Adding Comments and Notes to Your PDF
To facilitate electronic transmittal of corrections, we encourage authors to utilize the
comment/annotationsfeatures in Adobe Acrobat. The PDF provided has been comment 
enabled,which allows you to utilize the comment and annotationfeatures even if using 
onlythe free Adobe Acrobat reader (see note below regarding acceptable versions). 
AdobeAcrobat’s Help menu provides additional details on the tools. When you open 
your PDF,theannotation tools are clearly shown on the tool bar (although icons may 
differslightly among versions from what is shown below).
For purposes of correcting the PDF proof of your journal article, the important features to
know are the following:
x To inserttext,place your cursor at a point in text and select the Insert Text tool (
)
from the menu bar. Type your additional text in the pop-up box.
x To replace text,highlight thetext to be changed, select the Replace Text tool (
) from 
the menu bar, andtype the new text in the pop-up box.Do this instead of deleting and 
then reinserting.
x To delete text,highlight the text to be deleted and press the Delete button on the 
keyboard.
x Use the Sticky Note tool (
) to describe changes that need to be made (e.g.,changes 
in bold, italics, or capitalization use; altering or replacing a figure) or to answer a
question or approve a change fromthe editor. To use this feature, click onthe Sticky 
Note tool in the menu bar and then click on a point in the PDF where you would like to 
make acomment.Then type your comment in the pop-up box.
x Use the Callout tool (
) to point directly to changes that need to be made. Try to put
the callout box in an area of white space so that you do not obscure the text.
x Use the Highlight and Add Note to Text tool (
) to indicate font problems, bad 
breaks, and other textualinconsistencies. Select text to be changed, choose this tool, and 
type your comment in the pop-up box. One notecan describe many changes.
x To view a list of changesto the proofor to see a more comprehensive set of annotation 
tools,select Commentfrom the menu bar.
)
)))
)
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As with hand-annotated proof corrections, the important points are to communicate
changes clearlyand thoroughly,to answer all queries and questions,and to provide
complete information to allowus to make the necessary changes to your article so it is 
readyfor publication.Do not use tools that incorporate changes to the text in such a way 
that no indication of a change is visible. Such changes will not be incorporated into the 
final proof. 
To utilize the comments features on this PDF you will need Adobe Reader version
7 or higher. This program is freely available and can be downloaded from
http://get.adobe.com/reader/
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1
REPRINTS 
Authors have two options for ordering reprints: 
Authors who need to use purchase orders may order 
reprints from the standard Purchase Order Service. 
For a substantially lower price, authors may use the 
Prepaid Service. The rate schedules on page 3 give 
the prices for each service. All international prices 
include shipping via foreign expeditor. All domestic 
shipments will be made via FedEx. We request that 
you do not use Post Office box numbers; provide a 
full street address if possible. Authors may request 
expedited shipping – the additional cost will be 
billed. You are required to pay all duties that apply.  
• Prepaid Service: To take advantage of this lower 
price option, submit your credit card information 
with your order or enclose a money order, 
certified check, or personal check.  The prices 
given on page 3 include postage. 
• Purchase Order Service:  Reprint orders that 
are not prepaid must be accompanied by a 
purchase order.  Cenveo Reprints will bill you 
later for the cost of the reprints. Do not send 
remittance with the reprint order form and 
purchase order.  Remember that the price you 
see on page 3 includes postage, so it is the exact 
amount you will be billed. (Exception: Authors 
requesting expedited shipping will be billed the 
additional cost.)
Complete the order form on the next page and 
return it to Cenveo Reprints (not to APA). Only one 
order form is provided – include your coauthors’ 
orders on this form or make photocopies of the order 
form for your coauthors. Check the box for either the 
prepaid service or the purchase order service. Give 
explicit instructions for all authors receiving reprints, 
using the space at the bottom of the order form.  
To determine the cost of the reprints, count the 
number of pages in the printed article and refer to 
the rate schedules on page 3. For example, if your 
article is 11 pages long, you want 100 reprints, you 
live in the United States, and you are using the 
prepaid service, your total cost would be $252. If 
your proof includes a page of queries following the 
text, do not include the query page in your article
page count. 
Send the order form to Cenveo Reprints when you 
return the page proofs. Reprints will be mailed within 
two weeks of the publication of the journal. Orders 
received after the issue goes to press will be 
processed with the next issue. 
Where to Order Reprints
Send your order form with credit card information, 
money order, certified check, personal check, or 
purchase order in the amount indicated on the rate 
schedule to: 
Cenveo Reprints 
4810 Williamsburg Road 
Warehouse #2 
Hurlock, MD 21643 
Phone: (410) 943-0629  
Personal checks must clear before reprints are 
processed. There is a $30.00 charge for 
returned checks.
