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removing ‘\hfil’ on input line ...
It’snotsurprising: howwouldyouputthetypesettinginstruction
\hfil
intoaPDF
bookmark?
Hyperref allows you to define an alternative for such things: the command
\texorpdfstring
,whichtakestwoarguments—thefirstiswhatistypeset,thesecond
iswhatisputintothebookmark.Forexample,whatyouwouldprobablylikeinthis
caseisjustasinglespaceinthebookmark;ifso,theerroneousexampleabovewould
become:
\newcommand{\filled}[2]{%
#1%
\texorpdfstring{\hfil}{\space}%
#2%
}
\section{\filled{foo}{bar}}
andwiththatdefinition,theexamplewillcompilesuccesfully(hyperref knowsabout
themacro
\space
).
452 Checksummismatchinfont
WhenMetafontgeneratesafontitincludesachecksuminthefontbitmapfile,andin
thefontmetricsfile(TFM).(La)TeXincludesthechecksumfromtheTFMfileinthe
DVIfile.
Whendvips(orotherDVIdrivers)processaDVIfile,theycomparechecksums
intheDVIfiletothoseinthebitmapfontsbeingusedforcharacterimages. Ifthe
checksumsdon’tmatch,itmeansthefontmetricfileusedby(La)TeXwasnotgenerated
fromthesameMetafontprogramthatgeneratedthefont.
Thiscommonlyoccurswhenyou’reprocessingsomeoneelse’sDVIfile.
Thefontsonyoursystemmayalsobeatfault:possibilitiesarethatthenewTFM
wasnotinstalled,orinstalledinapathafteranoldTFMfile,orthatyouhaveapersonal
cacheofbitmapsfromanoldversionofthefont.
Inanycase,lookattheoutput–thechancesarethatit’sperfectlyOK,sincemetrics
tendnottochange,evenwhenthebitmapsareimproved.(Indeed,manyfontdesigners—
Knuthincluded—maintainthemetricscomewhatmay.)
Iftheoutputdoeslookbad,youronlychanceistoregeneratethingsfromscratch.
Optionsinclude:flushingyourbitmapcache,rebuildtheTFMfilelocally,andsoon.
453 Enteringcompatibilitymode
YourunyourLaTeXjob,anditstartsbysaying
Entering LaTeX 2.09 COMPATIBILITY MODE
followedbylinesofasterisksand
!!WARNING!!
.
Thismeansthatthedocumentisnotwrittenin“current”LaTeXsyntax,andthat
thereisnoguaranteethatallpartsofthedocumentwillbeformattedcorrectly.
Ifthedocumentissomeoneelse’s,andyouwantnomorethanacopytoread,ignore
theerror.Thedocumentmayfailelsewhere,butasoftenasnotitwillprovidea
.dvi
or
.pdf
that’sadequateformostpurposes.
Ifit’sanewdocumentyouhavejuststartedworkingon,youhavebeenmisledby
someone.Youhavewrittensomethinglike:
\documentstyle{article}
or,moregenerally:
\documentstyle[options]{class}
Theseformsare(asthewarningsays)LaTeX2.09syntax,andtogetridofthewarning,
youmustchangethecommand.
Thesimpleformiseasytodealwith:
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\documentstyle{article}
shouldbecome:
\documentclass{article}
Thecomplexformismoredifficult,sinceLaTeX2.09“options”conflatetwosortsof
things—optionsfortheclass(suchas
11pt
,
fleqn
),andpackagestobeloaded.So:
\documentstyle[11pt,verbatim]{article}
shouldbecome:
\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage{verbatim}
because
11pt
happenstobeaclassoption,whileverbatimisapackage.
There’snosimplewaytoworkoutwhatareclassoptionsunderLaTeX2.09;for
article,thelist includes
10pt
,
11pt
,
12pt
,
draft
,
fleqn
,
leqno
,
twocolumn
and
twoside
—anythingelsemustbeapackage.
Yourdocumentmaywell“justwork”afterchangeslikethoseabove;ifnot,you
shouldthinkthroughwhatyou’retryingtodo,andconsultdocumentationonhowtodo
it—therearelotsoffreetutorialstohelpyouonyourway,ifyoudon’thaveaccessto
aLaTeXmanualofanysort.
454 LaTeXwon’tincludefromotherdirectories
Youwantedto
\include{../bar/xyz.tex}
,butLaTeXsays:
latex: Not writing to ../bar/xyz.aux (openout_any = p).
! I can’t write on file ‘../bar/xyz.aux’.
TheerrorcomesfromTeX’sprotectionagainstwritingtodirectoriesthataren’tde-
scendentsoftheonewhereyourdocumentresides. (Therestrictionprotectsagainst
problemsarisingfromLaTeXingsomeoneelse’smalicious,ormerelybroken,document.
Ifsuchadocumentoverwritessomethingyouwantedkept,thereisobviouspotential
forhavoc.)
