\subsubsection{
htitlei
}
\subsubsection
Sub-sub-section titles are created using
\subsubsection
. Unnumbered sub-
sub-sections canbe producedusing:
\subsubsection*{
htitlei
}
\subsubsection*
Furthersectioninglevelscanbeobtainedusing
\paragraph
and
\subparagraph
,
butthese areunnumberedwithrunning heads.
\appendix
\appendix
Use
\appendix
to switch to the appendices. This changes
\section
to pro-
duce an appendix. Example:
\appendix
\chapter{Proof of Theorems}
2.4 Citations and Bibliography
The
jmlr
class automatically loads
natbib
and sets the bibliography style to
plainnat
.References shouldbe storedina
.bib
file.
\bibliography{
hbibfilei
}
\bibliography
This displays the bibliography.
\citep[
hprenotei
][
hpostnotei
]{
hlabeli
}
\citep
Use
\citep
for aparentheticalcitation.
\citet[
hnotei
]{
hlabeli
}
\citet
Use
\citet
for atextual citation.
See the
natbib
documentation
1
forfurtherdetails.
2.5 Figures and Tables
Floats, suchas figures, tables andalgorithms, are moving objects and are sup-
posed to float to the nearest convenient location. Please don’t force them to
go in aparticularplace. In general it’s best to use the
htbp
specifier and don’t
put the float in the middle of a paragraph (that is, make sure there’s a para-
graph break above and below the float). Floats are supposed to have a little
1
http://ctan.org/pkg/natbib
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extraspace above andbelow them to make themstandoutfrom the rest of the
text. This extraspace is put inautomatically andshouldn’tneedmodifying.
Toensure consistency,pleasedon’t trychangingtheformatofthe captionby
doingsomething like:
\caption{\textit{A Sample Caption.}}
or
\caption{\em A Sample Caption.}
Youcan, ofcourse, change the font forindividual words orphrases. Forexam-
ple:
\caption{A Sample Caption With Some \emph{Emphasized Words}.}
The
jmlr
class provides the following commandfor displaying the contents
of afigure or table:
\floatconts{
hlabeli
}{
hcaption commandi
}{
hcontentsi
}
\floatconts
This ensures that the caption is correctly positionedandthat the contents are
centered. Forexample:
\begin{table}[htbp]
\floatconts
{tab:example}% label
{\caption{An Example Table}}% caption command
{%
\begin{tabular}{ll}
\bfseries Dataset & \bfseries Result\\
Data1 & 0.123456
\end{tabular}
}
\end{table}
The
jmlr
class automaticallyloads
graphicx
whichdefines:
\includegraphics[
hoptionsi
]{
hfilenamei
}
\includegraphics
where hoptionsiis acomma-separatedlistofoptions.
Forexample,supposeyouhave animagecalled
mypic.png
inasubdirectory
called
images
:
\begin{figure}[htbp]
\floatconts
{fig:example}% label
{\caption{An Example Figure}}% caption command
{\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{images/mypic}}
\end{figure}
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Note that youshouldn’t specify the file extension whenincluding the image.
It’s helpful if you can also provide a grayscale version of color images. This
should be labeled as the color image but with
-gray
immediately before the
extension. (Theextensionneednot bethesameas that ofthe colorimage.) For
example, if you have an image called
mypic.pdf
,the grayscale can be called
mypic-gray.pdf
,
mypic-gray.png
or
mypic-gray.jpg
.See Section2.11 for
furtherdetails.
\includeteximage[
hoptionsi
]{
hfilenamei
}
\includeteximage
If your image file is made up of L
A
T
E
Xcode (e.g.
tikz
commands) the file can
be includedusing
\includeteximage
. The optional argument is a key=value
comma-separated list where the keys are a subset of those provided by
\includegraphics
.Themainkeys are:
width
,
height
,
scale
and
angle
.
2.5.1 Sub-Figures and Sub-Tables
The
subfig
package causes a problem for
jmlrbook
so the
jmlr
class will give
an error if it is used. Therefore the
jmlr
class provides its own commands for
including sub-figures andsub-tables.
