53
NGLs
Energy Markets Fact Book — 2014–2015
Canadian supply* (2012)
Canadian production .............................................. 539,000 b/d 
- propane .......................................................... 192,000 b/d
- butane ............................................................. 115,000 b/d
- ethane ............................................................. 232,000 b/d
Exports ................................................................... 123,000 b/d
Imports ...................................................................   12,000 b/d
* excludes condensates and pentanes plus, which are included as part of crude oil 
and includes net refinery produced LPGs
Natural gas liquids production by province, 2012
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54
NGLs
Energy Markets Fact Book — 2014–2015
Domestic demand* (2012)
Non-energy use ....................................................................64%
(as feedstocks for petrochemicals)
Other industrial  ...................................................................12% 
Refinery use .........................................................................11% 
Commercial/institutional ........................................................6% 
Residential .............................................................................3% 
Transportation .......................................................................2% 
Agriculture .............................................................................1% 
* includes liquefied petroleum gases
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55
NGLs
Energy Markets Fact Book — 2014–2015
Propane
Propane is a natural gas liquid that used for a variety of purposes, 
from home heating and cooking, to crop drying and fueling 
vehicles. 
Propane is produced through two means in Canada:
y
y
85 to 90% of Canadian propane is produced as a result of 
natural gas processing
10 to 15% is produced as a by-product of crude oil refining  
and upgrading
Domestic supply and demand (2012)
y
y
More than 192,000 b/d of propane were produced in Canada.
Approximately 177,000 b/d of propane were consumed in 
Canada, of which 13,000 b/d or 7% was consumed in  
residential use.
During the winter of 2013-2014 Canada and US experienced 
extremely cold weather. As a result of this and a number of other 
factors (wet harvest season, lower than usual propane inventories, 
growing North American propane exports) the price of propane in 
Canada spiked, with adverse consequences for homeowners who 
rely on propane to heat their homes.
Monthly average propane price at major Canadian and U.S. hubs
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(at the end of 2011)
1) United States .................................................................27%
2) Russia ............................................................................18%
3) China  ............................................................................13%
4) Australia ..........................................................................9%
5) India ................................................................................7%
...
15) Canada .......................................................................... 1%
Above data exclude coal products such as coke.
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59
Coal
Energy Markets Fact Book — 2014–2015
Production and use, by province
Production by province, 2013
Coal used for electricity generation by province, 2012
60
Coal
Energy Markets Fact Book — 2014–2015
Coal-fuelled power plants in Canada >500MW 
(2013)
Facility
Province
Capacity (MW)
Sundance
AB
2,278
Nanticoke*
ON
1,880
Genesee
AB
1,335
Keephills
AB
1,301
Lambton*
ON
950
Boundary Dam
SK
891
Sheerness
AB
816
Battle River
AB
700
Poplar River
SK
630
Lingan
NS
620
* No longer operational as of December 2013 
Announced retirements of coal-fuelled power 
plants
y
y
In 2003, Ontario committed to phase out all its coal-fuelled 
electricity generation. At that time, 36 TWh of electricity 
were produced at five power plants with a total capacity of 
7,555mw that represented 24% of total electricity generated 
in the province and 35% of Canada’s coal-fired electricity 
generation.
The last of the five Ontario coal-fuelled power plants was shut 
down in April 2014. While some of these facilities have been or 
will be decommissioned, others will be converted to burn other 
fuels, such as biomass or natural gas.
61
Energy Markets Fact Book — 2014–2015
Canadian uranium industry structure
y
y
y
y
y
Canada has a vast supply of uranium in high-concentration 
deposits, mostly in northern Saskatchewan.
Key producers are Cameco Corporation and AREVA Resources 
Canada Inc. - two of the world’s largest uranium mining 
companies.
Once mined, uranium ore is used to produce a uranium oxide 
concentrate (U
3
O
8
) commonly known as “yellowcake.”
Most of the concentrate produced is shipped to a refinery 
in Blind River, ON, where it is refined into uranium trioxide 
(UO
3
); this product is then shipped to a conversion plant in 
Port Hope, ON, where it is converted into
·
·
uranium dioxide (UO
2
) to supply CANDU-type heavy water 
reactors
uranium hexafluoride (UF
6
), exported to be enriched and 
used as fuel in light water reactors
Key users in Canada are power generators with nuclear reactors 
(e.g. Ontario Power Generation).
Regulatory authority
y
y
Mining is governed by provincial regulations, but uranium 
mining falls mainly under federal jurisdiction.
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission regulates mines 
and mills and all subsequent stages of the nuclear-fuel cycle, 
including conversion, refining, fuel fabrication, nuclear reactor 
operation and nuclear fuel waste management.
7
Uranium and nuclear 
power
62
Uranium and nuclear power
Energy Markets Fact Book — 2014–2015
Uranium – international context 
World production – 59.6 kt  
(2013, preliminary)
1) Kazakhstan  .....................................................................38%
2) Canada ...........................................................................16%
3) Australia .........................................................................11%
4) Niger ................................................................................8%
5) Namibia ...........................................................................7%
World exports – 49.5 kt  
(2013, preliminary)
1) Kazakhstan .....................................................................46%
2) Canada ...........................................................................16%
3) Australia .........................................................................13%
4) Niger ................................................................................9%
5) Namibia ...........................................................................9%
World known recoverable resources – 5.3 Mt  
(at beginning of 2011)
1) Australia .........................................................................31%
2) Kazakhstan .....................................................................12%
3) Russia ...............................................................................9%
4) Canada .............................................................................9%
5) Niger ................................................................................8%
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