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2
2015 REPRINT ORDER FORM 
APA Journal Authors: To order reprints, complete all sections of this form. Please read the instructions on page 1. 
SEND the reprint order and 
(1) credit card number, or
(2) money order/certified check, or 
(3) approved purchase order, or 
(4) check   
to: 
BILLING NAME 
ORGANIZATION   
ADDRESS (no P.O. Box)  
CITY                                  STATE                      ZIP CODE  
ARTICLE TITLE 
AUTHOR  
PAYMENT METHOD: CHECK ONE: 
___ 
CREDIT CARD                 CARD NUMBER ________________________                                      
______ VISA                    EXPIRATION DATE  _____________________ 
______ MASTERCARD    SIGNATURE ___________________________  
___  MONEY ORDER/CERT. CHECK (make payable to Cenveo Reprints)  
___  APPROVED PURCHASE ORDER (original PO must be attached) 
___  CHECK (shipment delayed until check clears) 
COMPLETE SHIPPING LABEL below. No P.O. Boxes. 
Include phone number on international shipments. International 
shipments can be made via AIR for additional charges; please indicate  
in Special Shipping Instructions if you desire this expedited service. 
DATE          
PHONE #    
FAX #         
E-MAIL        
REPRINTS INCLUDE COLOR?    
YES    
NO 
# OF TOTAL ARTICLE PAGES     
# OF REPRINTS   
# OF COVERS      
COMPUTE COST OF ORDER
PRICE (per chart) 
$               
Add’l for Covers  
                
SUBTOTAL  
$                        
PA, MD, VA, & DC 
residents add 6% tax 
    
Add’l for Expedited Shipping  $                 
TOTAL   
$                             
(TYPE OR PRINT MAILING LABEL BELOW)                                      
SHIP TO:                                     Phone No. ____________________ 
Name   _________________________________________________ 
Address ________________________________________________ 
_______________________________________________________ 
City ____________________ State __________ Zip _____________ 
Expedited Service (enter service required): _____________________ 
Cenveo Reprints
4810 Williamsburg Road 
Warehouse #2 
Hurlock, MD
21643
3907703
2014-1798
Psychological Assessment
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3
RATES EFFECTIVE WITH 2015 ISSUES 
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
1-4
$110 $150 $170 $232 $296 $360 
1-4
$240 $410 $580 $780 $906 
$992 
5-8
$144 $194 $294 $390 $490 $592 
5-8
$378 $496 $742 $1,088 $1,318 $1,542 
9-12
$186 $252 $400 $556 $714 $876 
9-12
$418 $550 $858 $1,264 $1,662 $1,968 
13-16
$214 $314 $512 $714 $918 $1,116 
13-16
$452 $594 $980 $1,438 $1,900 $2,356 
17-20
$252 $374 $618 $880 $1,128 $1,384 
17-20
$496 $642 $1,108 $1,624 $2,136 $2,752 
21-24
$292 $428 $732 $1,038 $1,336 $1,646 
21-24
$542 $692 $1,238 $1,806 $2,376 $3,160 
25-28
$330 $496 $848 $1,196 $1,594 $1,980 
25-28
$708 $1,032 $1,752 $2,514 $3,222 $4,080 
29-32
$368 $558 $958 $1,370 $1,794 $2,212 
29-32
$878 $1,366 $2,252 $3,222 $4,060 $5,018 
33-36
$406 $620 $1,076 $1,548 $1,994 $2,440 
33-36
$1,046 $1,700 $2,760 $3,932 $4,900 $5,954 
37-40
$438 $686 $1,190 $1,722 $2,194 $2,670 
37-40
$1,212 $2,036 $3,264 $4,642 $5,740 $6,890 
41-44
$486 $746 $1,308 $1,898 $2,394 $2,898 
41-44
$1,382 $2,368 $3,772 $5,350 $6,578 $7,826 
45-48
$520 $814 $1,424 $2,072 $2,592 $3,128 
45-48 $1,548 $2,708 $4,278 $6,060 $7,418 $8,762 
Covers
$136 $152 $202 $252 $310 $364 
Covers
$136 $152 $202 $252 $310 
$364 
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
1-4
$166 $200 $248 $354 $450 $556 
1-4
$296 $462 $658 $900 $1,060 $1,188 
5-8
$230 $272 $446 $610 $780 $952 
5-8
$464 $574 $896 $1,306 $1,606 $1,900 
9-12
$310 $372 $618 $886 $1,134 $1,402 
9-12
$542 $670 $1,078 $1,594 $2,082 $2,496 
13-16