\subfigure[
htitlei
][
hvaligni
]{
hcontentsi
}
\subfigure
This makes a sub-figure where hcontentsi denotes the contents of the sub-
figure. This shouldalso include the
\label
.The firstoptional argument htitlei
indicates a caption for the sub-figure. By default, the sub-figures are aligned
at the base. This can be changedwith the secondoptional argument hvaligni,
whichmay be one of:
t
(top),
c
(centred) or
b
(base).
Forexample,supposethereare twoimages files,
mypic1.png
and
mypic2.png
,
in the subdirectory
images
. Then they can be included as sub-figures as fol-
lows:
\begin{figure}[htbp]
\floatconts
{fig:example2}% label for whole figure
{\caption{An Example Figure.}}% caption for whole figure
{%
\subfigure{%
\label{fig:pic1}% label for this sub-figure
\includegraphics{images/mypic1}
}\qquad % space out the images a bit
\subfigure{%
\label{fig:pic2}% label for this sub-figure
\includegraphics{images/mypic2}
}
}
\end{figure}
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\subtable[
htitlei
][
hvaligni
]{
hcontentsi
}
\subtable
This is ananalogous commandfor sub-tables. The defaultvalue forhvaligniis
t
.
2.6 Algorithms
\begin{algorithm}
hcontentsi
\end{algorithm}
algorithm
Enumeratedtextual algorithms can be displayed using the
algorithm
environ-
ment. Within this environment, use
\caption
to set the caption (and
\label
to cross-referenceit). Withinthe bodyoftheenvironmentyoucanuse the
enu-
merate
environment.
\begin{enumerate*}
\item
htexti
...
\end{enumerate*}
enumerate*
If you want to have nested
enumerate
environments but youwant to keep the
same numbering throughout the algorithm, you can use the
enumerate*
envi-
ronment,providedby the
jmlr
class. For example:
\begin{enumerate*}
\item Set the label of vertex $s$ to 0
\item Set $i=0$
\begin{enumerate*}
\item \label{step:locate}Locate all unlabelled vertices
adjacent to a vertex labelled $i$ and label them $i+1$
\item If vertex $t$ has been labelled,
\begin{enumerate*}
\item[] the shortest path can be found by backtracking, and
the length is given by the label of $t$.
\end{enumerate*}
otherwise
\begin{enumerate*}
\item[] increment $i$ and return to step~\ref{step:locate}
\end{enumerate*}
\end{enumerate*}
\end{enumerate*}
\end{algorithm}
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\begin{algorithm2e}
hcontentsi
\end{algorithm2e}
algorithm2e
Pseudo code canbedisplayedusingthe
algorithm2e
environment, providedby
the
algorithm2e
package, whichisautomatically loaded. Forexample:
\begin{algorithm2e}
\caption{Computing Net Activation}
\label{alg:net}
\dontprintsemicolon
\linesnumbered
\KwIn{$x_1, \ldots, x_n, w_1, \ldots, w_n$}
\KwOut{$y$, the net activation}
$y\leftarrow 0$\;
\For{$i\leftarrow 1$ \KwTo $n$}{
$y \leftarrow y + w_i*x_i$\;
}
\end{algorithm2e}
See the
algorithm2e
documentation
2
formore details.
2.7 Description Lists
\begin{altdescription}{
hwidestlabeli
}
\item[
hlabeli
]
hitemtexti
\end{altdescription}
altdescription
Inadditiontothestandard
description
environment,the
jmlr
class alsoprovides
the
altdescription
environment. Thishasanargumentthatshouldbe the widest
label usedinthe list. Forexample:
\begin{altdescription}{differentiate}
\item[add] A method that adds two variables.
\item[differentiate] A method that differentiates a function.
\end{altdescription}
2.8 Theorems, Lemmas etc
The
jmlr
class provides the following theorem-like environments:
theorem
,
ex-
ample
,
lemma
,
proposition
,
remark
,
corollary
,
definition
,
conjecture
and
axiom
.
