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39
A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
chapter 2
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
In addition to deciding which courses are offered within schools, decisions on course content and textbooks 
used by students shed further light on the degree of school autonomy. In all but four TALIS countries (Malaysia, 
Malta, Mexico and Turkey) over 90% of teachers worked in schools with considerable responsibility for choosing 
the textbooks used in the courses they teach, and of these four countries, only in Malaysia and Turkey did fewer 
than 60% of teachers work in such schools. Fewer teachers in TALIS countries worked in schools whose school 
principal reported considerable school-level responsibility for determining course content. On average across 
TALIS countries, 66% of teachers worked in schools which had this responsibility. This was more common in 
Denmark, Hungary and Italy where over 95% of teachers worked in schools with considerable responsibility in 
determining the content of courses they teach but is found less frequently in Bulgaria (28%), Malaysia (33%), 
Mexico (33%) and Turkey (27%). 
school climate
An important aspect of both the working lives of school principals and teachers and of the education provided to 
students is school climate, as indicated by the actions of the students and professionals in schools. As previous 
research has shown, school climate can influence student attainment and learning. For example, analysis of 
PISA data showed that a positive school climate was associated with higher levels of student achievement 
(OECD, 2004). A positive school climate can also have a positive impact on teachers and their working lives 
just as a positive organisational climate can benefit employees, increase their job satisfaction and affect their 
productivity (Lazear, 2000).  
Figure 2.5
Percentage of teachers whose school principal reported that the following teacher behaviours hindered
the provision of instruction in their school a lot or to some extent (2007-08)
%
Mexico
Italy
Turkey
Spain
Lithuania
Australia
Brazil
Korea
Ireland
Malaysia
TALIS Average
Hungary
Portugal
Malta
Austria
Slovenia
Iceland
Denmark
Norway
Belgium (Fl.)
Estonia
Slovak Republic
Bulgaria
Poland
Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of teachers whose school principal reported a lack of pedagogical preparation
as a factor hindering instruction.
Source: OECD, Table 2.8.
Lack of pedagogical preparation
Arriving late at school
Absenteeism
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1
 2
 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
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chapter 2 A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
40
© OECD 2009
School climate is the result of a variety of factors and actions that affect both students and teachers. School 
principals reported on the extent to which 14 aspects of teacher and student behaviour hindered instruction 
in their school. Information was collected on three types of teacher behaviour which can hinder instruction: 
teachers arriving late at school, teacher absenteeism, and teachers’ lack of preparation. Information from school 
principals on the extent to which such behaviour hindered instruction in their school is presented in Table 2.8 
and Figure 2.5. Information on student behaviour, which was more generally considered as hindering student 
learning, is presented in Table 2.8a and includes: students arriving late at school; absenteeism; classroom 
disturbances; cheating; profanity/swearing; vandalism; theft; intimidation or verbal abuse of other students; 
physical injury to other students; intimidation or verbal abuse of teachers or staff; and use or possession of drugs 
and/or alcohol.
Countries varied markedly in the extent to which school principals reported that teachers’ actions hindered 
instruction. While on average across TALIS countries around one-quarter of teachers work in schools whose 
school principal reported that teacher absenteeism and lack of preparation hindered instruction “to some extent” 
or “a lot”, the problem was greater in certain countries. Over half of teachers worked in schools whose school 
principal reported a lack of preparation by teachers in Italy (53% of teachers) and Mexico (70%) (Table 2.8). In 
Mexico, the problem appears to be compounded by a similar proportion of teachers in schools whose school 
principal reported that instruction was hindered “to some extent” or “a lot” by teacher absenteeism and by 
teachers arriving late at school. On average across TALIS countries, only 15% of teachers worked in schools 
whose school principal reported that teachers arriving late at school hindered instruction. 
Students’ actions were reported to hinder instruction to a greater degree than teachers’ actions. The most 
important were classroom disturbances (60% of teachers worked in schools whose school principal reported 
that instruction was hindered “to some extent” or “a lot” by classroom disturbances), student absenteeism 
(46%), students arriving late at school (39%), profanity and swearing (37%), and intimidation or verbal abuse 
of other students (35%). School principals reported that intimidation or verbal abuse of teachers and other staff 
(17%), physical injury to other students (16%), theft (15%), and use or possession of drugs and alcohol (11%) 
were not considered problems to the same extent (Table 2.8a).   
Given the cultural context of school principals’ reports, it is important to look at differences both within and 
between countries. Of the student actions reported by school principals as being most important in terms of 
their impact upon instruction in their school, classroom disturbances, student absenteeism and arriving late 
at school were the three most frequently reported student-related factors that hinder instruction in Australia, 
Bulgaria, Estonia, Iceland, Ireland, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, Spain and Turkey (Table 2.8a). 
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41
A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
chapter 2
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 2.1
Gender and age distribution of teachers (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education with the following characteristics
Female teachers
Female school 
principals1
Percentage of teachers in each age group
Teachers aged 
under 25 years
Teachers aged 
25-29 years
Teachers aged 
30-39 years
Teachers aged 
40-49 years
Teachers aged  
50-59 years
Teachers aged  
60 years or more
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
59.2
(1.14)
38.2
(4.80)
4.5
(0.53)
13.7
(0.74)
22.6
(1.09)
26.5
(0.99)
28.9
(1.16)
3.8
(0.43)
Austria
67.9
(0.74)
29.2
(3.54)
0.7
(0.12)
6.0
(0.48)
15.4
(0.71)
36.9
(0.96)
39.9
(1.12)
1.2
(0.17)
Belgium (Fl.)