Document directory structures that can lead to thisproblemwill look likethe
fictional
mybook
:
./base/mybook.tex
./preface/Preface.tex
./preface/
***
./chapter1/Intro.tex
...
Withsuchastructure,anydocumentdirectory(otherthantheonewhere
mybook.tex
lives),seems“up”thetreefromthebasedirectory.(Referencestosuchfileswilllook
like
\include{../preface/Preface}
:the“
..
”isthehint.)
Butwhydiditwanttowriteatall?—“what’sgoingininmy
\include
”explains
how
\include
works,amongotherthingsbywritingan
.aux
fileforevery
\includ
ed
file.
Solutionstotheproblemtendtobedrastic:
1. Restructurethedirectoriesthatholdyourdocumentsothatthemasterfileisatthe
rootofthetree:
./mybook.tex
./mybook/preface/Preface.tex
./mybook/preface/
***
./mybook/chapter1/Intro.tex
...
andsoon.
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2. Didyouactuallyneed
\include
?—ifnot,youcanreplace
\include
by
\input
throughout.(Thisonlyworksifyoudon’tneed
\includeonly
.)
3. Youcouldpatchyoursystem’s
texmf.cnf
—ifyouknowwhatyou’redoing,the
errormessageshouldbeenoughofahint;thisactionisdefinitelynotrecommended,
andislefttothosewhocan“helpthemselves”inthisrespect.
455 Supportpackageexpl3tooold
Some(rathermodern)packagesarewrittenusingtheLaTeX3programmingenvironment.
SinceLaTeX3isstillunderdevelopment,theauthorcannotreliablyguesswhatversion
ofLaTeX3theuserhasinstalled,andwhetherthatversionisadequateforthecurrent
package.Thusthepackage’scodeoftencheckstheuser’sinstallation,andcomplainsif
it’solderthantheauthor’sinstallationattimeoftesting.Theerrormessageis:
! Support package expl3 too old.
The“additionalhelp”tellsyouthesolution: updateyourLaTeX3installation. The
relevantthingsarel3kernel(theprogrammingenvironment,whichcontainstheexpl3
mentionedintheerrormessage)andl3packages(LaTeX3constructssuchascommand
definitions).
Whilethissoundsadrasticremedy,itisnolongerthemajorundertakingitonce
was—ifyouareusingamodernTeXdistributionthatyouinstalledyourself,askitto
updateovertheinternet;ifthatchoiceisnotavailable,installfromthe
.tds.zip
files
availableforbothpackagesonCTAN.
l3kernel
bundle:
macros/latex/contrib/l3kernel
l3packages
bundle:
macros/latex/contrib/l3packages
V CurrentTeX-relatedprojects
456 TheLaTeXproject
TheLaTeXprojectteam(see
http://www.latex-project.org/latex3.html
)isa
smallgroupofvolunteerswhoseaimistoproduceamajornewdocumentprocessing
systembasedontheprinciplespioneeredbyLeslieLamportinthecurrentLaTeX.The
newsystemis(provisionally)calledLaTeX3;itwillremainfreelyavailableanditwill
befullydocumentedatalllevels.
TheLaTeXteam’sfirstproduct(LaTeX2e)wasdeliveredin1994(it’snowproperly
called“LaTeX”,sincenootherversioniscurrent).
LaTeX2ewasintendedasaconsolidationexercise,unifyingseveralsub-variantsof
LaTeXwhilechangingnothingwhosechangewasn’tabsolutelynecessary. Thishas
permittedtheteamtosupportasingleversionofLaTeX,inparallelwithdevelopment
ofLaTeX3.
SomeoftheolderdiscussionpapersaboutdirectionsforLaTeX3aretobefound
onCTAN;other(published)articlesaretobefoundontheprojectweb site(
http:
//www.latex-project.org/papers/
).
Someoftheproject’sexperimentalcodeisvisibleonthenet:
• via
http://www.latex-project.org/code.html
,whichpointstotheproject’s
SVNrepository;
• viatheproject’sGitHubmirror;
• fromCTAN:snapshotsoftwomajorcollectionsfromthecode,l3kernel(supporting
LaTeX3codingconventionsinaLaTeX2eenvironment),l3packages(afirstcutof
a“documentdesigner’sinterface”)aswellasl3experimental(newstuffthat’sstill
underdevelopment).
Thepackagesl3kernelandl3packagesprovidean“experimentalharness”thatmaybe
usedasatestbedforLaTeX3work.
Notethatl3kernelintroducesacodingstructurequitedifferentfromearlierLaTeX
code;afewhardyauthors,whoarenotmembersoftheproject,areneverthelessusingit
intheirdevelopmentwork.
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AnyonemayparticipateindiscussionsofthefutureofLaTeXthroughthemailing
list
latex-l
;somedevelopmentwork (outsidetheproject)isdiscussedonthelist.
