209
L
eading
to
L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
chapter 6
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 6.6
Relationship between school leadership style and co-ordination  
and professional collaboration among teachers (2007-08)
Significant variables in the multilevel linear regression of the indices for school leadership styles on the indices  
for co-ordination and professional collaboration in lower secondary education1, 2
Example: In Hungary, teachers are more likely to exchange and co-ordinate in their teaching activities if they work with a principal who 
adopts a more pronounced instructional style of leadership.
Exchange and co-ordination for teaching
Professional collaboration
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Instructional leadership
Administrative leadership
Instructional leadership
Administrative leadership
Australia
Austria
Belgium (Fl.)
Brazil
Bulgaria
Denmark
Estonia
Hungary
+
+
Iceland
+
+
Ireland
Italy
Korea
Lithuania
+
+
Malaysia
+
+
Malta
+
+
Mexico
+
Norway
+
Poland
+
+
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
1. Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level.
2. Controlling for the teacher’s gender, level of education, years of experience, employment status, whether they work in another school and the size of the 
community in which the school is located.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
Convert pdf images to text - Convert PDF to txt files in C#.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF application
C# PDF to Text (TXT) Converting Library to Convert PDF to Text
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Convert pdf images to text - VB.NET PDF Convert to Text SDK: Convert PDF to txt files in vb.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF application
VB.NET Guide and Sample Codes to Convert PDF to Text in .NET Project
convert pdf table to text; convert pdf to txt batch
chapter 6 L
eading
to
L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
210
© OECD 2009
Table 6.7
Relationship between school leadership style and classroom disciplinary climate, time on task  
and teacher-student relation indices (2007-08)
Significant variables in the multilevel linear regression of the indices for school leadership styles and the indices  
for classroom disciplinary climate, time on task and teacher-student relations in lower secondary education1, 2
Example: In Denmark, teachers are more likely to report better relations with students if they work with a principal who adopts a more 
pronounced instructional style of leadership.
Classroom disciplinary climate
Percentage of time dedicated to actual 
teaching and learning in class
Teacher-Student relation
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Australia
Austria
Belgium (Fl.)
Brazil
Bulgaria
Denmark
+
Estonia
Hungary
+
Iceland
+
+
+
Ireland
Italy
Korea
Lithuania
Malaysia
Malta
+
+
+
Mexico
+
Norway
Poland
Portugal
+
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
Turkey
1. Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level. 
2. Controlling for the teacher’s gender, level of education, years of experience, employment status, whether they work in another school and the size of the 
community in which the school is located.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
C# Create PDF from images Library to convert Jpeg, png images to
String outputFilePath = Program.RootPath + "\\output.pdf"; doc.Save(outputFilePath); C# Example: Convert More than Two Type Images to PDF in C#.NET Application.
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VB.NET PDF Convert to Jpeg SDK: Convert PDF to JPEG images in vb.
PDF, C#.NET convert open office to PDF, C#.NET convert csv to PDF, C#.NET convert PDF to svg, C#.NET convert PDF to text, C#.NET convert PDF to images, C#.NET
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211
L
eading
to
L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
chapter 6
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 6.8
Relationship between school leadership style and teacher’s job satisfaction and self-efficacy (2007-08)
Significant variables in the multilevel linear regression of the indices for school leadership styles and the indices  
for teacher’s job satisfaction and self-efficacy in lower secondary education1, 2
Example: In Estonia, teachers tend to be more satisfied with their jobs if they work with a principal who adopts a more pronounced instructional 
style of leadership.
Teachers’ job satisfaction
Teachers’ self-efficacy
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Instructional leadership
Administrative leadership
Instructional leadership
Administrative leadership
Australia
Austria
Belgium (Fl.)
Brazil
Bulgaria
Denmark
Estonia
+
Hungary
+
+
Iceland
+
+
Ireland
Italy
Korea
Lithuania
Malaysia
Malta
+
+
Mexico
Norway
Poland
Portugal
+
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
Spain
+
Turkey
+
1. Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level. 
2. Controlling for the teacher’s gender, level of education, years of experience, employment status, whether they work in another school and the size of the 
community in which the school is located.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
C# PDF Convert to Jpeg SDK: Convert PDF to JPEG images in C#.net
Following demo code will show how to convert all PDF pages to Jpeg images with C# .NET. // Load a PDF file. String inputFilePath
convert pdf to text online no email; convert scanned pdf to text online
VB.NET PDF Convert to Tiff SDK: Convert PDF to tiff images in vb.
images can be stored in a single TIFF file. RasterEdge.Imaging.PDF.dll offers complete APIs for developers to view, compress, annotate, process and convert PDF
converting pdf to editable text for; c# read text from pdf
chapter 6 L
eading
to
L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
212
© OECD 2009
Table 6.9
Relationship between school leadership style and objectives of teacher appraisals (2007-08) 
Significant variables in the multilevel linear regression of the indices for school leadership styles and aspects  
of teacher appraisals in lower secondary education1,2
Example:  In Australia, a greater importance is given to  innovative teaching practices in teacher appraisals if the school principal adopts a more 
pronounced instructional style of leadership.