68.9
(1.45)
38.2
(4.29)
8.3
(0.67)
18.4
(0.78)
26.3
(0.85)
23.6
(1.18)
22.9
(0.86)
0.5
(0.20)
Brazil
73.6
(1.00)
76.0
(2.76)
6.1
(0.80)
15.9
(0.92)
34.1
(1.10)
31.5
(1.00)
11.2
(0.62)
1.2
(0.19)
Bulgaria
82.7
(1.02)
69.0
(5.98)
1.7
(0.57)
5.2
(0.94)
23.9
(1.17)
32.9
(1.99)
33.2
(1.37)
3.1
(0.44)
Denmark
58.1
(1.22)
37.8
(5.33)
0.9
(0.25)
7.3
(0.64)
30.0
(1.29)
23.3
(1.53)
30.8
(1.31)
7.8
(0.80)
Estonia
83.7
(0.55)
56.4
(3.25)
2.5
(0.34)
8.4
(0.49)
18.2
(0.78)
32.0
(0.87)
27.1
(1.00) 11.7
(0.64)
Hungary
76.9
(1.30)
49.0
(5.40)
1.4
(0.36)
11.0
(1.08)
24.5
(1.07)
35.0
(1.18)
26.2
(1.17)
1.9
(0.35)
Iceland
69.1
(1.46)
49.1
(5.15)
2.6
(0.44)
10.9
(0.88)
26.0
(1.17)
31.0
(1.21)
23.0
(1.13)
6.6
(0.68)
Ireland
68.6
(1.24)
34.9
(4.40)
4.4
(0.48)
17.3
(0.98)
29.2
(1.17)
22.0
(1.06)
23.8
(1.19)
3.3
(0.37)
Italy
77.7
(0.68)
45.8
(4.93)
0.1
(0.08)
2.4
(0.26)
17.2
(0.83)
28.7
(0.77)
44.8
(1.06)
6.7
(0.44)
Korea
64.4
(1.33)
15.0
(4.16)
0.6
(0.14)
11.9
(0.85)
25.4
(0.97)
45.4
(1.23)
15.7
(0.89)
1.1
(0.22)
Lithuania
84.9
(0.60)
52.5
(4.30)
2.3
(0.32)
6.4
(0.50)
21.3
(0.79)
32.4
(0.92)
27.9
(0.88)
9.7
(0.70)
Malaysia
66.0
(0.97)
42.3
(3.68)
1.6
(0.33)
16.9
(0.74)
42.2
(0.92)
31.5
(0.80)
7.6
(0.51)
0.1
(0.13)
Malta
61.4
(1.74)
41.4
(6.45)
10.6
(1.07)
22.1
(1.33)
35.9
(1.78)
13.2
(1.13)
17.1
(1.30)
1.1
(0.28)
Mexico
53.2
(1.26)
34.7
(5.11)
3.0
(0.47)
11.7
(1.01)
25.8
(1.01)
37.3
(1.14)
18.7
(0.94)
3.5
(0.49)
Norway
60.4
(1.07)
41.4
(4.14)
0.8
(0.21)
8.4
(0.66)
31.1
(1.12)
19.8
(0.90)
27.9
(1.10) 12.0
(0.71)
Poland
76.3
(0.68)
68.7
(3.69)
1.7
(0.29)
13.5
(0.72)
36.0
(0.91)
34.5
(1.05)
13.4
(0.66)
0.9
(0.25)
Portugal
70.7
(0.92)
40.0
(4.11)
0.5
(0.14)
7.4
(0.55)
40.0
(1.22)
36.3
(1.15)
14.2
(0.98)
1.7
(0.31)
Slovak Republic
81.7
(0.80)
60.3
(4.86)
3.4
(0.49)
12.7
(0.82)
25.6
(1.16)
22.8
(0.94)
30.1
(1.11)
5.3
(0.66)
Slovenia
80.4
(0.68)
57.4
(3.95)
0.5
(0.13)
10.6
(0.65)
28.1
(0.93)
36.5
(0.91)
22.8
(0.83)
1.5
(0.20)
Spain
56.9
(0.97)
39.6
(5.25)
0.4
(0.17)
6.2
(0.46)
29.7
(1.06)
33.8
(0.95)
25.8
(1.06)
4.1
(0.45)
Turkey
52.0
(2.27)
8.8
(6.30)
10.1
(1.47)
33.8
(2.25)
35.0
(1.33)
14.7
(1.35)
6.2
(0.72)
0.1
(0.08)
TALIS average
69.3
(0.24)
44.6
(0.98)
3.0
(0.11)
12.1
(0.19)
28.0
(0.23)
29.6
(0.23)
23.5
(0.21)
3.9
(0.09)
1. Percentage of principals of schools providing lower secondary education.
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
Table 2.2
Teachers’ educational attainment (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education by highest level of education completed
Below ISCED level 5
ISCED level 5B1
ISCED level 5A  
(Bachelor degree)
ISCED level 5A  
(Master degree)
ISCED level 6
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
0.3
(0.10)
1.0
(0.25)
82.8
(0.96)
13.7
(0.83)
2.2
(0.33)
Austria
3.1
(0.30)
59.3
(0.78)
1.3
(0.25)
33.6
(0.74)
2.6
(0.29)
Belgium (Fl.)
3.4
(0.38)
84.2
(0.96)
4.2
(0.42)
8.1
(0.73)
0.1
(0.07)
Brazil
8.6
(1.00)
0.2
(0.08)
89.3
(1.02)
1.8
(0.25)
0.1
(0.05)
Bulgaria
3.7
(1.06)
15.7
(1.69)
16.4
(1.21)
64.0
(2.64)
0.2
(0.06)
Denmark
1.9
(0.37)
0.2
(0.10)
90.3
(1.00)
7.5
(0.89)
0.0
(0.03)
Estonia
7.0
(0.51)
6.5
(0.46)
40.3
(1.15)
46.0
(1.21)
0.3
(0.11)
Hungary
0.2
(0.10)
0.1
(0.08)
71.5
(2.13)
27.8
(2.09)
0.4
(0.08)
Iceland
12.1
(0.79)
20.8
(1.15)
60.6
(1.22)
6.3
(0.70)
0.2
(0.12)
Ireland
0.6
(0.20)
3.4
(0.33)
79.4
(0.70)
15.9
(0.78)
0.8
(0.19)
Italy
5.3
(0.30)
9.4
(0.42)
6.9
(0.37)
77.4
(0.58)
0.9
(0.19)
Korea
0.3
(0.11)
0.3
(0.14)
64.7
(1.39)
33.9
(1.35)
0.7
(0.16)
Lithuania
4.1
(0.38)
13.0
(0.77)
47.0
(1.46)
35.7
(1.39)
0.1
(0.07)
Malaysia
1.0
(0.12)
12.1
(0.60)
79.4
(0.79)
7.5
(0.55)
0.0
(0.00)
Malta
3.7
(0.50)
13.3
(1.11)
71.9
(1.50)
10.7
(1.11)
0.4
(0.22)
Mexico
10.4
(0.94)
3.0
(0.43)
75.6
(1.05)
10.7
(0.72)
0.3
(0.11)
Norway
0.9
(0.19)
0.0
(0.00)
76.5
(0.92)
22.5
(0.92)
0.0
(0.04)
Poland
0.3
(0.11)
1.2
(0.27)
4.1
(0.42)
94.0
(0.46)
0.5
(0.18)
Portugal
0.4
(0.11)
4.3
(0.43)
84.4
(0.76)
10.7
(0.71)
0.2
(0.09)
Slovak Republic
2.5
(0.36)
0.0
(0.00)
0.5
(0.15)
96.2
(0.43)
0.8
(0.20)
Slovenia
3.7
(0.34)
41.9
(1.04)
52.9
(1.05)
1.4
(0.20)
0.1
(0.04)
Spain
3.5
(0.35)
1.6
(0.22)
11.4
(0.85)
78.8
(0.89)
4.7
(0.41)
Turkey
0.0
(0.00)
6.0
(0.57)
88.2
(0.96)
5.6
(0.90)
0.2
(0.11)
TALIS average
3.4
(0.10)
12.9
(0.14)
52.1
(0.22)
30.9
(0.22)
0.7
(0.04)
– ISCED level 5A  programmes are generally longer and more theoretically based, while 5B programmes are typically shorter and more practical and skills oriented. 