Subscribetothelistbysendingamessage‘
subscribe latex-l <your name>
’to
listserv@urz.Uni-Heidelberg.de
l3experimental
bundle:
macros/latex/contrib/l3experimental
l3kernel
bundle:
macros/latex/contrib/l3kernel
LaTeXprojectpublications:
info/ltx3pub
l3packages
bundle:
macros/latex/contrib/l3packages
457 FutureWWWtechnologiesand(La)TeX
Anearlieranswer(“convertingtoHTML”)addressestheissueofconvertingexisting
(La)TeXdocumentsforviewingontheWebasHTML.Allthepresenttechniquesare
somewhatflawed:theanswerexplainswhy.
However,thingsarechanging,withbetterfontavailability,cunningHTMLprogram-
mingandthesupportfornewWebstandards.
Fonttechnologies Directrepresentationofmathematicsinbrowsershasbeenham-
pereduptonowbythelimitedrangeofsymbolsinthefontswhoseavailability
designerscancounton.Someexisting(La)TeXtoHTMLconvertersprovidemaths
symbolsbyhitchingthemtoalternatefontfacespecificationsforstandardcode
pointsinanon-standardway.ThisdoesnothingfortheuniversalityoftheHTML
sogenerated.
Now,however,freeUnicode-encodedOpenTypefonts,withcoverageofmathemati-
calsymbols,arestartingtoappear.Themuch-heraldedSTIXfontsarenowavailable
onCTAN,andatweakedversion(XITS)andAsanaMatharealsoavailable.The
STIXprojecthasstillnotreleasedmacrosforusingthefonts,buttheunicode-math
packagewilldowhatisnecessaryunderXeTeXandLuaTeX,andthefontscanof
coursebeusedinbrowsers.
XML ThecoreoftherangeofnewstandardsisXML,whichprovidesaframework
forbetterstructuredmarkup;limitedsupportforithasalreadyappearedinsome
browsers.
Conversionof(La)TeXsourcetoXMLisalreadyavailable(throughTeX4htat
least),andworkcontinuesinthatarena.Thealternative,authoringinXML(thus
producingdocumentsthatareimmediatelyWeb-friendly,ifnotready)andusing
(La)TeXtotypesetisalsowelladvanced.Oneusefultechniqueistransformingthe
XMLtoLaTeX,usinganXSLTstylesheetorcodeforanXMLlibrary,andthen
simplyusingLaTeX;alternatively,onemaytypesetdirectfromtheXMLsource.
Directrepresentationofmathematics MathMLisastandardforrepresentingmaths
ontheWeb;itsoriginalversionwasdistinctlylimited,butversion2ofMathMLhas
hadmajorbrowsersupportsince2002withrichnessofmathematicalcontentfor
onlinepurposesapproachingthatofTeXforprint.BrowsersupportforMathML
isprovided byamaya, the‘Open Source’browsermozilla (and itsderivatives
includingNetScape,FirefoxandGaleon)andInternetExplorerwhenequipped
withasuitableplug-insuchasMathPlayer.There’sevidencethat(La)TeXusersare
startingtousesuchbrowsers.SomebelievethatXHTML+MathMLnowprovides
betteronlineviewing thanPDF. Work to produceXHTML+MathMLiswell
advancedinboththeTeX4htandTtHprojectsfor(La)TeXconversion.
TheMathJaxenginewillprocessthecontentofLaTeX
\[
...
\]
and
\(
...
\)
‘environments’inanHTMLdocument,toproducemathematicaloutputthatmay
(forexample)becut-and-pastedintootherprograms.
Incorporationintoyourdocumentcanbeassimpleasincorporating:
<script type="text/javascript"
src="http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS_HTML">
</script>
intotheheaderofyourHTMLdocument,thoughtheMathJaxproject’ssitealso
allowsyou to download your own copyand install it on one of yourservers.
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MathJaxisopensourcesoftware,soyoucould,inprinciple,extendittodoeven
moreeccentrictasks.
Anapproachdifferentfrom(La)TeXconversionistakenbytheGELLMUProject.
ItsarticleXMLdocumenttype,whichhasamarkupvocabularyclosetoLaTeX
thatcanbeeditedusingLaTeX-likemarkup(eventhoughitisnotLaTeX—sofar),
comeswithtranslatorsthatmakebothPDF(viapdflatex)andXHTML+MathML.
Suchan approach avoidstheinherentlimitationsofthe“traditional”(La)TeX
translationprocesses,whichhavetrapsthatcanbesprungbyunfettereduseof
(La)TeXmarkup.
Graphics SVGisastandardforgraphicsrepresentationontheweb.Whilethenatural
useisforconvertingexistingfigures,representationsofformulasarealsopossible,
inplaceoftheseparatebitmapsthathavebeenusedinthepast(andwhilewewait
forthewiderdeploymentofMathML).