$370 $468 $802 $1,136 $1,474 $1,806 
13-16
$610 $750 $1,270 $1,860 $2,458 $3,046 
17-20
$450 $570 $976 $1,408 $1,818 $2,234 
17-20
$694 $838 $1,466 $2,152 $2,826 $3,604 
21-24
$516 $652 $1,156 $1,660 $2,160 $2,664 
21-24
$768 $916 $1,660 $2,430 $3,200 $4,176 
25-28
$600 $758 $1,330 $1,912 $2,544 $3,160 
25-28
$980 $1,294 $2,234 $3,228 $4,172 $5,260 
29-32
$664 $848 $1,516 $2,194 $2,878 $3,558 
29-32
$1,174 $1,656 $2,808 $4,048 $5,144 $6,364 
33-36
$728 $940 $1,702 $2,474 $3,184 $3,956 
33-36 $1,370 $2,018 $3,386 $4,860 $6,090 $7,470 
37-40
$794 $1,032 $1,864 $2,752 $3,514 $4,352 
37-40
$1,568 $2,382 $3,938 $5,672 $7,058 $8,574 
41-44
$870 $1,124 $2,050 $3,030 $3,842 $4,750 
41-44 $1,764 $2,746 $4,514 $6,484 $8,028 $9,678 
45-48
$934 $1,216 $2,236 $3,308 $5,522 $5,146 
45-48
$1,962 $3,110 $5,090 $7,296 $10,346 $10,782 
Covers $196 $210 $300 $412 $522 $630 
Covers $196 $210 $300 $412 $522 
$630 
Color Reprint Prices Prepaid
Domestic (USA only)
Color Reprint Prices Prepaid
International (includes Canada and Mexico)
Black and White Reprint Prices Prepaid
Domestic (USA only)
Black and White Reprint Prices Prepaid
International (includes Canada and Mexico)
Additional Rates 
Set title page, each      $16.00
Each extra mailing       $32.00
Remake pages, each   $50.00
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4
RATES EFFECTIVE WITH 2015 ISSUES 
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
1-4
$120 $162 $184 $252 $322 $390 
1-4
$260 $446 $628 $846 
$984 $1,076 
5-8
$156 $210 $318 $422 $532 $644 
5-8
$410 $538 $806 $1,180 $1,430 $1,674 
9-12
$202 $274 $434 $604 $774 $950 
9-12
$454 $596 $932 $1,372 $1,804 $2,136 
13-16
$232 $340 $556 $774 $996 $1,210 
13-16
$490 $644 $1,064 $1,560 $2,062 $2,556 
17-20
$274 $406 $670 $956 $1,224 $1,500 
17-20
$538 $698 $1,202 $1,762 $2,318 $2,986 
21-24
$316 $464 $794 $1,126 $1,450 $1,786 
21-24
$590 $750 $1,342 $1,960 $2,578 $3,428 
25-28
$358 $538 $920 $1,298 $1,730 $2,148 
25-28
$770 $1,120 $1,900 $2,728 $3,496 $4,428 
29-32
$398 $606 $1,040 $1,488 $1,946 $2,400 
29-32
$952 $1,482 $2,444 $3,496 $4,406 $5,444 
33-36
$440 $674 $1,168 $1,678 $2,164 $2,648 
33-36
$1,136 $1,844 $2,994 $4,266 $5,316 $6,460 
37-40
$476 $744 $1,292 $1,868 $2,380 $2,896 
37-40
$1,316 $2,210 $3,542 $5,036 $6,226 $7,566 
41-44
$528 $810 $1,418 $2,058 $2,596 $3,144 
41-44
$1,498 $2,570 $4,092 $5,806 $7,138 $8,492 
45-48
$564 $882 $1,544 $2,248 $2,814 $3,392 
45-48 $1,678 $2,938 $4,642 $6,576 $8,048 $9,506 
Covers
$148 $166 $218 $274 $338 $396 
Covers
$148 $166 $218 $274 
$338 
$396 
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
# of 
Pages
50
100
200
300
400
500
1-4
$180 $218 $268 $384 $488 $602 
1-4
$320 $500 $712 $976 $1,150 $1,288 
5-8
$250 $294 $484 $660 $846 $1,032 
5-8
$504 $622 $972 $1,418 $1,742 $2,062 
9-12
$336 $404 $672 $960 $1,230 $1,522 
9-12
$588 $728 $1,170 $1,728 $2,260 $2,708 
13-16
$402 $508 $870 $1,232 $1,598 $1,960 
13-16
$662 $812 $1,378 $2,018 $2,666 $3,304 
17-20
$488 $618 $1,058 $1,528 $1,972 $2,424 
17-20
$754 $910 $1,592 $2,334 $3,066 $3,910 
21-24
$560 $708 $1,254 $1,802 $2,344 $2,890 
21-24
$832 $994 $1,802 $2,636 $3,472 $4,532 
25-28
$652 $822 $1,444 $2,074 $2,762 $3,428 
25-28
$1,062 $1,404 $2,422 $3,504 $4,526 $5,708 
29-32
$720 $920 $1,644 $2,382 $3,122 $3,860 
29-32 $1,274 $1,796 $3,048 $4,392 $5,582 $6,904 
33-36
$790 $1,018 $1,846 $2,684 $3,454 $4,292 
33-36
$1,486 $2,190 $3,872 $5,272 $6,606 $8,104 
37-40
$860 $1,118 $2,022 $2,986 $3,812 $4,722 
37-40 $1,700 $2,584 $4,272 $6,154 $7,658 $9,302 
41-44
$944 $1,218 $2,224 $3,288 $4,170 $5,154 
41-44
$1,914 $2,978 $4,898 $7,036 $8,710 $10,500 
45-48 $1,014 $1,318 $2,426 $3,590 $5,990 $5,584 
45-48 $2,130 $3,374 $5,524 $7,916 $11,226 $11,698 
Covers
$212 $226 $326 $448 $566 $682 
Covers