A distinction was made between ISCED level 5A (Bachelor) and ISCED level 5A (Master). 
– ISCED level 6 is the second stage of tertiary education and leads to an advanced research qualification (e.g. PhD).
1. Includes Bachelor degrees for some countries.
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
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chapter 2 A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
42
© OECD 2009
Table 2.3
Employment status and job experience of teachers (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education with the following characteristics
Employment status
Job experience
Permanently 
employed
Fixed-term contract: 
More than  
1 school year
Fixed-term contract: 
1 school year  
or less
Teachers in their 
first 2 years of 
teaching
Teachers working 
for 3-10 years
Teachers working 
for 11-20 years
Teachers working 
for 20+ years
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
86.8
(1.00)
4.3
(0.73)
8.9
(0.71)
11.3
(0.85)
28.4
(1.22)
24.9
(0.98)
35.4
(1.33)
Austria
89.3
(0.64)
2.0
(0.28)
8.7
(0.55)
4.4
(0.40)
15.1
(0.78)
23.3
(0.81)
57.2
(1.17)
Belgium (Fl.)
80.7
(0.90)
4.8
(0.41)
14.6
(0.83)
8.5
(0.76)
35.1
(1.38)
22.4
(0.94)
34.0
(1.09)
Brazil
74.2
(1.46)
7.1
(0.79)
18.7
(1.41)
9.6
(0.77)
38.6
(1.24)
32.4
(1.09)
19.3
(1.00)
Bulgaria
84.6
(1.25)
4.4
(0.67)
11.0
(1.10)
5.9
(0.69)
17.2
(0.69)
28.9
(1.27)
48.0
(1.53)
Denmark
96.6
(0.63)
0.3
(0.15)
3.1
(0.62)
9.5
(0.84)
35.1
(1.46)
16.9
(1.16)
38.5
(1.38)
Estonia
84.2
(1.12)
5.0
(0.46)
10.8
(0.91)
6.4
(0.51)
20.7
(0.83)
27.3
(1.06)
45.6
(1.09)
Hungary
86.1
(1.75)
2.9
(0.49)
11.0
(1.52)
5.7
(1.76)
21.9
(1.12)
25.0
(0.82)
47.4
(1.41)
Iceland
74.6
(1.12)
6.2
(0.67)
19.2
(0.98)
16.7
(0.99)
35.5
(1.19)
24.6
(1.21)
23.2
(1.06)
Ireland
73.4
(1.10)
7.8
(0.67)
18.8
(1.00)
7.1
(0.60)
33.1
(1.10)
24.6
(1.04)
35.3
(1.35)
Italy
80.6
(0.85)
a
a
19.4
(0.85)
5.9
(0.51)
19.8
(0.87)
20.9
(0.76)
53.4
(1.10)
Korea
95.6
(0.41)
4.2
(0.42)
0.2
(0.08)
6.5
(0.70)
26.2
(1.09)
33.4
(1.01)
33.9
(1.12)
Lithuania
92.4
(0.56)
4.2
(0.40)
3.4
(0.38)
4.8
(0.48)
17.6
(0.76)
28.8
(0.94)
48.8
(1.22)
Malaysia
97.8
(0.29)
1.9
(0.33)
0.4
(0.20)
9.7
(0.63)
37.0
(0.97)
37.2
(0.95)
16.1
(0.68)
Malta
96.3
(0.55)
1.2
(0.34)
2.5
(0.46)
12.8
(1.00)
41.2
(1.42)
28.6
(1.41)
17.4
(1.29)
Mexico
86.8
(1.88)
5.0
(0.56)
8.2
(1.74)
8.7
(1.05)
27.7
(1.15)
29.4
(1.27)
34.2
(1.63)
Norway
89.9
(0.88)
1.8
(0.35)
8.3
(0.80)
7.8
(0.80)
31.7
(1.10)
21.4
(0.98)
39.1
(1.49)
Poland
77.1
(1.11)
5.1
(0.67)
17.8
(0.93)
7.8
(0.64)
31.9
(0.95)
29.6
(0.78)
30.7
(0.97)
Portugal
67.6
(1.39)
15.0
(0.88)
17.4
(0.99)
3.7
(0.34)
23.6
(1.13)
46.5
(1.21)
26.1
(1.60)
Slovak Republic
82.1
(1.09)
3.8
(0.48)
14.1
(1.02)
7.7
(0.82)
29.1
(1.25)
21.7
(0.92)
41.5
(1.41)
Slovenia
82.8
(0.79)
2.2
(0.34)
15.0
(0.78)
6.2
(0.45)
27.0
(1.04)
21.3
(0.94)
45.4
(1.13)
Spain
75.6
(1.06)
6.5
(0.41)
17.9
(1.01)
5.8
(0.49)
28.4
(1.02)
30.6
(0.91)
35.2
(1.36)
Turkey
88.3
(1.32)
4.6
(0.79)
7.0
(0.95)
18.0
(1.85)
50.7
(2.11)
19.4
(1.37)
12.0
(1.26)
TALIS average
84.5
(0.23)
4.6
(0.11)
11.1
(0.20)
8.3
(0.18)
29.2
(0.24)
26.9
(0.22)
35.5
(0.26)
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
Table 2.4
School personnel characteristics and the percentage of teachers in public schools (2007-08)
Average numbers of students and average staff ratios in schools in which teachers of lower secondary education work  
(includes both public and private schools), and percentage of lower secondary teachers in public schools
Number of students  
in schools1
Ratio of teachers to 
number of personnel for 
pedagogical support
Ratio of teachers to number 
of school administrative or 
management personnel
Average class size (Lower 
secondary education only)
Public schools
Mean
(S.E.)
Mean
(S.E.)
Mean
(S.E.)
Mean
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
754.0
(49.85)
8.3
(0.61)
5.5
(0.30)
24.6
0.20
56.1
(1.80)
Austria
300.6
(9.84)
24.1
(1.08)
22.6
(0.82)
21.1
0.14
89.1
(1.91)
Belgium (Fl.)