Withinthe body of those environments, youcanuse the
proof
environment to
2
http://ctan.org/pkg/algorithm2e
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display the proof if need be. The theorem-like environments all take an op-
tional argument, whichgives the environment atitle. For example:
\begin{theorem}[An Example Theorem]
\label{thm:example}
This is the theorem.
\begin{proof}
This is the proof.
\end{proof}
\end{theorem}
You can define yourownnumberedtheorem-like environmentusing:
\newtheorem{
hnamei
}[
hcounteri
]{
htitlei
}[
houtercounteri
]
\newtheorem
or youcandefine an unnumberedtheorem-like environment using:
\newtheorem*{
hnamei
}{
htitlei
}
\newtheorem*
where hnameiis the name of the new environment andhtitlei is the title tag at
the start ofthe environment. In the case ofthe numbered theorems, hcounteri
is a predefined counter to use with this theorem. If omitted, a new counter
called hnamei will be defined. The final optional argument houter counteri is
the name of aparent counterwhich, whenincremented, should reset the the-
orem counter.
Both
\newtheorem
and
\newtheorem*
setthe newtheorem’sstyle tothecur-
rentdefinedstyle. The currentstyle is setusing the following commands:
\theorembodyfont{
hdeclarationsi
}
\theorembodyfont
This sets the font declarations usedin the body of the theorem. This defaults
to
\itshape
.
\theoremheaderfont{
hdeclarationsi
}
\theoremheaderfont
This sets the font declarations used for the theorem title. This defaults to
\bfseries
.
\theorempostheader{
htexti
}
\theorempostheader
Thisindicateswhatshouldoccurattheendofthe title. Thisdefaultstonothing.
\theoremsep{
htexti
}
\theoremsep
This indicates what to put between the header and the body of the environ-
ment. This defaults to nothing.
16
For example, to define an unnumbered theorem-like environment called
“note” with the title “Note” followed by a colon and a new line between the
title andthe body of the
note
environment:
\theorembodyfont{\upshape}
\theoremheaderfont{\scshape}
\theorempostheader{:}
\theoremsep{\newline}
\newtheorem*{note}{Note}
Nowit can be usedin the document environment:
\begin{note}
This is an numbered theorem-like environment.
\end{note}
2.9 Cross-Referencing
Alwaysuse
\label
whencross-referencing,ratherthanwriting thenumberex-
plicitly. The
jmlr
class provides some convenience commands to assist refer-
encing. These commands, described below, can all take a comma-separated
list of labels.
\sectionref{
hlabellisti
}
\sectionref
Used to refer to asection or sections. For example, ifyou defineda section as
follows:
\chapter{Results}\label{sec:results}
youcanreferto it as follows:
The results are detailed in \sectionref{sec:results}.
This commandmay also beusedforsub-sectionsandsub-sub-sections.
\appendixref{
hlabellisti
}
\appendixref
Usedto refertoan appendixormultiple appendices.
\equationref{
hlabellisti
}
\equationref
Usedto refertoan equationormultiple equations.
\tableref{
hlabellisti
}
\tableref
Used to refer to a table ormultiple tables. This can also be usedfor sub-tables
where the maintable numberis also required.
17
\subtabref{
hlabellisti
}
\subtabref
Usedto refertosub-tables without themaintable number, e.g. (a) or(b).
\figureref{
hlabellisti
}
\figureref
Usedtorefertoafigureormultiplefigures. Thiscanalsobeusedforsub-figures
where the mainfigure numberis also required, e.g. 2(a) or 4(b).
\subfigref{
hlabellisti
}
\subfigref
Usedto refertosub-figureswithout the mainfigure number,e.g. (a) or(b).
\algorithmref{
hlabellisti
}
\algorithmref
Usedto refertoan algorithmormultiple algorithms.
\theoremref{
hlabellisti
}
\theoremref
Usedto refertoatheorem or multiple theorems.