Browserplug-ins,thatdealwithSVGarealreadyavailable(Adobeofferone,for
example).Morerecently,theopensourcegraphicseditorInkscapehasappeared,
andhasbeenreportedtobeusefulforSVG-relatedworkinatleastoneTeX-related
project. BeawarethatthedevelopersofInkscapehavenoillusionsaboutbeing
abletoreplacecommercialsoftware,yet...
DirectuseofTeXmarkup Sometimeback,IBMdevelopedabrowserplug-incalled
TechExplorer,whichwoulddisplay(La)TeXdocumentsdirectinabrowser.Over
theyears,itdevelopedintoaMathMLbrowserplug-in,whilestillretainingits
(La)TeXabilities,butit’snowdistributed(freeforLinuxandWindowsplatforms)
byIntegreTechnicalPublishing.
ThedisadvantageoftheTechExplorerapproachisthatitplacestheonusonthe
browseruser;andhowevertechnicallyproficientyouare,it’sneversafetoassume
toomuchofyourreaders. AninterestingalternativeisMathTeX,whichsitson
yourserverasaCGIscript,andyouuseittoincludeyourTeX,inyourHTML,as
ifitwereanimage:
<img src="/cgi-bin/mathtex.cgi?f(x)=\int\limits_{-\infty}^xe^{-t^2}dt">
(Mathtexsupersedestheauthor’searliermimetex.)
AsanaMathfonts:
fonts/Asana-Math
GELLMU
:
support/gellmu
MathTeX
:
support/mathtex
MimeTeX
:
support/mimetex
STIXfonts:
fonts/stix
tex4ht
:
obsolete/support/TeX4ht/tex4ht-all.zip
(butsee
http:
//tug.org/tex4ht/
)
unicode-math.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/unicode-math
XITSfonts:
fonts/xits
458 MakingoutlinefontsfromMetafont
TeXtrace,originallydevelopedbyPéterSzabó,isabundleofUnixscriptsthatuseMartin
Weber’sfreewareboundarytracingpackageautotracetogenerateType1outlinefonts
fromMetafontbitmapfontoutputs.Theresultisunlikelyevertobeofthequalityof
thecommercially-producedType1font,butthere’salwaystheFontForgefonteditorto
tidythings.Whatever,thereremainfontswhichmanypeoplefindusefulandwhichfail
toattractthepaidexperts,andauto-tracingisprovidingausefulservicehere.Notable
setsoffontsgeneratedusingTeXtracearePéterSzabó’sownEC/TCfontsettt2001and
VladimirVolovich’sCM-Superset,whichcoverstheEC,TC,andtheCyrillicLHfont
sets(fordetailsofbothofwhichsets,see“8-bit”type1fonts).
Anothersystem,whicharrivedslightly later, ismftrace: thisisasmallPython
programthatdoesthesamejob. Mftracemayuseeitherautotrace(likeTeXtrace)or
PeterSelinger’spotracetoproducetheinitialoutlinestoprocess. Mftraceissaidto
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bemoreflexible,andeasiertouse,thanisTeXtrace,butbothsystemsareincreasingly
beingusedtoprovideType1fontstothepublicdomain.
TheMetaType1systemaimstouseMetafontfontsources,bywayofMetapostand
abunchofscriptsandsoon,toproducehigh-qualityType1fonts. Thefirstresults,
theLatinModernfonts,arenowwell-established,andabunchofexistingdesignshave
beenreworkedinMetaType1format.
Mf2pt1 is another translator ofMetafont font sourcesby way of Metapost; in
addition,available,mf2pt1willusefontforge (ifit’savailable)toauto-hinttheresultof
itsconversion.(Mf2pt1isalsowritteninperl.)
MetaType1
:
fonts/utilities/metatype1
mf2pt1
:
support/mf2pt1
459 TheTeXdocumentpreparationenvironment
WhyTeXisnot
WYSIWYG
”outlinesthereasons(orexcuses)forthehugedisparityof
userinterfacebetween“typical”TeXenvironmentsandcommercialwordprocessors.
Nowadays,atlast,thereisarangeoftoolsavailablethattryeithertobridgeorto
closethegap.Onerangemodestlyfocusesonprovidingtheuserwithalegiblesource
document.AttheotherextremewehaveTeXmacs,adocumentprocessorusingTeX’s
algorithmsandfontsforbotheditordisplayandprinting.TeXmacsdoesnotusetheTeX
languageitself(thoughamongotherformats,LaTeXmaybeexportedandimported).A
bitclosertoLaTeXisLyX,whichhasitsowneditordisplayandfileformatsaswell,but
doesitsprintoutputbyexportingtoLaTeX.Theeditordisplaymerelyresemblesthe
printedoutput,butyouhavethepossibilityofenteringarbitraryLaTeXcode.Ifyouuse
constructsthatLyXdoesnotunderstand,itwilljustdisplaythemassourcetextmarked
red,butwillproperlyexportthem.