491.2
(20.15)
20.5
(1.63)
11.7
(0.73)
17.5
0.27
27.6
(1.39)
Brazil
601.2
(16.90)
11.9
(0.72)
6.9
(0.30)
32.2
0.35
84.9
(0.81)
Bulgaria
314.7
(16.22)
12.3
(1.31)
4.8
(0.42)
20.7
0.35
99.1
(0.54)
Denmark
340.4
(20.69)
9.1
(0.97)
7.5
(0.38)
20.0
0.22
71.5
(1.65)
Estonia
361.3
(8.35)
10.4
(0.69)
7.6
(0.21)
20.5
0.32
97.2
(1.49)
Hungary
394.3
(23.16)
7.3
(0.69)
8.3
(0.48)
20.2
0.57
81.3
(4.03)
Iceland
266.5
(12.57)
5.7
(0.60)
6.3
(0.22)
18.6
0.02
98.3
(0.06)
Ireland
454.5
(11.51)
15.8
(1.06)
11.1
(0.41)
21.9
0.18
45.2
(2.54)
Italy
617.9
(30.35)
20.4
(3.22)
7.5
(0.32)
21.3
0.16
96.1
(1.14)
Korea
646.6
(41.75)
14.0
(1.12)
4.9
(0.32)
34.6
0.43
82.1
(2.91)
Lithuania
381.9
(10.11)
16.7
(1.10)
8.3
(0.23)
19.3
0.24
98.5
(0.93)
Malaysia
1046.0
(25.94)
12.4
(1.01)
7.5
(0.45)
34.9
0.28
98.8
(0.57)
Malta
495.8
(20.83)
7.9
(0.74)
8.7
(0.57)
19.6
0.01
67.5
(0.16)
Mexico
436.0
(19.09)
7.9
(0.68)
5.0
(0.34)
37.8
0.55
83.0
(1.20)
Norway
243.0
(10.11)
7.0
(0.41)
8.3
(0.31)
21.4
0.29
96.3
(1.90)
Poland
242.2
(13.35)
9.4
(0.56)
9.0
(0.48)
20.8
0.27
94.4
(1.48)
Portugal
800.8
(33.65)
10.8
(1.64)
10.5
(0.59)
21.3
0.21
89.3
(0.73)
Slovak Republic
351.8
(14.52)
14.3
(1.15)
4.7
(0.17)
21.1
0.26
87.8
(3.03)
Slovenia
377.1
(6.56)
18.3
(1.16)
7.8
(0.34)
18.8
0.18
100.0
(0.00)
Spain
536.7
(25.78)
19.0
(0.91)
8.8
(0.68)
21.7
0.26
75.6
(2.34)
Turkey
795.5
(53.98)
22.2
(2.53)
10.4
(0.49)
31.3
0.75
92.5
(1.16)
TALIS average
489.1
(5.21)
13.3
(0.27)
8.4
(0.09)
23.5
(0.07)
83.1
(0.37)
1. These data are means and percentages of characteristics of the schools where lower secondary teachers worked. The education provision in these schools may 
extend across ISCED levels (e.g. in schools that offer both lower and upper secondary education) and therefore may not apply only to teachers or students of lower-
secondary education.
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
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43
A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
chapter 2
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 2.5
School resources (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education whose school principal reported that  
the following resource issues hinder instruction “a lot” or “to some extent” in their school
A lack of 
qualified 
teachers
A lack of 
laboratory 
technicians
A lack of 
instructional 
support 
personnel
A lack of 
other support 
personnel
Shortage or 
inadequacy of 
instructional 
materials
Shortage or 
inadequacy of 
computers for 
instruction
Shortage or 
inadequacy of 
library materials
Shortage or 
inadequacy of 
other equipment
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
40.5
(4.73)
14.0
(3.25)
38.1
(4.17)
40.4
(4.24)
15.5
(3.13)
32.2
(4.56)
20.9
(3.67)
31.7
(4.36)
Austria
48.8
(3.12)
21.3
(2.66)
68.7
(3.08)
77.5
(2.82)
12.2
(2.30)
25.5
(2.90)
16.8
(2.55)
35.0
(3.44)
Belgium (Fl.)
31.5
(3.76)
7.3
(2.14)
36.7
(3.89)
35.5
(4.11)
13.7
(2.74)
33.2
(3.78)
23.9
(3.43)
29.7
(3.78)
Brazil
31.1
(3.08)
65.1
(3.03)
61.1
(2.98)
63.1
(3.19)
28.6
(2.73)
59.2
(3.18)
57.9
(2.61)
64.1
(2.75)
Bulgaria
25.2
(4.18)
17.8
(2.99)
15.2
(2.92)
13.3
(2.46)
44.7
(3.99)
51.0
(5.60)
55.6
(5.62)
67.0
(5.18)
Denmark
28.2
(4.44)
3.3
(1.84)
25.4
(4.13)
17.5
(3.77)
23.1
(4.10)
22.6
(4.13)
25.5
(4.55)
27.5
(5.01)
Estonia
65.6
(3.58)
17.1
(2.96)
51.6
(3.85)
41.0
(4.12)
36.4
(4.03)
27.1
(3.66)
44.2
(4.36)
45.3
(4.50)
Hungary
22.1
(5.03)
29.6
(6.57)
48.5
(6.36)
36.2
(3.77)
39.4
(4.09)
47.0
(6.26)
37.8
(6.64)
62.9
(5.83)
Iceland
39.0
(0.18)
30.8
(0.18)
36.8
(0.19)
34.1
(0.17)
15.8
(0.13)
27.6
(0.15)
24.6
(0.15)
20.4
(0.15)
Ireland
38.4
(4.63)
82.6
(3.64)
63.6
(5.00)
62.7
(4.69)
34.2
(4.44)
62.5
(4.42)
66.3
(4.78)
62.6
(4.63)
Italy
51.9
(3.45)
53.6
(3.09)
56.6
(3.34)
54.8
(3.41)
42.9
(3.39)
41.6
(3.03)
45.9
(3.13)
46.4
(3.37)
Korea
18.6
(3.36)
39.6
(4.28)
45.2
(4.59)
43.9
(4.28)
27.8
(3.90)
28.4
(3.97)
39.5
(4.30)
41.9
(4.11)
Lithuania
60.6
(3.77)
40.2
(3.91)
47.3
(3.91)
38.9
(4.34)
61.6
(3.72)
66.0
(3.46)
49.3
(3.86)
71.3
(3.79)
Malaysia
45.9
(4.05)
23.8
(2.80)
31.0
(3.46)
32.0
(3.63)
26.2
(3.53)
36.6
(3.83)
36.9
(2.98)
30.3
(3.19)
Malta
26.2
(0.22)
32.8
(0.23)
34.4
(0.18)
51.0
(0.20)
30.1
(0.23)
41.9
(0.20)
28.4
(0.21)
43.8
(0.19)
Mexico
63.8
(4.00)
64.9
(3.39)
64.9
(3.32)
69.2
(3.37)
60.6
