Figure7.AschematicarchitecturefortheexportWebService/Redmineplugin.
ofartifacts,toexaminethecommithistoryortoexaminedifferencesofthese-
lectedversionsandsoon.Managersaswellasdeveloperscaninadditionusethe
IPME–besidesofusingtheplanninganddocumentationfeatures–toinvesti-
gatethesourcerepositorycomfortablyinaWebbrowser.Onemainpartofthe
functionalityprovidedbytheIPMEisthatdevelopersandprojectmanagerscan
browsequicklythroughthesourcecodeandchoosetodisplayadiffofversions
ofthesourcecodeinaWebbrowser.However,thedefaultbrowsinganddiffing
functionalityofIPMEsworksontext-basedsourcecodeonlywhilealargepart
ofourcodebaseisPetrinet-based.Atextualrepresentationofdiagrams– for
exampleinPNML–isnotverysignificantforhumanreaders.Moreover,atext
baseddiffofversionsofthediagram’stextrepresentationsiscompletelyuseless.
Thus,the Export and Diffpluginstake thetextrepresentations for diagrams
fromtheSCM,handthemtotheExportandDiffWebservicesandintegrate
thereturnedimagessmoothlyintotheWebpage-baseddisplayforthedeveloper.
Figure8showsascreenshotoftheintegrationoftheDiffServiceintheIPME
Redmine.ThescreenshotshowsTheRedmineuserinterfaceinaWebbrowser.
The diff of revisions 9044 and 9545 5 of f the Receiver_chat protocolnet is dis-
played.Thedifferencesarehighlightedinred(removals)andgreen(additions).
9
Allothergraphicalelementsarefadedtoa foggygrayleavingashadowofthe
originalnet.
Consequently,withinourdevelopmentenvironmenttheWebservicesareused
bytheIPMEs
10
andarethusprovidedtothedevelopersinanautomatedway.
AserverinstanceofRenewisrunningandprovidestheWebservicesusingthe
Mulan/CapaframeworkwithitsWebGatewayextension.Apubliclyaccessible
Export/DiffWeb page and a demonstration page of theRedmine integration
canbeaccessedfromtheP
aoseWebSite(http://www.paose.net/).
Figure9showsascreenshotofthepresentedmulti-agentapplicationshowing
anexportinteraction.TheMulanViewerontheleftshowsthemulti-agentsys-
tem’sstatusintermsofallstartedagents,theirdecisioncomponents,knowledge
9
Inblack&whiteprintingthelocationofthemanipulatedpartsarestillrecognizable,
althoughitbecomesimpossibletodistinguishremovalsfromadditions.
10
WeprovidepluginsforRedmineandTrac(http://trac.edgewall.org/).
L.Cabacetal.:IntegratingWebServicesinPN-basedAgentApplications
107
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Figure8.ScreenshotofadiffimageintegratedinRedmine(Demo).
basesandcurrentlyexecutedprotocolnets.Intheback,partsof theinvolved
netsareshown:theseare–fromtop tobottom–thetransformation decision
componentoftheWebGatewayandtheexportprotocolnetoftheExportagent.
Thesendrequest protocolnetoftheWebGatewayisnotshownbutlistedinthe
MulanViewer’s tree view. . During this s interaction the WebGateway sends the
requestto theExportagentaftertherequesthasbeen received fromtheWeb
client.Ontherighthandsideofthescreenshotaretwoframesshowingadeep
inspectionoftokens,which arelocated asindicatedon thehighlighted places.
The first oneshows the request message in FIPA-SL, waiting g to be e matched
with theresponse forrouting purposes (cf. . Section n 2).Thesecond is the re-
sponsemessage,which is justaboutto besentfromtheExportagentto the
WebGateway.11
11
Althoughthemessages couldalso beinspectedinStringrepresentation,theUML
representationismuchclearerandmoreconcise.
108
PNSE’13–PetriNetsandSoftwareEngineering
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Figure9.Ascreenshotoftheagentapplicationwhilerunningtheexportinteraction.
The availability and the e robustness of the Export and Diff Web services
providedthrougharunning instanceofaPetrinetapplicationshowsthatour
frameworkisalreadybeyondapureproofofconcept.
5 Implementation
Althoughexecutablemodelstendtogrowtoasizethatcannotbepresentedin
alldetails,wepresenttheimplementationofthetransformationcomponentin
L.Cabacetal.:IntegratingWebServicesinPN-basedAgentApplications
109
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ordertodiscussthespecificationrefinementthatleadstotheexecutablemodel.
Often the process that leads incrementallyto the executable modelhas been
presentedasimplementationthroughspecification.Inthisexecutablemodelwe
donotdiscusstheinscriptionsandcertaintechnicaldetailssuchastheprepara-
tionandselectionofthemessages.Figure10showsanexecutableversionofthe
WebGatewayTransformationComponent asanoverview.
