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EXPLORING QUANTUM
PHYSICS THROUGH
HANDS-ON PROJECTS
DAVIDPRUTCHIANDSHANNIR.PRUTCHI
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EXPLORING QUANTUM
PHYSICS THROUGH
HANDS-ON PROJECTS
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EXPLORING QUANTUM
PHYSICS THROUGH
HANDS-ON PROJECTS
DAVIDPRUTCHIANDSHANNIR.PRUTCHI
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LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData:
Prutchi,David.
ExploringQuantumPhysicsThroughHands-OnProjects/DavidPrutchiandShanniR.Prutchi.
p.cm.
Includesindex.
ISBN978-1-118-14066-6(pbk.)
1. Quantumtheory—Popularworks. 2. Quantumtheory—Experiments. 3. Scienceprojects.
I. Prutchi,ShanniR. II. Title.
QC174.12.P7852011
5350.15—dc23
2011030360
PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
InmemoryofZeideSimon.
DedicatedtoSabaShlomo,SavtaRuthi,BabbeRosmari,
Dorith,Hannah,andAbigail.
CONTENTS
Introduction
xi
Prologue
xv
ImportantDisclaimerandWarnings
xix
Acknowledgments
xxiii
AbouttheAuthors
xxv
1 LIGHTASAWAVE
1
Newton’sView:LightConsistsofParticles
1
Young’sInterferenceofLight
3
AutomaticScanningofInterferencePatterns
6
TheFinalNailintheCoffinforNewton’sTheoryofLight
8
LightasanElectromagneticWave
9
Polarization
11
Opticswith3-cmWavelength“Light”
11
Real-WorldBehaviors
16
Double-SlitInterferencewithMicrowaves
17
TheDopplerEffect
18
ExperimentsandQuestions
20
2 LIGHTASPARTICLES
23
TheSeedofQuantumPhysics:Planck’sFormula
27
ThePhotoelectricEffect
28
CanweDetectIndividualPhotons?
36
Low-CostPMTPowerSupplies
38
ListeningtoIndividualPhotons
41
WheredoesthisLeaveUs?
45
ExperimentsandQuestions
45
3 ATOMSANDRADIOACTIVITY
49
TheNeedforVacuum
49
TheMechanicalVacuumPump
51
TheVacuumGauge
53
AVery-High-VoltagePowerSupply
56
AVacuumTubeLego
w
Set
56
PhosphorScreens
59
vii
TheElectronGun
60
TheDiscoveryoftheElectron
61
Cathode-RayTubes
63
Thomson’sFirst1897Experiment—NegativeChargeandRaysareJoinedTogether
65
Thomson’sSecondExperiment—ElectrostaticDeflectionofCathodeRays
67
ThomsonandtheModernCRT
69
Thomson’sThirdExperiment—Mass-to-ChargeRatiooftheElectron
72
Measuringe/mwithourCRT
74
AMagicalMeasurementofe/m
77
Thomson’s“PlumPudding”ModeloftheAtom
79
Geiger–Mu¨llerCounter
80
a,b,andg
89
TheNatureofBetaRadiation
92
TheIonizingPowerofAlpha
92
WhatareAlphaParticles?
95
Rutherford’sAlpha-ScatteringExperiment
96
Rutherford’sPlanetaryModeloftheAtom
102
ExperimentsandQuestions
103
4 THEPRINCIPLEOFQUANTUMPHYSICS
107
EmissionSpectroscopy
107
Bohr’sSparkofGenius
113
OrbitalsandNotOrbits
115
Quantization—TheCoreofQuantumPhysics
117
ExperimentsandQuestions
118
5 WAVE–PARTICLEDUALITY
121
Gamma-RaySpectrumAnalysis
122
WhatistheNatureofLight?
126
Two-SlitInterferencewithSinglePhotons
128
ImagingSinglePhotons
133
TheAnswer:Complementarity
135
MatterWaves
137
MatterWavesandtheBohrAtom
137
ExperimentalConfirmationofDeBroglie’sMatterWaves
138
Two-SlitInterferencewithSingleElectrons
142
ASimpleTEM
144
BlurringtheLineBetweenQuantumandClassical
148
Particle–WaveDualityintheMacroscopicWorld
148
ExperimentsandQuestions
149
6 THEUNCERTAINTYPRINCIPLE
151
Wavefunctions
151
TheUncertaintyPrinciple
153
ExperimentalDemonstrationoftheUncertaintyPrinciple
155
Time–EnergyUncertainty
159
FourierAnalysis
159
viii
CONTENTS
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