(3.37)
68.0
(3.33)
69.3
(3.58)
70.5
(3.35)
Norway
29.7
(3.71)
29.6
(4.14)
51.1
(4.97)
43.7
(5.08)
43.1
(4.50)
41.1
(4.59)
37.3
(4.03)
53.1
(4.85)
Poland
11.8
(2.85)
21.0
(3.50)
21.3
(3.16)
19.0
(2.71)
51.7
(4.38)
35.8
(4.18)
46.5
(4.57)
54.4
(4.56)
Portugal
15.9
(3.23)
47.6
(3.73)
78.5
(3.08)
80.0
(3.18)
36.6
(4.30)
67.3
(3.57)
39.1
(4.33)
70.3
(3.60)
Slovak Republic
30.5
(3.87)
24.9
(4.10)
33.1
(4.57)
23.8
(3.54)
38.7
(4.69)
57.1
(4.27)
53.5
(4.51)
64.1
(4.06)
Slovenia
24.6
(3.34)
17.9
(3.09)
33.9
(3.85)
29.8
(3.41)
18.5
(2.95)
25.0
(3.15)
20.4
(3.07)
33.7
(3.35)
Spain
34.0
(3.40)
13.6
(2.76)
80.5
(3.00)
75.7
(2.61)
24.4
(3.62)
41.0
(3.41)
37.3
(3.62)
50.1
(3.55)
Turkey
78.1
(4.98)
58.7
(4.80)
69.5
(4.55)
72.0
(4.32)
61.3
(4.98)
56.6
(5.88)
61.9
(5.30)
67.0
(5.67)
TALIS average
37.5
(0.77)
32.9
(0.72)
47.5
(0.80)
45.9
(0.74)
34.2
(0.76)
43.2
(0.83)
40.8
(0.83)
49.7
(0.84)
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
Table 2.6
School admission policies (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education whose school principal reported the following as pre-requisites  
or high priority for student admittance to the school
Residence in  
a particular area
Student’s  
academic record
Recommendation  
of feeder schools
Parents’ endorsement 
of the instructional  
or religious philosophy 
of the school
Students’ need  
or desire for  
a special programme
Attendance of  
other family members 
at the school
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
47.8
(3.80)
10.6
(2.57)
21.0
(3.59)
29.5
(3.33)
23.3
(3.26)
42.4
(3.47)
Austria
56.3
(2.92)
34.7
(2.30)
5.4
(1.74)
15.9
(2.53)
40.4
(3.44)
26.9
(2.91)
Belgium (Fl.)
0.8
(0.75)
17.3
(2.80)
12.9
(2.29)
60.6
(4.04)
57.4
(4.05)
12.6
(4.27)
Brazil
25.2
(3.00)
22.3
(3.03)
6.6
(1.68)
7.2
(1.49)
8.0
(1.85)
8.7
(1.90)
Bulgaria
52.7
(3.89)
32.2
(2.77)
5.6
(1.75)
41.0
(5.33)
43.4
(4.72)
50.2
(4.96)
Denmark
34.4
(3.98)
3.9
(1.51)
6.0
(2.56)
34.5
(3.76)
13.0
(2.63)
13.7
(3.17)
Estonia
30.3
(3.48)
7.4
(2.26)
0.4
(0.45)
5.6
(2.11)
15.0
(3.22)
0.4
(0.40)
Hungary
62.3
(5.04)
19.1
(3.38)
40.5
(6.80)
35.0
(4.97)
58.4
(6.63)
33.9
(4.02)
Iceland
58.2
(0.17)
0.9
(0.00)
2.2
(0.06)
3.3
(0.09)
11.5
(0.12)
1.2
(0.06)
Ireland
38.1
(3.75)
0.0
(0.00)
5.8
(2.29)
21.4
(3.17)
9.9
(2.39)
41.5
(4.50)
Italy
37.5
(3.18)
3.6
(1.24)
7.3
(1.54)
6.5
(1.63)
9.8
(1.84)
11.8
(2.02)
Korea
44.5
(4.31)
7.3
(2.36)
6.2
(2.08)
1.2
(0.82)
4.8
(1.79)
0.0
(0.00)
Lithuania
39.5
(3.82)
12.0
(2.84)
2.1
(0.85)
13.8
(2.98)
5.4
(1.85)
19.9
(3.33)
Malaysia
67.2
(3.81)
27.4
(3.41)
51.8
(3.30)
16.2
(2.61)
22.4
(3.32)
12.2
(2.38)
Malta
52.6
(0.23)
38.5
(0.20)
9.8
(0.10)
8.5
(0.06)
16.1
(0.08)
9.8
(0.09)
Mexico
24.7
(3.25)
30.1
(3.70)
8.3
(2.00)
14.0
(3.15)
12.1
(2.33)
16.7
(3.46)
Norway
64.5
(4.27)
0.0
(0.00)
3.4
(1.67)
2.4
(1.79)
7.7
(2.50)
2.8
(1.34)
Poland
64.3
(3.78)
22.8
(3.66)
8.1
(2.31)
11.9
(3.45)
20.9
(3.92)
6.4
(2.01)
Portugal
72.8
(3.70)
3.9
(1.64)
3.2
(1.56)
9.0
(2.36)
29.1
(3.56)
40.5
(3.71)
Slovak Republic
17.2
(3.19)
17.6
(2.69)
3.2
(1.34)
12.0
(3.42)
16.3
(3.48)
7.6
(1.93)
Slovenia
62.0
(3.59)
1.4
(0.98)
4.3
(1.56)
0.4
(0.44)
16.6
(2.71)
8.6
(2.24)
Spain
69.9
(3.52)
3.2
(1.29)
5.6
(1.78)
8.7
(1.97)
8.1
(2.19)
41.4
(3.83)
Turkey
70.4
(6.04)
5.4
(1.26)
1.5
(0.60)
16.9
(4.09)
20.1
(5.03)
11.9
(3.64)
TALIS average
47.5
(0.76)
14.0
(0.48)
9.6
(0.49)
16.3
(0.61)
20.4
(0.68)
18.3
(0.62)
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
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chapter 2 A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
44
© OECD 2009
Table 2.7
School autonomy (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education whose school principal reported that considerable responsibility  
for the following tasks is held at the school level1
Selecting teachers 
for hire
Firing teachers
Establishing 
teachers’  
starting salaries
Determining 
teachers’ salary 
increases
Allocating funds 
for teachers’ 
professional 
development
Formulating  
the school budget
Deciding on  
budget allocations 
within the school
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
76.8
(3.10)
52.2
(3.57)
24.8
(3.50)
23.5
(3.35)
98.2
(1.11)
93.1
(2.56)
100.0
(0.00)
Austria
32.1
(2.95)
20.5
(2.52)
1.4
(0.50)
1.4
(0.51)
17.7
(2.59)
34.9
(2.85)
94.2
(1.65)
Belgium (Fl.)