Factors considered in teacher appraisals
Objective of teacher 
appraisal is to inform an 
administrative level above 
the school3
Student test scores
Retention and pass rates of 
the students
Professional development 
undertaken by the teacher
Innovative teaching 
practices
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional 
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Australia
+
Austria
+
+
+
+
+
Belgium (Fl.)
+
Brazil
+
+
Bulgaria
+
+
+
Denmark
+
+
+
Estonia
+
+
+
+
+
Hungary
+
+
+
+
Iceland
+
+
+
Ireland
+
+
Italy
+
Korea
+
Lithuania
+
+
Malaysia
Malta
+
Mexico
+
+
+
+
+
Norway
+
+
Poland
+
Portugal
+
+
+
Slovak Republic
+
Slovenia
+
+
+
+
Spain
+
+
+
Turkey
+
+
1. Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level.
2. Controlling for the principal’s gender, level of education, years of experience, employment status, whether they work in another school and the size of the 
community in which the school is located, the public/private status of the school, the student-teacher ratio and average class size in the school.
3. School board, municipality, school district and school inspectorate. 
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
C# PDF Convert to Images SDK: Convert PDF to png, gif images in C#
C#.NET PDF SDK - Convert & Render PDF to Images in C#.NET. Description: Convert all the PDF pages to target format images and output into the directory.
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213
L
eading
to
L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
chapter 6
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 6.10
Relationship between school leadership style and outcomes of teacher appraisals (2007-08)
Significant variables in the multilevel linear regression of the indices for school leadership styles and the actions taken  
if a teacher appraisal reveals weaknesses in the teachers’ work, in lower secondary education1, 2
Example: In Austria, a training or development plan is more likely to be provided for a teacher if the principal adopts a more pronounced 
instructional style of leadership.
A development or training plan  
is established for the teacher to address  
the weaknesses in their teaching
Material sanctions  
are imposed on the teacher
The underperformance is reported  
to another body to take action
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Instructional  
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional  
leadership
Administrative 
leadership
Instructional  
leadership 
Administrative 
leadership
Australia
Austria
+
Belgium (Fl.)
+
Brazil
+
Bulgaria
+
+
+
Denmark
Estonia
+
Hungary
+
Iceland
+
Ireland
-
Italy
Korea
+
Lithuania
+
Malaysia
+
Malta
+
+
Mexico
+
Norway
+
+
Poland
Portugal
+
Slovak Republic
+
+
+
Slovenia
+
Spain
+
Turkey
+
1. Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level. 
2. Controlling for the principal’s gender, level of education, years of experience, employment status, whether they work in another school and the size of the 
community in which the school is located.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
VB.NET PDF Convert to Images SDK: Convert PDF to png, gif images
service, DNN (DotNetNuke), SharePoint. VB.NET components for batch convert high resolution images from PDF. Convert PDF documents to
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images to HTML images in VB.NET. Embed PDF hyperlinks to HTML links in VB.NET. Available zoom setting (fit page, fit width). .NET component to convert adobe PDF
pdf image to text; convert pdf to text c#
chapter 6 L
eading
to
L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
214
© OECD 2009
Table 6.11
Relationship between school leadership style and the professional development of teachers (2007-08)
Significant variables in the multilevel linear regression of the indices for school leadership styles on aspects  
of teachers’ professional development in lower secondary education1, 2
Example: In Bulgaria, teachers are more likely to want more professional development than they undertook if the school principal adopts a 
more pronounced administrative style of leadership.
Number of days of professional development taken  
during the last 18 months 
Teachers wanting more professional development than  
they received in the last 18 months
Dependent on:
Dependent on:
Instructional leadership
Administrative leadership
Instructional leadership
Administrative leadership
Australia
Austria
Belgium (Fl.)
Brazil
Bulgaria
+
Denmark
Estonia
Hungary
+
Iceland
+
+
+
+
Ireland
Italy
Korea
Lithuania
Malaysia
Malta
+
+
+
Mexico
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Slovenia
+
Spain
+
Turkey
+
1. Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level. 
