Iperf Tutorial
Jon Dugan <jdugan@es.net>
Summer JointTechs 2010, Columbus, OH
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Outline
What are we measuring?
TCP Measurements
UDP Measurements
Useful tricks
Iperf Development
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What are we measuring?
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Throughput?  Bandwidth?  What?
he term “throughput” is vague
• Capacity: link speed
Narrow Link: link with the lowest capacity along a path
Capacity of the end-to-end path = capacity of the narrow link
• Utilized bandwidth: current traffic load
• Available bandwidth: capacity – utilized bandwidth
Tight Link: link with the least available bandwidth in a path
• Achievable bandwidth: includes protocol and host issues
45 Mbps
10 Mbps
100 Mbps
45 Mbps
Narrow 
Link
Tight Link
ource
sink
(Shaded portion shows background traffic)
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Iperf data flow
Client is the sender
(data source)
Server is the receiver
(data sink)
Iperf discards
the data
Client
Client
Server
Server
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TCP Measurements
TCP Measurements
easures TCP Achievable Bandwidth
• Measurement includes the end system
• Sometimes called “memory-to-memory” tests
• Set expectations for well coded application
mits of what we can measure
• TCP hides details
• In hiding the details it can obscure what is causing errors
any things can limit TCP throughput
• Loss
• Congestion
• Buffer Starvation
• Out of order delivery
Example Iperf TCP Invocation
Server (receiver):
$ iperf -s
------------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
------------------------------------------------------------
[  4] local 10.0.1.5 port 5001 connected with 10.0.1.10 port 60830
[  4]  0.0-10.0 sec  1.09 GBytes 
933 Mbits/sec
[  4] local 10.0.1.5 port 5001 connected with 10.0.1.10 port 60831
[  4]  0.0-10.0 sec  1.08 GBytes 
931 Mbits/sec
Client (sender):
$ iperf -c 10.0.1.5
------------------------------------------------------------
Client connecting to 10.0.1.5, TCP port 5001
TCP window size:  129 KByte (default)
------------------------------------------------------------
[  3] local 10.0.1.10 port 60830 connected with 10.0.1.5 port 5001
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  3]  0.0-10.2 sec  1.09 GBytes 
913 Mbits/sec
TCP performance: window size
Use TCP auto tuning if possible
• Linux 2.6, Mac OS X 10.5, FreeBSD 7.x, and Windows Vista
The –w option for Iperf can be used to request a particular buffer size.
• Use this if your OS doesn’t have TCP auto tuning
• This sets both send and receive buffer size.
• The OS may need to be tweaked to allow buffers of sufficient size.
• See http://fasterdata.es.net/tuning.html 
for more details
Parallel transfers may help as well, the –P option can be used for this
To get full TCP performance the TCP window needs to be large 
enough to accommodate the Bandwidth Delay Product
TCP performance: 
Bandwidth Delay Product
The amount of “in flight” data allowed for a TCP connection
BDP = bandwidth * round trip time 
Example: 1Gb/s cross country, ~100ms
1,000,000,000 b/s * .1 s = 100,000,000 bits
100,000,000 / 8 =  12,500,000 bytes
12,500,000 bytes / (1024*1024)  ~ 12MB
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