99.5
(0.39)
96.5
(1.15)
0.3
(0.27)
0.3
(0.27)
73.9
(3.78)
79.6
(3.41)
94.3
(1.80)
Brazil
26.6
(2.32)
25.4
(2.08)
13.7
(0.99)
12.8
(1.04)
28.8
(2.38)
57.2
(3.40)
60.4
(3.09)
Bulgaria
100.0
(0.00)
99.2
(0.59)
42.8
(4.35)
51.3
(4.82)
43.2
(4.88)
86.8
(3.04)
93.4
(2.40)
Denmark
100.0
(0.00)
86.6
(2.67)
32.6
(3.86)
42.0
(4.04)
90.4
(2.74)
76.1
(4.07)
98.0
(1.99)
Estonia
100.0
(0.00)
99.2
(0.51)
89.9
(2.08)
61.5
(3.71)
87.0
(3.00)
88.6
(2.48)
96.5
(1.78)
Hungary
99.8
(0.24)
96.4
(1.77)
45.0
(4.29)
51.6
(4.31)
68.9
(3.79)
89.6
(3.02)
93.4
(2.92)
Iceland
100.0
(0.00)
95.2
(0.17)
22.3
(0.16)
29.3
(0.27)
93.9
(0.18)
71.9
(0.14)
87.3
(0.12)
Ireland
87.0
(2.77)
63.1
(3.63)
3.9
(2.20)
3.0
(2.11)
85.6
(3.19)
69.2
(3.74)
93.3
(1.94)
Italy
13.2
(2.02)
17.9
(2.75)
1.0
(0.59)
2.0
(1.06)
53.5
(2.79)
97.0
(1.06)
99.1
(0.64)
Korea
31.2
(3.67)
20.8
(3.15)
5.7
(2.00)
3.5
(1.55)
63.2
(4.09)
77.3
(3.44)
94.9
(1.86)
Lithuania
99.5
(0.34)
100.0
(0.00)
23.4
(3.39)
15.8
(2.99)
38.5
(3.96)
50.6
(4.28)
90.0
(2.44)
Malaysia
6.9
(1.56)
6.8
(1.66)
4.0
(1.29)
11.4
(2.38)
33.8
(3.28)
68.8
(3.16)
62.5
(3.56)
Malta
30.0
(0.15)
27.7
(0.15)
4.7
(0.09)
8.2
(0.13)
43.0
(0.21)
53.7
(0.21)
86.3
(0.11)
Mexico
24.3
(2.43)
23.3
(2.30)
15.9
(1.65)
16.0
(1.62)
21.1
(2.29)
51.4
(4.01)
45.0
(3.70)
Norway
100.0
(0.00)
100.0
(0.00)
84.0
(3.12)
91.3
(2.23)
98.0
(1.51)
100.0
(0.00)
100.0
(0.00)
Poland
100.0
(0.00)
99.6
(0.36)
43.2
(4.71)
48.2
(4.16)
97.3
(1.40)
99.4
(0.63)
100.0
(0.00)
Portugal
81.3
(3.48)
22.8
(3.03)
4.6
(1.03)
7.2
(1.59)
22.7
(3.01)
92.7
(2.14)
93.1
(2.10)
Slovak Republic
98.8
(0.76)
99.7
(0.33)
57.1
(4.54)
47.9
(4.20)
85.6
(3.15)
80.6
(3.11)
97.3
(1.09)
Slovenia
100.0
(0.00)
96.6
(1.41)
22.7
(3.27)
40.5
(3.86)
95.9
(1.31)
58.2
(3.48)
98.0
(0.99)
Spain
27.4
(2.49)
25.7
(2.30)
3.3
(1.37)
3.7
(1.43)
17.4
(2.66)
76.5
(3.53)
63.8
(3.81)
Turkey
23.5
(4.28)
22.0
(5.36)
12.4
(2.78)
16.6
(3.19)
28.0
(5.33)
79.7
(5.28)
87.9
(4.30)
TALIS average
67.7
(0.42)
60.7
(0.48)
24.3
(0.57)
25.6
(0.58)
60.3
(0.63)
75.3
(0.64)
88.2
(0.47)
Establishing  
student  
disciplinary policies
Establishing  
student  
assessment policies
Approving  
students  
for admission  
to the school
Deciding  
which courses  
are offered
Determining  
course content
Choosing which 
textbooks are used
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
99.5
(0.37)
95.6
(1.99)
96.6
(1.53)
100.0
(0.00)
81.0
(3.25)
99.1
(0.87)
Austria
99.1
(0.62)
91.6
(1.89)
88.0
(1.90)
94.2
(1.46)
80.3
(2.67)
100.0
(0.00)
Belgium (Fl.)
100.0
(0.00)
100.0
(0.00)
89.3
(2.53)
75.9
(4.38)
59.9
(4.12)
100.0
(0.00)
Brazil
93.1
(1.56)
84.0
(2.08)
71.6
(3.11)
48.9
(3.02)
74.7
(2.88)
97.3
(0.91)
Bulgaria
98.4
(0.95)
73.2
(5.97)
91.3
(1.86)
56.3
(4.60)
28.1
(4.72)
98.9
(0.83)
Denmark
96.1
(2.02)
97.1
(1.68)
87.9
(3.18)
91.2
(2.99)
98.2
(1.31)
100.0
(0.00)
Estonia
100.0
(0.00)
100.0
(0.00)
100.0
(0.00)
100.0
(0.00)
89.6
(2.54)
97.2
(1.54)
Hungary
100.0
(0.00)
99.7
(0.27)
98.0
(1.20)
91.3
(2.22)
95.9
(1.91)
100.0
(0.00)
Iceland
100.0
(0.00)
98.7
(0.06)
96.1
(0.09)
98.1
(0.17)
87.9
(0.11)
98.8
(0.00)
Ireland
100.0
(0.00)
100.0
(0.00)
99.4
(0.58)
98.8
(1.15)
68.7
(4.44)
100.0
(0.00)
Italy
100.0
(0.00)
99.5
(0.41)
96.9
(1.00)
100.0
(0.00)
99.0
(0.59)
100.0
(0.00)
Korea
99.6
(0.37)
91.1
(2.40)
85.8
(2.86)
88.7
(2.73)
85.4
(2.87)
96.7
(1.61)
Lithuania
99.4
(0.64)
97.8
(1.18)
85.3
(2.68)
74.0
(3.88)
69.1
(3.88)
98.2
(1.11)
Malaysia
56.7
(3.61)
57.1
(3.43)
21.6
(2.80)
35.4
(3.46)
33.3
(3.12)
19.0
(2.90)
Malta
97.3
(0.01)
85.3
(0.19)
39.7
(0.19)
43.1
(0.22)
48.0
(0.21)
61.2
(0.23)
Mexico
95.8
(1.79)
74.7
(3.42)
74.4
(2.93)
35.3
(3.79)
33.0
(3.92)
68.5
(3.73)
Norway
97.0
(1.48)
79.6
(3.26)
97.2
(1.67)
60.9
(4.39)
78.5
(3.94)
100.0
(0.00)
Poland
100.0
(0.00)
97.3
(1.91)
98.0
(1.26)
59.7
(4.52)
63.9
(4.68)
99.5
(0.53)
Portugal
86.5
(2.85)
98.1
(0.82)
98.0
(1.15)
94.0
(1.77)
43.2
(4.19)
99.6
(0.44)
Slovak Republic
100.0
(0.00)
95.2
(1.97)
99.0
(0.78)
81.7
(2.86)
67.2
(3.67)
91.9
(2.28)
Slovenia
98.9
(0.77)
96.3
(1.51)
92.2
(2.20)
54.0
(3.87)
54.1
(3.70)
100.0
(0.00)
Spain
95.7
(1.62)
65.6
(3.87)
58.5
(3.77)
37.3
(3.47)
44.9
(3.86)
100.0
(0.00)
Turkey
71.5
(5.79)
65.9
(5.37)
91.0
(3.97)
41.2
(6.76)
27.2
(4.14)
43.9
(5.85)
TALIS average
95.0
(0.37)
88.9
(0.53)
85.0
(0.46)
72.2
(0.67)
65.7
(0.70)
90.0
(0.37)