$212 $226 $326 $448 
$566 
$682 
Black and White Reprint Prices Purchase Order
Domestic (USA only)
Black and White Reprint Prices Purchase Order
International (includes Canada and Mexico)
Color Reprint Prices Purchase Order
Domestic (USA only)
Color Reprint Prices Purchase Order
International (includes Canada and Mexico)
Additional Rates 
Set title page, each      $16.00
Each extra mailing       $32.00
Remake pages, each   $50.00
5
Subscriptions and Special Offers 
In addition to purchasing reprints of their articles, authors may purchase an annual subscription, purchase an individual issue of the journal (at a reduced 
rate), or request an individual issue at no cost under special “hardship” circumstances.  To place your order online, visit 
http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/subscriptions.aspx
; or you may fill out the order form below (including the mailing label) and send the completed form and 
your check or credit card information to the address listed on the order form. 
For information about becoming a member of the American Psychological Association, visit http://www.apa.org/membership/index.aspx
; or call the 
Membership Office at 1-800-374-2721. 
2015 APA Journal Subscription Rates 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Instructions: Check the appropriate box, enter journal title and price 
information, and complete the mailing label in the right column. Enclose 
a check made out to the American Psychological Association, and 
mail it with the form to the APA Order Department or complete the credit 
card information below.  Orders can also be placed online at 
http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/subscriptions.aspx
Annual Subscription (available on January-December basis only).           
To subscribe, specify calendar year of the subscription. Refer to the 
Subscription Rates shown above. 
Journal: _____________________________________________ 
Calendar year of subscription: ___________ Price: ___________ 
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PositiveandNegativeItemWordingandItsInfluenceontheAssessment
ofCallous-UnemotionalTraits
JamesV.Ray
UniversityofTexas,SanAntonio
PaulJ.Frick
UniversityofNewOrleansandAustralianCatholicUniversity
LauraC.Thornton
UniversityofNewOrleans
LaurenceSteinberg
TempleUniversityandKingAbdulazizUniversity
ElizabethCauffman
UniversityofCalifornia,Irvine
ThisstudyexaminedtheitemfunctioningoftheInventoryofCallous-UnemotionalTraits(ICU)inan
ethnicallydiversesample1,190offirst-timejustice-involvedadolescents(meanage=15.28years,SD=
1.29).Oneliminationof2items,thetotalICUscoreprovidedareliable(internallyconsistentandstable)
andvalid(correlatedwithandpredictiveofmeasuresofempathy,schoolconductproblems,delinquency,
andaggression)continuousmeasureofcallousandunemotional(CU)traits.Ashortened,10-itemversion
ofthetotalscale,developedfromitemresponsetheory(IRT)analyses,appearedtoshowpsychometric
propertiessimilartothoseofthefullICUand,thus,couldbeusedasanabbreviatedmeasureofCUtraits.
Finally,itemanalysesandtestsofvaliditysuggestedthatthefactorstructureoftheICUreportedina
largenumberofpaststudiescouldreflectmethodvariancerelatedtotheICU,includingequalnumbers
ofpositivelyandnegatively wordeditems.Specifically,positivelywordeditems(i.e.,itemsforwhich
higherratings areindicativeofhigherlevelsofCUtraits)weremorelikely toberatedin thelower
responsecategories,showedhigherdifficultylevelsin IRTanalyses(i.e.,discriminatedbestathigher
levelsofCUtraits),andweremorehighlycorrelatedwithmeasuresofantisocialandaggressivebehavior.
Onthebasisofthesefindings,werecommendusingthetotalICUasacontinuousmeasureofCUtraits
anddonotrecommendcontinueduseofthesubscalestructurethathasbeenreported inmultiplepast
studies.
