses to allow his or her name to be included among the
list of authors, providing there is no question of plagiarism.)
626 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 138, No. 3, September 2015
Information for Contributors
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