Sincealotofworkisneededtocreateaneditorfromscratchthatactuallyisgoodat
editing(aswellascateringforTeX),itisperhapsnoaccidentthatseveralapproaches
havebeenimplementedusingtheextensibleemacseditor.Thelowendoftheprettifying
rangeisoccupiedbysyntaxhighlighting:markingTeXtokens,commentsandother
stuffwithspecialcolours. Manyfreeeditors(includingemacs)cancaterforTeXin
thisway. UnderWindows,oneofthemorepopulareditorswithsuchsupportisthe
Sharewareproductwinedt.Continuingtherangeoftoolsprettifyingyourinput,wehave
theemacspackagex-symbol,whichdoesthe
WYSIWYG
partofitsworkbyreplacing
singleTeXtokensandaccentedlettersequenceswithappropriate-lookingcharacterson
thescreen.
Adifferenttypeoftoolfocusesonmakingupdateandaccesstopreviewsofthe
typesetdocumentmoreimmediate.Arecentadditioninseveralviewers,editorsandTeX
executablesareso-called‘sourcespecials’forcross-navigation.WhenTeXcompilesa
document,itwilluponrequestinsertspecialmarkersforeveryinputlineintothetypeset
output. ThemarkersareinterpretedbytheDVIpreviewerwhichcanbemadetolet
itsdisplaytrackthepagecorrespondingtotheeditorinputposition,ortolettheeditor
jumptoasourcelinecorrespondingtoaclickinthepreviewwindow.
Anemacspackagethatcombinesthissortofeditormovementtrackingwithauto-
maticfastrecompilations(throughtheuseofdumpedformats)isWhizzyTeXwhichis
bestusedwithapreviewerbythesameauthor.
Anotheremacspackagecalledpreview-latextriestosolvetheproblemofvisual
correlationbetweensourceandpreviewsinamoredirectway:itusesaLaTeXpackage
tochopthedocumentsourceintointerestingfragments(likefigures,textordisplay
math)whichitrunsthroughLaTeXandreplacesthesourcetextofthosefragmentswith
thecorrespondingrenderedoutputimages.Sinceitdoesnotknowaboutthestructure
oftheimages,attheactualcursorpositionthesourcetextisdisplayedwhileediting
ratherthanthepreview.Thisapproachismoreorlessahybridofthesourceprettifying
andfastpreviewapproachessinceitworksinthesourcebufferbutusesactualpreviews
renderedbyLaTeX.
AmoreambitiouscontenderiscalledTeXlite. Thissystemisonlyavailableon
requestfromitsauthor;itcontinuouslyupdatesitsscreenwiththehelpofaspecial
versionofTeXdumpingitsstateinacompressedformatateachpageandusinghooks
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intoTeX’slinebreakingmechanismforreformattingparagraphsonthefly.Thatway,it
canrendertheoutputfromtheeditedTeXcodewithinteractivespeedon-screen,andit
offersthepossibilityofeditingdirectlyinthepreviewwindow.
Thatmanyofthesesystemsoccupyslightlydifferentnichescanbeseenbycompar-
ingtherangeoftheemacs-basedsolutionsrangingfromsyntaxhighlightingtoinstant
previewing:allofthemcanbeactivatedatthesametimewithoutactuallyinterferingin
theirrespectivetasks.
Thedifferentapproachesoffervariouschoicesdifferingintheimmediacyoftheir
response,thescreenareatheyworkon(sourceorseparatewindow),degreeofcorre-
spondenceofthedisplaytothefinaloutput,andthebalancetheystrikebetweenvisual
aidandvisualdistraction.
preview-latex
: Distributedaspartof
support/auctex
texmacs
: Browse
support/TeXmacs
460 OmegaandAleph
Omega(W)wasdevelopedasanextensionofTeX,tousewithmultilingualtexts,ex-
pressedinavarietyofinputencodings.Omegauses16-bit,Unicode-encoded,characters.
Itprovidesmanyinnovativeconcepts,notablyincludingthe“translationprocess”that
takesacharacterstreamandtransformsitaccordingtovariousprocessesthatmaybe
internallyspecified,orbeaseparateprogram.
WhileOmegashowedalotofpromiseatitsmid-1990sannouncement,progress
wasslow,anddevelopmentwasessentiallydeadbythetimethatoneoftheoriginal
developerswithdrew(takingwithhimabunchofresearchstudents).
Beforethat distressing event, aseparatethread of developmenthad started, to
produceaprogramcalledAleph(À),whichmergedthefacilitiesofe-TeX intoastable
Omegacodebaseandaddedotherextensions.Alephalsoprovedanattractiveplatform
formanypeople;butitsdevelopment,too,hasdriedup.