1. School level includes either the school principal, teachers, or the school governing board.
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
45
A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
chapter 2
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
© OECD 2009
Table 2.8
School climate – teacher-related factors (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education whose school principal considered the following teacher behaviours  
to hinder instruction “a lot” or “to some extent” in their school
Arriving late at school
Absenteeism
Lack of pedagogical preparation
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
7.8
(2.08)
22.8
(3.63)
35.8
(4.48)
Austria
8.2
(1.49)
22.7
(2.54)
15.9
(2.39)
Belgium (Fl.)
4.2
(1.53)
3.7
(1.33)
8.8
(2.10)
Brazil
25.5
(2.90)
32.3
(2.99)
35.8
(3.02)
Bulgaria
2.7
(1.19)
1.8
(1.05)
3.3
(1.07)
Denmark
13.8
(3.76)
11.1
(3.52)
11.0
(3.30)
Estonia
3.2
(1.50)
3.4
(1.64)
5.0
(1.76)
Hungary
9.1
(6.00)
26.1
(4.74)
21.5
(4.90)
Iceland
4.1
(0.09)
24.0
(0.12)
12.7
(0.14)
Ireland
12.9
(3.41)
43.3
(4.87)
30.8
(4.86)
Italy
17.4
(2.31)
29.8
(2.69)
53.4
(3.14)
Korea
17.8
(3.02)
23.2
(3.12)
33.8
(3.95)
Lithuania
19.8
(3.19)
15.0
(2.66)
37.7
(3.95)
Malaysia
13.2
(2.69)
19.5
(2.91)
30.2
(3.38)
Malta
14.1
(0.16)
30.4
(0.21)
17.6
(0.19)
Mexico
69.2
(3.93)
67.5
(4.08)
70.2
(3.97)
Norway
8.7
(2.63)
39.5
(4.59)
10.9
(3.09)
Poland
7.4
(2.75)
43.7
(4.14)
2.4
(1.10)
Portugal
9.4
(2.71)
14.9
(3.10)
18.5
(3.34)
Slovak Republic
2.3
(1.44)
6.2
(1.64)
3.5
(1.56)
Slovenia
10.3
(2.35)
37.7
(3.55)
14.5
(2.92)
Spain
34.1
(3.83)
39.2
(3.76)
38.0
(3.84)
Turkey
31.0
(4.45)
35.1
(4.96)
42.9
(5.83)
TALIS average
15.1
(0.61)
25.8
(0.68)
24.1
(0.69)
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
Table 2.8a 
(1/2)
School climate – student-related factors (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education whose school principal considered the following student behaviours  
to hinder instruction “a lot” or “to some extent” in their school
Arriving late at school
Absenteeism
Classroom 
disturbances
Cheating
Profanity/Swearing
Vandalism
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
43.4
(4.15)
48.2
(4.54)
43.9
(4.48)
6.5
(2.40)
17.0
(3.51)
10.5
(2.67)
Austria
19.1
(2.55)
25.2
(2.95)
61.4
(3.24)
11.1
(2.11)
44.6
(3.03)
30.8
(2.96)
Belgium (Fl.)
28.1
(3.80)
19.7
(2.57)
50.8
(5.01)
5.6
(1.75)
4.8
(1.68)
13.0
(2.81)
Brazil
35.1
(3.36)
50.6
(3.05)
60.2
(3.01)
31.2
(3.22)
40.8
(3.08)
29.3
(2.77)
Bulgaria
33.9
(3.42)
36.1
(4.33)
32.2
(3.89)
16.5
(2.93)
25.2
(3.37)
28.5
(3.74)
Denmark
37.0
(5.23)
26.8
(4.45)
57.3
(3.93)
6.8
(2.06)
42.1
(4.44)
13.8
(3.83)
Estonia
53.0
(3.71)
68.7
(3.71)
70.8
(3.52)
38.8
(3.95)
52.6
(3.59)
15.2
(2.81)
Hungary
36.4
(5.05)
42.7
(4.92)
67.8
(4.28)
26.8
(5.64)
77.2
(3.21)
54.0
(4.03)
Iceland
22.0
(0.17)
17.8
(0.15)
57.8
(0.18)
3.0
(0.04)
17.1
(0.11)
12.3
(0.12)
Ireland
57.7
(4.81)
70.9
(4.35)
53.6
(4.47)
2.9
(1.29)
21.6
(3.83)
10.6
(3.08)
Italy
25.5
(2.67)
37.1
(3.12)
71.6
(2.96)
24.3
(2.57)
22.8
(2.63)
16.2
(2.16)
Korea
35.2
(4.13)
39.7
(4.06)
43.1
(4.19)
25.3
(3.59)
34.3
(3.84)
32.5
(4.00)
Lithuania
65.2
(3.99)
88.5
(2.13)
66.9
(3.84)
38.8
(3.85)
48.5
(4.34)
28.9
(3.61)
Malaysia
34.8
(3.35)
40.7
(3.38)
39.4
(3.29)
14.4
(2.61)
13.5
(2.22)
28.0
(3.13)
Malta
24.7
(0.21)
44.5
(0.20)
57.8
(0.21)
22.9
(0.15)
21.0
(0.15)
24.7
(0.13)
Mexico
78.0
(3.59)
79.0
(3.49)
71.9
(3.60)
54.1
(4.10)
55.5
(4.27)
63.3
(3.93)
Norway
44.5
(4.33)
24.7
(3.91)
65.3
(4.41)
2.2
(1.31)
33.9
(4.47)
22.3
(3.79)
Poland
44.1
(4.12)
62.8
(3.93)
69.0
(3.72)
42.3
(4.48)
60.3
(4.11)
37.4
(4.18)
Portugal
40.8
(4.22)
50.8
(4.14)
69.1
(3.56)
11.2
(2.89)
42.8
(4.37)
20.5
(3.53)
Slovak Republic
13.0
(3.01)
39.8
(4.25)
71.6
(3.62)
38.5
(4.63)
40.1
(4.66)
32.3
(4.52)
Slovenia
23.9
(2.91)
20.7
(2.95)
67.3
(3.44)
13.2
(2.68)
37.5
(4.02)
29.8
(3.84)
Spain
53.3
(3.95)
52.9
(3.52)
70.5
(3.59)
21.6
(3.11)
43.5
(3.55)
28.0
(3.43)
Turkey
57.9
(6.12)
66.7
(5.66)
66.3
(5.99)
21.9
(4.34)
43.2
(3.96)
41.1
(5.62)
TALIS average
39.4
(0.80)
45.8
(0.77)
60.2
(0.79)
20.9
(0.66)
36.5
(0.74)
27.1
(0.72)
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
chapter 2 A P
rofile
of
the
t
eAcher
P
oPulAtion
And
the
S
choolS
in
W
hich
t
hey
W
ork
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
46
© OECD 2009
Table 2.8a 
(2/2)
School climate – student-related factors (2007-08)
Percentage of teachers of lower secondary education whose school principal considered the following student behaviours  
to hinder instruction “a lot” or “to some extent” in their school
Theft
Intimidation or verbal 
abuse of other students
Intimidation or verbal 
abuse of teachers or staff
Physical injury to other 
students
Use/possession of drugs 
and/or alcohol
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
%
(S.E.)