2. Controlling for the teacher’s gender, level of education, years of experience, employment status, whether they work in another school and the size of the 
community in which the school is located.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
215
L
eading
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L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
chapter 6
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 6.12
Relationship between the background characteristics of the principals and their school  
and the use of instructional leadership style (2007-08)
Significant values for principals in lower secondary education
School principals’ characteristics
School characteristics
Frequency  
of school  
self-evaluation
Criteria in school 
evaluation
Influence 
of school 
evaluations
Gender (Female)
Level of education (Master or 
higher)
Years of experience ( < 5 years )
Years of experience ( 6-15 years)
Work in other school
Constructivist beliefs about 
instruction
Public school
Locality of the school: Village
Locality of the school: Town
Student-teacher ratio
Average of class size
Once in 5 years
Two or more during 5 years
Student test scores
Innovative teaching practices
Teacher’s professional 
development
Appraisal of the school 
management (high influence)
Appraisal of the individual 
teachers (high influence)
Australia
+
Austria
+
+
+
Belgium (Fl.)
+
+
+
+
Brazil
+
+
+
Bulgaria
+
+
+
+
Denmark
+
+
+
+
Estonia
+
+
+
+
Hungary
+
Iceland
+
+
+
+
+
Ireland
+
Italy
a
+
+
Korea
+
+
+
+
+
Lithuania
+
Malaysia
+
+
+
Malta
+
+
Mexico
+
+
+
Norway
+
+
+
+
+
+
Poland
+
Portugal
+
+
+
Slovak Republic
a
+
Slovenia
a
+
+
Spain
+
+
+
+
+
Turkey
+
+
+
+
+
+
Note:  
– Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level. 
– “a” denotes that the variable is not available.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
chapter 6 L
eading
to
L
earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
216
© OECD 2009
Table 6.13
Relationship between the background characteristics of the principals and their school  
and the use of administrative leadership style (2007-08)
Significant values for principals in lower secondary education
School principals’ characteristics
School characteristics
Frequency  
of school  
self-evaluation
Criteria in school 
evaluation
Influence 
of school 
evaluations
Gender (Female)
Level of education (Master or 
higher)
Years of experience ( < 5 years )
Years of experience ( 6-15 years)
Work in other school
Constructivist beliefs about 
instruction
Public school
Locality of the school: Village
Locality of the school: Town
Student-teacher ratio
Average of class size
Once in 5 years
Two or more during 5 years
Student test scores
Innovative teaching practices
Teacher’s professional 
development
Appraisal of the school 
management (high influence)
Appraisal of the individual 
teachers (high influence)
Australia
+
+
+
Austria
+
+
Belgium (Fl.)
+
+
Brazil
+
+
Bulgaria
+
+
+
+
+
Denmark
+
+
+
Estonia
+
+
Hungary
+
+
+
+
Iceland
+
Ireland
+
+
Italy
a
+
Korea
+
+
+
Lithuania
+
Malaysia
+
Malta
+
+
Mexico
+
Norway
+
+
+
Poland
+
+
+
Portugal
+
Slovak Republic
a
+
Slovenia
a
Spain
+
+
Turkey
+
+
+
+
Note:  
– Variables where a significant positive relationship was found are indicated by a “+” while those where a significant negative relationship was found are shown 
with a “”. Cells are blank where no significant relationship was found. Significance was tested at the 5% level. 
– “a” denotes that the variable is not available.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
217
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eading
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earn
: S
chooL
L
eaderShip
and
M
anageMent
S
tyLeS
chapter 6
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 6.14
Correlation between leadership styles and types of evaluation1 (2007-08)
Correlations for school principals in lower secondary education
Instructional leadership
Administrative leadership
School self-evaluation
External evaluation
School self-evaluation
External evaluation
Australia
0.24
0.10
0.14
-0.01
Austria
0.20
0.21
-0.03
-0.01
Belgium (Fl.)
0.34
0.14
0.21
0.10
Brazil
0.31
0.26
-0.05
-0.01
Bulgaria
0.10
0.19
0.02
-0.06
Denmark
0.23
0.25
0.30
0.25
Estonia
0.09
0.06
0.16
0.07
Hungary
0.11
0.16
0.00
-0.02
Iceland
0.22
0.18
-0.09
0.26
Ireland
0.22
0.17
0.19
0.08
Italy
0.09
0.09
0.03
0.17
Korea
0.21
0.16
0.18
0.14
Lithuania
0.14
-0.03
0.10
0.01
Malaysia
0.28
0.10
0.22
0.18
Malta
0.30
0.01
0.15
-0.11
Mexico
0.11
0.06
0.06
0.05
Norway
0.12
0.14
0.11
0.07
Poland
0.08
0.12
-0.02
0.01
Portugal
0.14
0.12
0.16
0.15
Slovak Republic
0.19
0.06
0.03
0.09
Slovenia
0.12
0.16
-0.02
0.10
Spain
0.23
0.13
0.33
0.12
Turkey
0.15
0.40
0.06
0.15
1. Whether or not an evaluation was conducted in the previous five years.
Note: Correlations that are significant at the 5% level are shaded in light gray.
Source: OECD, TALISDatabase.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/608025205225
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