ApresentationatEuroTeX2006claimedthatdevelopmentofOmegawaspicking
upagain,inparallelwithresearchintowhatthe(new)developersconsiderarational
schemeforsupportingTeX-styletypesetting. Thenewsystemwastobeknownas
Omega-2(W
2
),andwastobedesignedinamodularfashionsothatsupportofnew
facilities(such asuseofadvanced OpenTypefonts)could beaddedin arelatively
straightforwardfashion.Aquickwebsearchleadstoarecommendationthatpotential
usersconsiderLuaTeXinstead;fortunately,lessonslearnedinAlephprojecthavebeen
carriedforwardinthedevelopmentofLuaTeX.
461 XeTeX
XeTeX,byJonathanKew,isasuccessortothesharewareTeX/GXprogramforMacin-
toshes.ItwasdevelopedasaWEB‘changefile’appliedtotheoriginalsourceofTeX;
themainchangesinclude:
Theinputstage XeTeXbydefaultreadsUnicode(UTF-8,forinstance),althoughit’s
alsocapableofinterpretingdifferentlyencodedfiles(forbackwardscompatibility).
Multibytecharactersarereducedtoasingleinternalcharacteruponreading,sothey
areconsideredasauniqueentitywhentokenizationisperformed.(So,forexample,
youcanhavecommandnamesincyrillic,ifyoumust,butsuchapracticeisnot
recommended.)
Thefontmanagement asubstantialrevisionhasaddedsupportforOpenTypeand
TrueTypefonts,delegatingsomepartstothird-partylibraries.
Themathsfontsetup XeTeXintroducesnewprimitivesforextendingthe
\mathcode
and
\mathchardef
commandsinTeX,allowingtheusertospecifycharactersin
thewholeUnicodesetandin256‘mathfamilies’(TeXonlyhas16,whichlimits
somemathscodingtechniques).
“Post-processing”features(A) XeTeXlinkstotheteckitlibrarysoitcanapplya
.map
filethatallowstransformationofcharactersinalreadyformedtokenlists,before
theyareprocessed in the“stomach”fortypesetting. Inthisway,adeclaration
Ligatures=TeX
”isprovided, which attachesamapdirectivetothefontthat
317
transformsthecharactercombinations(familiartoTeXusers)intoasinglecharacter;
forinstance
---
istransformedinto“—”.
“Post-processing”features(B) Characterscanbeassignedtoan“interchartoken
class”anditispossibletospecifytokenstobeaddedwhenthereisatransitionfrom
oneclasstoanother.Thepackagespolyglossia,xeCJKanducharclassesexploit
thisfeature.
Otherwise,theprocessoftypesettingisessentiallythesameasTeX’s.(Howeversome
changeshavealsobeenmadeinthehyphenationstagethatmaygiveslightlydifferent
resultsifthesamedocumentiscompiledwithPDFTeXorXeTeX.)
polyglossia.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/polyglossia
xeCJK.sty
:
macros/xetex/latex/xecjk
ucharclasses.sty
:
macros/xetex/latex/ucharclasses
462 PDFTeXandLuaTeX
ElsewhereintheseFAQs,welearnthatdevelopmentofPDFTeX is“inessence”com-
plete—nonewfacilitiesarebeingdevelopedatthetimeofwriting.ThePDFTeXteam
hasannouncedthattheyhavefrozenPDFTeX’sspecificationinitscurrentstate(version
1.40.11),andthatnothingbutbugcorrectionswillbeprovideduptothetimeofthefinal
release,PDFTeX1.50.0.(Theinterpretationofthestatementseemstoallowsensible
changesthatarebeyondanyreasonabledefinitionofbug...)
AsPDFTeXdevelopmentrandown,developmentofanewsystem,LuaTeXwas
started.Luaisainterpreterdesignedtobeincorporatedintootherapplications.LuaTeX
consistsofaTeX-likeenginewithaluainterpreter‘embedded’init;theluainterpreter
hasaccesstomanyofthedatastructuresusedfortypesetting,sothattheprogrammer
mayalsointerpolatechunksofluacodeintotheir(La)TeXmacros,oras‘call-backs’
forusewhentheTeX-likeenginedoescertainoperations.
Thisarrangementofferstheprospectofa“semi-soft”typesettingengine: itwill
haveitsbasicbehaviour,buttheusergetstoredefinefunctionalityifanideaoccurs—
therewillbenoneedtopersuadetheworldfirst,andthenfindawillingdeveloperto
workonthesourcesofofthedistribution.
TheLuaTeXprojectis(with monetary support fromvarioussources)pursuing
avenuesthatmanyoftheothercurrentprojectshaveintheirsights,notablyUnicode
characterrepresentationsandsupportforOpenTypefonts. Theintentionistointe-
gratetheextensionspioneeredbyAleph. UsersmayalsocaretoviewtheLuaTeX
documentationpageortheLuaTeXWIKI
TeXLive(2013)holdsversion0.76.0ofLuaTeX.Thisversiondemonstratesthe
“finalfunctionality”,thoughtheprojectremainsab-release.Functionalstabilitywas
firstdeclaredforversion0.50.0,releasedneartheendofDecember2009.