Australia
6.9
(2.02)
31.7
(4.19)
13.7
(3.04)
6.2
(1.87)
2.7
(1.45)
Austria
11.5
(2.11)
36.3
(3.22)
8.8
(1.67)
9.0
(1.87)
2.3
(0.99)
Belgium (Fl.)
7.7
(1.98)
39.3
(4.72)
12.2
(2.03)
3.1
(1.17)
7.5
(1.93)
Brazil
13.2
(1.91)
29.3
(2.91)
14.1
(2.17)
10.2
(1.71)
10.7
(2.06)
Bulgaria
4.4
(1.83)
24.2
(4.01)
5.6
(1.43)
7.7
(1.80)
1.6
(0.83)
Denmark
9.4
(3.27)
28.8
(4.66)
13.7
(3.31)
11.7
(3.57)
8.8
(3.06)
Estonia
4.3
(1.66)
47.2
(3.87)
25.6
(3.20)
2.3
(1.08)
10.7
(2.69)
Hungary
23.9
(4.45)
48.2
(4.70)
22.0
(3.99)
37.4
(4.51)
7.9
(6.00)
Iceland
6.9
(0.07)
11.1
(0.09)
8.0
(0.07)
6.9
(0.05)
4.8
(0.04)
Ireland
4.7
(1.85)
36.6
(4.71)
17.9
(3.62)
4.3
(2.08)
15.0
(3.95)
Italy
9.1
(1.74)
30.0
(2.74)
10.4
(1.89)
12.7
(2.19)
4.5
(1.20)
Korea
25.0
(3.54)
36.6
(3.86)
25.3
(3.21)
25.7
(3.20)
16.3
(2.87)
Lithuania
23.4
(3.68)
45.5
(4.24)
28.8
(3.57)
25.9
(3.42)
19.3
(3.02)
Malaysia
13.9
(2.14)
13.5
(2.32)
8.1
(2.09)
10.8
(2.30)
9.2
(2.17)
Malta
11.7
(0.05)
48.8
(0.20)
20.3
(0.14)
7.6
(0.08)
5.4
(0.02)
Mexico
56.0
(4.06)
61.2
(3.36)
47.2
(3.92)
57.1
(3.57)
51.0
(4.08)
Norway
9.5
(2.58)
23.3
(4.03)
10.2
(2.68)
2.7
(1.56)
1.8
(1.30)
Poland
12.1
(2.70)
29.4
(4.26)
5.9
(1.98)
25.3
(3.53)
5.1
(1.91)
Portugal
23.3
(3.30)
28.4
(4.00)
16.9
(2.98)
19.2
(3.18)
8.8
(2.48)
Slovak Republic
9.5
(3.28)
21.6
(3.85)
6.4
(2.81)
5.4
(2.70)
2.2
(2.01)
Slovenia
11.4
(2.47)
46.3
(4.06)
12.8
(2.57)
9.3
(2.37)
4.9
(1.73)
Spain
22.2
(2.91)
40.6
(3.83)
27.4
(3.53)
23.1
(3.11)
20.3
(3.00)
Turkey
32.8
(5.28)
37.0
(4.37)
25.5
(5.74)
42.6
(5.83)
25.9
(3.49)
TALIS average
15.3
(0.59)
34.6
(0.79)
16.8
(0.61)
15.9
(0.58)
10.7
(0.55)
Source: OECD, TALIS Database.
1
 2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/607784618372
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
47
© OECD 2009
The Professional Development 
of Teachers
C
hapter
3
48 Highlights
49 Introduction
52 Level and intensity of professional development participation
57 Types of professional development
59 Unsatisfied demand and development needs
64 Support received by teachers for professional development
72 Barriers that prevent meeting demand
74 Impact of professional development
76 Conclusions and implications for policy and practice
chapter 3 T
he
P
rofessional
D
eveloPmenT
of
T
eachers
Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS – ISBN 978-92-64-05605-3
48
© OECD 2009
Highlights
 In the participating countries, an average of 89% of teachers in lower secondary 
education engaged in professional development. The 11% who did not are a 
source of concern. Around one in four teachers did not participate in professional 
development in Denmark, the Slovak Republic and Turkey.
 On average in TALIS countries, teachers participated in professional development 
for just under one day per month. 
 A significant proportion of teachers think that professional development does 
not meet their needs: over half reported wanting more than they received during 
the previous 18 months.
 The aspect of their work for which teachers most frequently say they require 
professional development is “Teaching special learning needs students”, followed 
by “ICT teaching skills” and “Student discipline and behaviour”.
 Teachers who paid the full cost of professional development took part in more 
than those who received it free or at partial cost. This is partly because the more 
time-intensive development activities were more likely to be paid for by teachers 
themselves.
 Even when development is paid for by teachers, their demand is not satisfied: 
those who paid towards the cost were more likely to say they wanted more.
 The main reason for unfulfilled demand (according to teachers) is the conflict 
with their work schedule, but lack of suitable development opportunities is also 
a significant factor.
 The types of development that teachers regard as the most effective have, on 
average, lower rates of participation. However, those who do participate in 
these activities also devote more time to them than those participating in other 
activities, even though they are more likely to have to pay for them. 
 This suggests a need not just for better support for teachers to participate in 
professional development, but for policy makers and school leaders to ensure that 
the development opportunities available are effective and meet teachers’ needs.
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