12
Thedetailsofthe
main partsarepresentedagaininFigure11.Comparedtotheabstractmodel
showninFigure4thismodelshowsseveralrefinements.Firstofalltheinterfaces
–indicatedbythedashedboxes–ofthecomponenthavebeenduplicated.This
resultsfromthefactthatourimplementationallowsforadditionalcommunica-
tionprotocolsandtwoconnectiontypes.
Figure10.ImplementationoftheWebGatewayTransformationComponent.
Intheabstractmodelwedescribedthepossibilitytoserveatypicalrequest
protocol.Thus,oneparty can send a a request message e and receivean answer
tothisintheformofaninformmessage.Thisprotocolmaybetriggeredfrom
eithersidethewebserverinterfaceortheagentsysteminterface.Additionally,
theimplementationalso allowsfora simpleinformmessagethathasnotbeen
triggeredanddoesnotexpectanyfollow-ups.Consequently,wehavethreeout-
12
ThePetrinetsispresentedasawhole,inordertoshowthefinalresultoftherefine-
mentprocess.Mostofthedetails,suchasdeclarationsareonlyofminorimportance.
Themaindetailsarepresentedina magnified versioninFigure11 forconvenient
inspection.
110
PNSE’13–PetriNetsandSoftwareEngineering
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going transitionsforthesethreedifferentcommunicationpossibilities(request,
informasanswer,simpleinform)oneachoutgoinginterfaceside.Additionally,
weincludedthepossibilitytoconnectasaWebserviceintwopossibleways.The
firstisthewell-knownhttpconnection,thesecond,whichisawebsocketconnec-
tion,allowsforasynchronouscommunicationthroughabidirectionalpermanent
connectionlink.
Figure11.FragmentoftheWebGatewayTransformationComponent.
Inthecenter ofthenet– displayedinmoredetailinFigure11– onecan
prominentlyconceivethebufferplacesthatholdthemessagesformatchingan-
swerstorequestandthustodeterminethereceiver.Thebufferplacesarefilled
duringtheprocessingoftherequests–constitutingthefirstbranchleading to
thefirstofanoutgoinginterface.Theanswercollectsthewaitingmessageduring
processing–indicatedbyanarc–leadingtothesecondinterfacetransition.The
lastinterfacetransition servesforthesimpleinformmessage.Wehavehidden
L.Cabacetal.:IntegratingWebServicesinPN-basedAgentApplications
111
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severalparts oftheoriginalnet –indicatedbylargedotted transitions.These
transitionshidemessageprocessingandroutingaswellastheprocessingofthe
httpanswers.
6 Discussion
Thepresentedexampleand thepubliclyavailable Webservices and Web site
demonstratethatthe presented application ismorethanjusta a proofofcon-
cept. Especially the availability of the Export and d Diff ff services as s Web b ser-
viceshasproventheirusefulnessinthestraight-forwardandseamlessinclusion
within severalused instances of IPMEs (internalas wellas public).We have
alsobrieflymentionedtherealizationofWeb-basedGUIswhereWebeventsre-
latedtotheGUIcomponentsaretransmittedbetweenabrowserandapplication
agents(Agentlets).WhilethisapplicationoftheWebGatewayisstillunderde-
velopmentandstillinanexperimentalstage,wehavesuccessfullymadeuseof
itin academic projectswherestudentsdevelop browser-based applications for
collaborationsupport.
ThechoiceofRESTfulWebservicesincombinationwithWebSocketsbrings
moreflexibilitytoourgatewaythanstrictWSUstack-basedgatewayscanpro-
vide.Currently,weuserathersimpleservicedescriptions,whichmighthinderthe
automationofserviceworkflows.Apossibleimprovementinthisareacouldbe
theintegrationofWADL
13
,whichplaysasimilarroleforRESTfulWebservice
asWSDLforSOAPWebservices.
7 RelatedWork
ServiceorientedarchitecturesespeciallyincombinationwithWebapplications
is currentlya popularfieldintheresearch community.Hence,theintegration
ofWebservicesinto multi-agentsystemsisawellresearchedtopicwithmany
interesting solutions.Such anapproachthatimpactson our introducedarchi-
tecturaldesign is presented by Greenwood et al. . [14].They introduce a Web
ServiceIntegration GatewayService(WSGIS),whichactsasabrokerbetween
theserviceparticipantsandprovidestranslationandroutingmechanisms.Shafiq
etal.[24]offersaslightlydifferentsolutionthataddressestheinterconnection
ofFIPA-compliantmulti-agentsystemsandWebservices.Theirapproachrely
on amiddlewaresoftwarethat handles thecommunication of theservicepar-
ticipants withoutanymodification on the respectivecommunication systems.