Keywords:Inventory ofCallous-UnemotionalTraits,itemresponsetheory,ICU-10,methodvariance,
withlimitedprosocialemotions
Callousandunemotional(CU)traits(e.g.,lackofempathyand
remorse, shallow affect, , lack k of concern n over performance in
important activities) demarcate aunique subgroup ofantisocial
youths whose behavior tends s to o be more e severe, , chronic, and
aggressive(Frick,Ray,Thornton,&Kahn,2014;Pardini&Fite,
2010)thanthatofotheryoungpeople.Youthswhoexhibithigher
levels of CU traits s also o engage e in n more e calculating g and cold-
bloodedformsofaggression(i.e.,proactiveaggression;Marsee&
Frick,2007);showlittleconcernforthefeelingsofothers(Pardini
&Byrd,2012);andshow littleconcernforthenegativeconse-
quencesoftheiractions,evenwhenpunishmentisimminent(D.J.
Hawes &Dadds,2005).Inaddition,antisocialyouths withCU
traitsshowanumberofgenetic,neurocognitive,emotional,per-
sonality, and social differences s compared d with other antisocial
youths,suggestingthatthefactorsleadingtothedevelopmentof
antisocialbehaviormaydifferacrossthetwogroups(forareview,
see Frick et al., 2014).Onthebasis ofthis extensive bodyof
research,themostrecentrevisionoftheDiagnosticandStatistical
ManualofMentalDisorders(5thed.[DSM–5];AmericanPsychi-
atricAssociation,2013)integratedCUtraitsintothe diagnostic
criteriaforconductdisorder.Thecriterianowincludethespecifier
“withlimitedprosocialemotions”todesignatethoseyouthswith
serious conduct problemswhoalsoshow elevatedlevels ofCU
traits.
Inlightofthisrecentchange,thereisnowagreateremphasison
developingandtestingoptimalmethodsforassessingCUtraits.In
JamesV.Ray,DepartmentofCriminalJustice,UniversityofTexasat
SanAntonio;PaulJ.Frick,DepartmentofPsychology,UniversityofNew
Orleans,andLearningSciencesInstituteofAustralia,AustralianCatholic
University;LauraC.Thornton,DepartmentofPsychology,Universityof
New Orleans; ; LaurenceSteinberg, , Department of Psychology,Temple
University,andDepartmentof●●●,KingAbdulazizUniversity;Elizabeth
Cauffman,DepartmentofPsychologyandSocialBehavior,Universityof
California,Irvine.
TheCrossroadsStudyissupportedbygrantsfromtheU.SDepartment
ofJustice’sOfficeofJuvenileJusticeandDelinquencyPrevention(2010-
JF-FX-0612) and d the e John D. and d CatherineT.MacArthurFoundation
(09-94942-000 HCD D and d 10-95802-000 HCD). . We are grateful l to the
manyindividualsresponsibleforthedatacollectionandpreparation.
CorrespondenceconcerningthisarticleshouldbeaddressedtoJamesV.
Ray,DepartmentofCriminalJustice,UniversityofTexasatSanAntonio,
SanAntonio,TX78207.E-mail:james.ray@utsa.edu
ThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.
Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.
PsychologicalAssessment
©2015AmericanPsychologicalAssociation
2015,Vol.27,No.3,000
1040-3590/15/$12.00 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000183
1
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researchtodate,CUtraitshavebeenassessedusingseveraldif-
ferentmeasuresandassessmentformats(Frick,2009).However,
mostofthesemeasuresassessthesetraitsasonepartofthebroader
constructofpsychopathy.Asaresult,thenumberofitemsspecif-
icallyassessingCUtraitshasoftenbeenlimitedtoasfewasfour
(Forth, Kosson,& Hare, 2003) orsix (Frick, Bodin, & Barry,
2000). Further, the response options s for r rating the severity or
frequencyoftheCUitemsonthesescaleshasalsobeenlimited,
oftenwithonlythreeoptions(Forthetal.,2003;Fricketal.,2000).
Thefewitemsandthelimitedrangeinresponseoptionshaveled
tosignificantpsychometriclimitationsinmanymeasures,suchas
poorinternalconsistency(Poythress,Dembo,Wareham,&Green-
baum,2006).