\lemmaref{
hlabellisti
}
\lemmaref
Usedto refertoalemmaor multiple lemmas.
\remarkref{
hlabellisti
}
\remarkref
Usedto refertoaremarkor multiple remarks.
\corollaryref{
hlabellisti
}
\corollaryref
Usedto refertoacorollary ormultiple corollaries.
\definitionref{
hlabellisti
}
\definitionref
Usedto refertoadefinitionormultiple definitions.
\conjectureref{
hlabellisti
}
\conjectureref
Usedto refertoaconjecture or multiple conjectures.
\axiomref{
hlabellisti
}
\axiomref
Usedto refertoan axiomormultipleaxioms.
18
\exampleref{
hlabellisti
}
\exampleref
Usedto refertoan example ormultipleexamples.
2.10 Mathematics
The
jmlr
class loads the
amsmath
packageso youcanuseany ofthe commands
and environments defined in that package. A brief summary of some of the
more common commands and environments is provided here. See the
ams-
math
documentation
3
forfurtherdetails.
\set{
htexti
}
\set
Inadditiontothecommandsprovidedby
amsmath
,the
jmlr
classalsoprovides
the
\set
commandwhichcan be usedto typesetaset. Forexample:
The universal set is denoted $\set{U}$
Unnumberedsingle-line equationsshouldbedisplayedusing
\[
and
\]
.For
example:
\[E = m c^2\]
Numberedsingle-line equations should be displayed using the
equation
envi-
ronment. Forexample:
\begin{equation}\label{eq:trigrule}
\cos^2\theta + \sin^2\theta \equiv 1
\end{equation}
Multi-lined numbered equations shouldbe displayedusing the
align
environ-
ment. Forexample:
\begin{align}
f(x) &= x^2 + x\label{eq:f}\\
f’(x) &= 2x + 1\label{eq:df}
\end{align}
Unnumberedmulti-linedequationsshouldbe displayedusing the
align*
envi-
ronment. Forexample:
\begin{align*}
f(x) &= (x+1)(x-1)\\
&= x^2 - 1
\end{align*}
3
http://ctan.org/pkg/amsmath
19
Ifyouwanttomixnumberedwithunnumberedlinesusethe
align
environment
andsuppress unwantedline numbers with
\nonumber
.For example:
\begin{align}
y &= x^2 + 3x - 2x + 1\nonumber\\
&= x^2 + x + 1\label{eq:y}
\end{align}
An equation that is too long to fit on a single line can be displayed using the
split
environment.
Text can be embedded in an equation using
\text{
htexti
}
or you can use
\intertext{
htexti
}
tointeruptamulti-line environment suchas
align
.
Predefined operator names are listed intable2.1. For additional operators,
eitheruse
\operatorname{
hnamei
}
\operatorname
forexample
If $X$ and $Y$ are independent,
$\operatorname{var}(X+Y) =
\operatorname{var}(X) + \operatorname{var}(Y)$
or declare itwith
\DeclareMathOperator{
hcommandi
}{
hnamei
}
eclareMathOperator
forexample
\DeclareMathOperator{\var}{var}
andthen use this new command:
If $X$ and $Y$ are independent,
$\var(X+Y) = \var(X)+\var(Y)$
If you want limits that go above and below the operator (like
\sum
)use the
starredversions(
\operatorname*
or
\DeclareMathOperator*
).
2.11 Color vs Grayscale
It’shelpful ifauthorssupply grayscaleversions oftheirarticlesinthe event that
the article is to be incorporatedinto a blackandwhite printed book. With ex-
ternalPDF,PNG orJPGgraphic files,youjustneedtosupply agrayscale version
of the file. For example, ifthe file is called
myimage.png
,then the gray version
should be
myimage-gray.png
or
myimage-gray.pdf
or
myimage-gray.jpg
.
You don’t need to modify your code. The
jmlr
class checks for the exis-
tence of the grayscale version if it is print mode (provided you have used
\includegraphics
andhaven’tspecifiedthefile extension).
20
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