Incontrasttothesesapproaches,whicharebasedonWebservicesthatusethe
standardWSU
14
stack,theapproachofSoto[19]makesuseoftheadvantages
ofWebservicesthatcomplywiththeRESTfularchitecture[23].Heprovidesa
WebServiceMessageTransportService(WSMTS)forJADEplatformsthatis
capableofhandlingFIPA-SLmessagesinXMLrepresentation.Thesemessages
13
WebApplicationDescriptionLanguage(WADL):http://java.net/projects/wadl
14
WSDL,SOAP,UDDI(WSU)
112
PNSE’13–PetriNetsandSoftwareEngineering
areextendedwithadditionalinformationthatensureanend-to-endcommuni-
cationwith onlyonesingle messageencoding.Inthiscase,agentsareableto
registerthemselveswithaspecificaddresstopublishtheirservicesasaREST
service.
Astillproblematicissue,concerning the e useand compositionof RESTful
services,isthechangeofstateof aresourceand thecorresponding g updateof
clients.EspeciallyWebclientshavetoconstantlysendGETrequeststocheckif
thestatehaschanged,whichwillresultinheavytrafficandunnecessarilyhigh
loadofJavascript.Forabidirectionalcommunication,asusedforinstanceina
UserInterfaceFramework,Aghaeeetal.[2,Section5.2]recommendtheuseof
W3CWebSockets[26].TheWebSocketAPIprovidesamechanismtosentdata
invariousrepresentations(JSON,XML,etc.)toclientswhentheresourcehas
changed.
AnapproachconcerningthemodelingofWebservicesusinghigh-levelPetri
netswasgivenbyMoldtetal.[21].Theauthorsintroduceafourlayerarchitec-
turethatfocusesonmodelingtheinternalbehaviorofaWebserviceandprovide
aproposalforlifecyclemanagementandinterconnectionofWebservices.
With theapproach presented inthis paperwe providea prerequisitethat
enablesustoverifythesoundnessofinternalWebserviceprocessesbyexamina-
tionofagentinteractions.InordertoexaminethecompositionofWebservices
wehave toextendour approachto o theexternalWeb serviceinteractionsand
theirinterfaces.Arelatedapproach ispresentedbyWolf[27]andhisteamat
theUniversityofRostock.Theyprovideformalmodels basedonPetrinetsto
describeserviceinterfacesandtools
15
thatsupportthediscoveryandsynthesis
ofmatchingservicepartners.
8 ConclusionandFutureWorks
Inthispaper,wepresentagatewayarchitecturethatmakesitpossibletointer-
connectFIPA-compliantmulti-agentsystemsandRESTfulWebservices.More
specifically,it creates a a bridge between n Petri i net-based d (Mulan) agents and
arbitraryWebserviceprovidersorclients.Itssuitabilityfordailyusehasbeen
provenbycouplingimageconversionandcomparisonservices(providedbyMu-
lan agents) with an integrated project management environment (running g as
aclassicwebserver,using theseservices).Besides its usefulfunctionality,the
gateway as an artifact exemplifies the benefits of engineering Petrinet-based
software.Thegatewayarchitecture,itsmessageroutingcoreanditsmulti-agent
interfacearemodeledandimplementedinJavareferencenets.Wepresentthe
designofthecoregateway functionality as coarsePetrinet models,the inte-
grationofconcretefunctionalityintothesePetrinets–thusturningtheminto
applicationcode–,andthevalidationofcertainapplicationpropertiesbyusing
well-knownPetrinetanalysistechniques.
On the practicalside,thegatewaybroadens therangeofapplications for
FIPA-compliantagents(andespeciallyMulanagents).Theirfunctionalitybe-
15
Service-Technology:http://service-technology.org/tools/
L.Cabacetal.:IntegratingWebServicesinPN-basedAgentApplications
113
comesavailableforanyWebserviceclient,andtheycan referto functionality
providedbyanyotherwebservice.Theinteractionwithwebservicesisrestricted
totherequest-responsepatternorjustunidirectionalinformationdistribution,
andthusnotasfeature-richasthespeechact-basedcommunicationinthemulti-
agentworld.Nevertheless,thesesimpleinteractionpatternsformthebasisofany
complexinteractionandcanthusbeconsideredassufficientforeverydayuse.
OnthePetrinet-basedsoftwareengineeringside,thetoolsandmethodsof
theP
aoseapproachareevolvingwhileweusethemforthedesignandimple-
mentationofapplicationsliketheWebGateway.Amajorfocusiscurrentlyput
onvalidationandtestingoftheapplication’sPetrinet-basedcodeartifacts.
Thefurtheruseofourapproachinfuturestudentprojectsandthecontinuous
advancementofouragent-basedcollaborationplatformwillhelptoimprovethe
gatewayfunctionalityandsoftwareengineeringtechniquesstepbystep.
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