TheInventoryofCallous-UnemotionalTraits(ICU;Kimoniset
al.,2008)wasdevelopedtoovercometheselimitations.TheICU
was developed from the Antisocial Process s Screening Device
(APSD;Frick&Hare,2001).Specifically,theICUwasdeveloped
fromthefouritemsfromthecallous-unemotionalsubscaleofthe
APSD, which h (a) loaded d most t consistently on n a a callous-
unemotionalfactoracrossratersandsamples(Fricketal.,2000)
and(b)formedthebasisfortheDSM–5specifier(Kimonisetal.,
2014).ToformtheitemsontheICU,sixitems(threepositively
wordedandthreenegativelyworded)weredevelopedtoassessa
similarcontenttoeachofthefourcoretraits.These24itemswere
thenplacedonafour-pointscalethatcouldberatedfrom0(notat
alltrue)to3(definitelytrue).Thus,theICUcontentwasdesigned
toprovideacontinuousmeasureofCUtraits,similartohowthey
havebeenoperationalizedinagreatamountofpastworkandto
howtheyareoperationalizedfortheDSM–5specifier.However,
the content t was s also o designed to overcome limitations of past
measures by(a)includingamorecomprehensiveassessmentof
CU traits (i.e.,24items),(b)usinganexpandedanchorsystem
(i.e.,four points), and (c) including an equal numberof items
wordedinthepositive(e.g.,“IdonotcarewhoIhurttogetwhat
Iwant“)andthenegative(e.g.,“Iamconcernedaboutthefeelings
ofothers“)direction.
Severalstudies have testedthe constructvalidityoftheICU
usingfactor analyses s and d have generally reportedthat the best
fittingfactorstructureisonespecifyingageneralCUfactorand
three subfactors: callousness (a lack ofempathyandremorse),
uncaring (anuncaring attitudeabout performance ontasks s and
others’ feelings), and unemotional l (deficient emotional affect).
Thisstructurewassupportedinasampleof1,443Germancom-
munityadolescentsages13–18years(Essau,Sasagawa,&Frick,
2006),asampleof248juvenileoffendersages12–20fromthe
UnitedStates(Kimonisetal.,2008),andacommunitysampleof
347GreekCypriot adolescents betweenthe ages of12and18
(Fanti,Frick,&Georgiou,2009).Asimilarfactorstructurehas
beenfoundinyoungersamples,includingasampleof540Italian
middle-schoolchildren(Ciucci,Baroncelli,Franchi,Golmaryami,
&Frick,2014)and,usingparentreport,samplesof540high-risk
9-year-olds inthe United d States s (Waller et al.,2014) and 622
Spanishpreschool(3-year-old)children(Ezpeleta,delaOsa,Gra-
nero, Penelo, & Domènech, , 2013). Further, Roose, , Bijttebier,
Decoene,Claes,andFrick(2010)reportedthatthisfactorstructure
was similar for r both h self- - and d other (i.e., parent t and d teacher)
reportsinacommunitysampleof455Dutchadolescents (ages
14–20), and both Essau et al. (2006) and Ciucci et al. (2014)
reportedthatthestructurewasinvariantacrossboysandgirls.
Insummary,itappearsthatthisthree-dimensionalstructureof
the ICU U is robust t across age, language, rater, and gender (for
exceptions, see Feilhauer, Cima, , & & Arntz, , 2012Houghton,
Hunter,&Crow,2013),andtheseanalysessupportthepresenceof
anoverarchingdimensionofCUtraits.Further,thetotalscoreof
the ICUhasshownacceptableinternal consistency(Cronbach’s
alphasrangingbetween.77and.89)andsimilarcorrelationswith
antisocialbehaviorandotheremotionalandcognitivecharacteris-
ticstothosethathavebeenreportedinstudiesusingothermea-
suresofCUtraits(Fricketal.,2014).Thus,thetotalscorefromthe
ICUprovidesacontinuousmeasureoftheoverallconstructofCU
traitsthatovercomesmanyofthelimitationsinpastmeasures.
However,theavailableresearchalsohighlightsseveralsignifi-
cantlimitationsoftheICUscale.First,althoughthethreesubfac-
tors,withanoverarchinggeneralfactor,consistentlyemergeasthe
bestfittingfactorstructureacrossdiversesamples,thefitindices
tend to be modest, typically only reaching acceptable e fit t after
eliminationofcertainitemswithpooritem-totalcorrelationsand
afterposthocmodificationsaremadetothemodel(S.W.Hawes
etal.,2014;Kimonisetal.,2008;Walleretal.,2014).Second,
therewasnoapriorispecificationforthisthree-factorstructurefor
CUtraitsbasedonacleartheoreticalmodel,norhavethesubfac-
torsshownconsistentassociationswithexternalcriteria(Frick&
Ray,2014;Walleretal.,2014).Third,itispossiblethatthefactors
tosomeextentrepresentshared-methodvarianceinthatthecal-
lousness dimension n tends s to o be largely positively scored items
(e.g.,“IdonotcarewhoIhurttogetwhatIwant),whereasthe
uncaringdimensiontends tobe largelynegatively y scoreditems
(e.g.,“Itrynottohurtothers’feelings”;S.W.Hawesetal.,2014).