ConTeXt‘Mark 4’canalreadymakeuseofLuaTeX;muchofitscodealready
appearsintwoforms—aTeX-basedversion(
.mkii
)anda‘
.mkiv
’version(new
functionalitytypicallyonlyappearsin‘
.mkiv
’form),whichusesLuaTeXextensions
(includingluascripting).LaTeXpackagesthatsupportitsuseareappearing(someof
themprovidingre-implementationsofexistingConTeXtcode).
LaTeXrunningoverLuaTeX(commonlyknownasLuaLaTeX)isnotan“official”
entity(yet),butusefulpackagesareappearing(i.e.,theCTANpath
macros/luatex/
latex
holdsseveralitems).
LuaTeXsnapshot:
systems/luatex
PDFTeXdistribution:
systems/pdftex
463 TheANTtypesettingsystem
AchimBlumensath’sANTprojectaimsnottoreplicateTeXwithadifferentimple-
mentationtechnique,butrathertoprovideareplacementforTeXwhichusesTeX-like
typesettingalgorithmsinaverydifferentprogrammingenvironment. ANTremains
underdevelopment,butitisnowapproachingthestatusofausabletypesettingsystem.
ANT’smarkuplanguageisimmediatelyrecognisabletothe(La)TeXuser,butthe
schemeofimplementingdesigninANT’sownimplementationlanguage(presently
318
OCaml)comesasapleasantsurprisetothejadedFAQwriter.Thisarchitectureholds
thepromiseofasystemthatavoidsasetofseriousproblemswithTeX’suserinterface:
thosethatderivefromthedesignlanguagebeingthesameasthemarkuplanguage.
ANT:
systems/ant
464 TheExTeXproject
TheExTeXprojectisbuildingontheexperienceofthemanyexistingTeXdevelopment
andextensionprojects,todevelopanewTeX-likesystem.Thesystemistobedeveloped
inJava(liketheill-fatedNTSproject).
WhileExTeXwill implementall of TeX’sprimitives,somemay bemarkedas
obsolete,and“modern”alternativesprovided(anobviousexampleistheprimitive
\input
command,whosesyntaxinevitablymakeslifedifficultforusersofmodern
operatingsystemfilepaths). Desirableextensionsfrome-TeX,PDFTeX andWhave
beenidentified.
Usabilitywillbeanotherfocusofthework: debuggingsupportandlogfiltering
mechanismswillpleasethosewhohavelongstruggledwithTeXmacros.
ExTeXwillaccept Unicodeinput, fromthestart. In thelongerterm,drawing
primitivesaretobeconsidered.
465 ReplacingtheBibTeX–LaTeXmechanism
ProducingasuccessortoBibTeXhaslongbeenafavouredactivityamongacertain
classofTeX-users;theauthorhasseenreportsofprogress(onseveralprojects),over
theyears,butfewthatclaimtobereadyfor“real-world”use.
FewwoulddenythatBibTeXisripeforrenewal:asoriginallyconceived,itwas
aprogram forcreatingbibliographiesfortechnical documents, in English. People
havecontributedmechanismsforadegreeofmultilingualuse(whosetechniquesare
arcane,andquitelikelyinextensible),whileanextension(bibtex8)allowsusewith8-bit
charactercodes,thusprovidingsomemultilingualcapabilities.Inaddition,specialist
BibTeXstylefilesareavailableforuseinnon-technicalpapers.
BibTeXusesastylelanguagewhosemechanismsareunfamiliartomostcurrent
programmers:it’sdifficulttolearn,butsincetherearefewopportunitiestowritethe
language,it’salsodifficulttobecomefluent(inthewaythatsomanypeoplefluently
writetheequallyarcaneTeXmacrolanguage).
OrenPatashnik(theauthorofBibTeX)summarisestheissuesasheseesthem,
inaTUGconferencepaperfrom2003thatseemstosuggestthatwemightexpecta
BibTeX1.0... whichhasn’t(yet)appeared.
IntheabsenceofBibTeX1.0,whatdoweneedfromthebibliographysystemofthe
future?—simple:asupersetofwhatBibTeXdoes(orcanbemadetodo),preferably
implementingasimplerstylelanguage,andwithcoherentmultilingualcapabilities.
Therearetwopartstoabibliographysystem;processingthedatabaseofcitations,
andtypesettingtheresults.TheexistingBibTeXsystemprovidesameansofprocessing
thedatabase,andtherearemacrosbuiltintoLaTeX,aswellasmanyLaTeXpackages,
thatprocesstheresults.
OfthedirectBibTeXreplacements,onlytwohavebeensubmittedtoCTAN:Cross-
TeXandbiber.