Thislastfinding,that positivelyandnegativelywordeditems
load on different factors, is s especially y critical l for r determining
whetherCU traits arebetterconsideredamulti-oraunidimen-
sionalconstruct.ThegoalindevelopingtheICUwastohaveequal
numbersofpositiveandnegativelywordeditemstominimizethe
influenceofresponsesetsbyforcinginformantstoconsiderthe
directionofratingsacrossitems(Kimonisetal.,2008).However,
itispossiblethatthismethodologyleadstoverydifferentdistri-
butionsofitemendorsementforpositivelyandnegativelyworded
items.Thatis,peoplemaybelesslikelytoendorseextremelevels
ofcallousness(e.g.,“IdonotcarewhoIhurttogetwhatIwant”)
thantheyare toendorse verylowlevels ofprosocialemotions
(e.g.,“Itrynottohurtothers’feelings”).Intermsofitemresponse
theory(IRT),thiscouldindicatethatthepositivelywordeditems
(i.e.,itemsforwhichhigherratingsindicatemoreCUtraits)are
moredifficultand,thus,aremorediscriminatingathigherlevelsof
the latenttrait andthatnegativelywordeditems(i.e.,items for
whichhigherratings indicatelowerlevelsofCUtraits)areless
difficult, with optimal l discrimination n obtained d at lower r levels
alongthelatenttrait(deAyala,2009).Thedifficultyofanitemin
IRTreferstothelevelofthelatenttraitnecessarytoeitherendorse
the itemor endorsea higher response category(or alowerre-
sponse categoryifthe itemis negativelyworded;Embretson&
Reise,2000).Appliedtothe ICU,items that are moredifficult
would require higher levels s of f CU U traits to o positively endorse
them.Itemfunctioningisimportantforthepredictivevalidityof
thefullscale,becauseitisgenerallyconsideredimportanttohave
atestwithitemsshowingarangeofdifficultylevels(Embretson
&Reise,2000).However,ifthefactorsthathavebeenidentified
inpastsamplessimplyreflectdifferentlevelsofitemdifficulty,the
ThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.
Thisarticleisintendedsolelyforthepersonaluseoftheindividualuserandisnottobedisseminatedbroadly.
2
RAY,FRICK,THORNTON,STEINBERG,ANDCAUFFMAN
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APANLM
separatefactorswouldthenbetheoreticallyunimportantforun-
derstandingtheconstruct.
Althoughitemdifficultymayaccountforthescalestructureof
theICU,therecouldalsobesubstantivereasonsforthefindings
from pastfactoranalyses.Many earlydefinitions ofCU traits,
definedas indicators ofan“undersocialized”interpersonalstyle
(Quay,1993),usedtheabsenceofsignificantprosocialfeaturesto
definetheconstructratherthanthepresenceofindicatorsofaCU
interpersonalstyle.Thismethodologyisexemplifiedinthedefi-
nitionforundersocializedconductdisorderintheDSM–III(Amer-
icanPsychiatricAssociation,1980),which,unlikethecriteriafor
other disorders requiring the presence of f a a certain number of
symptoms,requiredthatnomorethanoneofalistofprosocial
featurescouldbepresent(e.g.,“extendshimorherselfforothers
evenwhennoimmediateadvantageislikely,”“apparentlyfeels
guiltorremorsewhensuchareactionisappropriate[notjustwhen
caughtorindifficulty]”).Thus,itcouldbethatlowerlevelsof
prosocialfeaturesareabetterindicatoroftheconstructthanare
higherlevelsofCUfeatures.
Toinvestigatethesepotentialreasonsforthesubscalestructure
oftheICU,weconductedatestofthedifferentialitemfunctioning
onthe self-reportversionofthescaleinalargeandethnically
diverse sample ofjustice-involved d adolescents assessedat two
pointsintimeovera6-monthperiod.Weconductedanumberof
tests ofitem functioning g usinganalyses s based d onclassicaltest
theory(e.g.,itemdistributions,internalconsistencyofitems,test–
retestreliability)aswellasanalysesusingIRT.Wetestedwhether
positivelyandnegativelywordeditemsshoweddifferentdistribu-
tionsand/oritemdifficulty.Further,wetestedwhetherusingonly
positivelywordedornegativelywordeditemsledtobetterreli-
abilityandconstructvalidity,relativebothtoeachotherandtothe
full scale combining g both types of item formats. Our tests of
validityincludedtestsofconvergentvalidity(i.e.,correlationswith
ameasureofempathy)andcriterionvalidity(i.e.,positivecorre-
lations withmeasuresofaggressionandantisocialbehaviorand
negative correlations s with anxiety). In n these e tests s of f validity,
correlationsatbaselinewereexamined,aswerepredictiveassoci-
ations between the e ICU U scales s and d the external criteria at the
6-monthfollow-up,controllingforinitiallevelsof thecriterion
measures.