CrossTeX’slanguagefeelsfamiliartotheexistinguserofBibTeX,butit’sredesigned
inanobject-orientedstyle,andlooks(toanon-user)asifitmaywellbeadequately
flexible.ItissaidtooperateasaBibTeXreplacement.
CrossTeX’steamrespondtoqueries,andseemwellawareoftheneedformultilin-
gualsupport,thoughitisn’tcurrentlyoffered.
BiberisintimatelyassociatedwiththeLaTeXpackagebiblatex; itislogicallya
BibTeXreplacement,butisalsocapableofusingbibliographydatabasesinitsown
biblatexml(XML-based)format.BiblatexcanalsouseBibTeX,butbiberopensupafar
widerrangeofpossibilities,includingfullUnicodesupport.
BiblatexisaprocessorfortheoutputofanapplicationsuchasbiberorBibTeX;
thestyleofcitationsandofthebibliographyitself(inyourdocument)isdetermined
bythewayyourbiblatexstylehasbeensetup,notonsomeBibTeX-LaTeXpackage
319
combination.Biblatex’sstructurethuseliminatesthecollectionsofBibTeXstyles,at
astroke;itcomeswithabasicsetofstyles,anddetailsaredeterminedbyoptions,set
atpackageloadingtime. Theauthor,PhilippLehman,evaluatedthewholefieldof
bibliographysoftwarebeforestarting,andasaresultthepackageprovidesanswersto
manyofthequestionsaskedinthebibliographysectionsoftheseFAQs.
Biblatexwasreleasedasexperimentalsoftware,butit’sclearthatmanyusersare
alreadyusingithappily;Lehmanisresponsivetoproblemreports,atthemoment,but
adefactosetofexpertusersisalreadyestablishingitself.Asetofcontributedstyles
hasappeared,whichcoversomeofthetrickierbibliographystyles.Theroadmapof
theprojectshowsthatwearenowworkingonthefinalbetareleasesbeforethe“stable”
biblatex1.0.
Finally,Amsrefsusesatransformed
.bib
file,whichisexpressedasLaTeXmacros.
(ThepackageprovidesaBibTeXstylethatperformsthetransformation,sothataLaTeX
sourcecontaininga
\nocite{
*
}
commandenablesBibTeXtoproduceausableamsrefs
bibliographydatabase.)
AmsrefsismaintainedbytheAMSaspartofitsauthorsupportprogramme,
amsrefs.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/amsrefs
biber
:
biblio/biber
biblatex.sty
:
macros/latex/contrib/biblatex
bibtex8
:
biblio/bibtex/8-bit
biblatexcontributions:
macros/latex/contrib/biblatex-contrib
CrossTeX:
biblio/crosstex
W
You’restillstuck?
466 Youdon’tunderstandtheanswer
WhiletheFAQmaintainersdon’toffera‘help’service,they’revery keenthatyou
understandtheanswersthey’vealreadywritten.They’re(almost)written“inavacuum”,
toprovidesomethingtocoverasetofquestionsthathavearisen;it’salwayspossible
thatthey’rewritteninawaythatanovicewon’tunderstandthem.
Whichiswhereyoucanhelpthecommunity. Mailthemaintainerstoreportthe
answerthatyoufindunclear,and(ifyoucan)suggestwhatweneedtoclarify. Time
permitting(theteamissmallandallitsmembersarebusy),we’lltryandclarifythe
answer.Thisway,withabitofluck,wecantogetherimprovethevalueofthisresource
tothewholecommunity.
NotethattheFAQdevelopmentemailaddressisnotforansweringquestions:it’s
foryoutosuggestwhichquestionsweshouldworkon,ornewquestionsweshould
answerinfutureeditions.
Thosewhosimplyaskquestionsatthataddresswillbereferredto
texhax@tug.org
orto
comp.text.tex
.
467 SubmittingnewmaterialfortheFAQ
TheFAQwillneverbecomplete,and wealwaysexpect that therewill bepeople
outtherewhoknowbetterthan wedoaboutsomethingorother. Wealwaysneed
tobeputrightaboutwhateverwe’vegotwrong,andsuggestionsforimprovements,
particularlycoveringareaswe’vemissed,arealwaysneeded:mailanythingyouhaveto
themaintainers
Ifyouhaveactualmaterialtosubmit,yourcontributionismorethaneverwelcome.
Submissioninplaintextisentirelyacceptable,butifyou’rereallywilling,youmayfeel
freetomarkupyoursubmissionintheformneededfortheFAQitself.Themarkup
isastrongly-constrainedversionofLaTeX—theconstraintscomefromtheneedto
translatethemarked-uptexttoHTMLonthefly(andhenceprettyefficiently).Thereis
afile
markup-syntax
intheFAQdistributionthatdescribesthestructureofthemarkup,
butthere’snorealsubstituteforreadingatleastsomeofthesource(
faqbody.tex
)of
320
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