Finally,S.W.Hawesetal.(2014)positedthatthelimitationsin
thefactorstructureoftheICUcouldsuggestthatthetotalscore
couldberefinedbylimitingittoitemsthatshowthebestdiscrim-
inationintheoveralllevelofCUtraits.Specifically,inasample
of250boysages6–12,theyselected12itemsfromtheparent-
reportversionoftheICUonthebasisofIRTanalysesandfound
thatthisrefinedscaleshowedhighinternalconsistencyandsup-
port for its s validity in terms s of f correlations with measures of
conductproblemsandsocialcompetence.Importantly,thesignif-
icantlyshorterrevisedtotalscaleandthefull24-itemscaleexhib-
itednearlyidenticalcorrelationswithexternalmeasures(seealso
Walleretal.,2014,whoalsousedtheparent-reportversion).We
followeda similar procedure in the present studytodetermine
whetherasimilarshortenedversionoftheICUcouldbedeveloped
usingIRTanalysesinanoldersample,usingtheself-reportver-
sionoftheICU,andwhetherittoowouldshowlevelsofreliability
andvaliditysimilartothoseofthefullversionofthescale.
Method
Participants
TheCrossroadsStudyisanongoingmultisitelongitudinalstudy
examiningtheoutcomes ofjuvenileswhohaveeitherbeenfor-
mallyorinformallyprocessedforoffensesofmoderateseverityin
JeffersonParish,Louisiana;OrangeCounty,California;andPhil-
adelphia,Pennsylvania.TobeeligiblefortheCrossroadsStudy,
juvenileshadtobefirst-timemaleoffenders,beEnglishspeakers
betweentheagesof13and17yearsatthetimeofarrest,andhave
aneligibleoffense.Eligiblechargesweremidrangeoffenses,such
as theft t of goods,simple battery, and vandalism. Across s sites,
72.32%(n=1,216)ofindividualseligibletoparticipateenrolled
inthestudy.Thecurrentsamplecomprised1,190participantswho
participatedinthefirsttwowaves(6monthsapart)ofthestudy
(retentionrate=97.9%).Thebreakdownofparticipantsacrossthe
threesites was as follows: JeffersonParish(n=149), , Orange
County(n=524),andPhiladelphia(n=517).Themeanageof
participants atthefirst assessment was15.28(SD=1.29).The
sample was predominately White Latino (45.9%) ) and d Black
(36.8%),followedbyWhitenon-Latino(14.7%)andother(2.5%).
Procedures
Institutionalreview boardapprovalwas obtained d ateachsite
beforedatacollectionbegan.Consentwasobtainedfromaparent
ofeachjuvenile,andassentwasobtainedfromtheparticipant.The
parent and youth were informed that t the e research project t had
obtainedacertificateofconfidentialityfromtheU.S.Department
ofJustice,whichallowedtheresearchinformationtobeprotected
frombeingsubpoenaedforuseinlegal proceedings.Interviews
wereadministeredfromalaptopatalocationconvenienttothe
youth(e.g.,participant’shome,retaillocation,oneofthepartici-
pating universities). Regardless of f location, the interview w was
conductedinaprivatesetting,withjusttheinterviewerandpar-
ticipantpresent toreducesociallydesirableresponding.Partici-
pants wereabletoreadthe items themselves directlyfromthe
computer screen; however, to control for readingability,items
werealsoreadaloudtoparticipantsbyinterviewers.Inaddition,
participantswereinformedthattheydidnothavetoanswerany
questions they y felt t were e uncomfortable. Participants were paid
$50.00forthefirstinterviewand$65.00atthe6-monthfollow-up
interview.
Measures
Descriptivestatisticsonallcriterionvariablesusedinthecur-
rentstudy,includinginternalconsistencyestimates,arereportedin
Table1.
CUtraits:ICU. TheICU(Kimonisetal.,2008)isa24-item
instrumentderivedfromtheAPSD(Frick&Hare,2001),whichis
aratingscalecommonlyusedtoassessCUtraitsinchildrenand
adolescents.Participantsrateditemsonafour-pointscaleranging
from0(notatalltrue)to3(definitelytrue).TheICUcontentis
presentedata6th-gradereadinglevel.Asnotedearlier,useofthe
total score e on the ICU U has been supported d in n factor analyses
conductedwithbothdetained(Kimonisetal.,2008)andcommu-
nity(Essauetal.,2006;Fantietal.,2009)samplesofadolescents.
ThisdocumentiscopyrightedbytheAmericanPsychologicalAssociationoroneofitsalliedpublishers.
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