BUSINESSPLANNING:
AGUIDETOEXPORTING
FundedinpartthroughacooperativeagreementwiththeU.S.SmallBusinessAdministration.
Allopinions,conclusionsorrecommendationsexpressedarethoseoftheauthor(s)anddonot
necessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheSBA.
ThemissionoftheUSSBAOfficeofVeteransBusinessDevelopmentistomaximizethe
availability,applicabilityandusabilityofalladministrationsmallbusinessprogramsfor
Veterans,Service-DisabledVeterans,ReserveComponentMembers,NationalGuardandtheir
DependentsorSurvivors.
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BUSINESSPLANNING:AGUIDETOEXPORTING
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Acknowledgments .......................3
Introduction............................4
AssessingYourAbilitytoExport ...........5
MarketResearch ........................7
ProductClassification ................8
MarketResearchChecklist ............8
ConductingMarketingResearch..........10
MarketingMix .....................10
Product...........................10
Price.............................11
Promotion.........................12
Placement ........................12
WritinganEffectiveExportBusinessPlan..13
ExportingandE-Commerce..............14
Informational ......................14
Transactional ......................14
VirtualMarketplaces ................14
FindingQualifiedInternationalBuyers ....16
HowtoSellYorProduct .................19
DirectExporting....................19
IndirectExporting ..................19
ChannelsofDistribution .............20
TermsofSale ..........................21
INCOTERMS-ResponsibilityChart ...22
ExportPreparation .....................23
HowtoShipYourProduct ...............24
Packing/Labeling ...................24
Documentation.....................24
FreightForwarders..................25
Insurance .........................26
LegalIssues ...........................27
ExportRegulations..................27
IntellectualPropertyRights ...........27
FreeTradeAgreements ..............28
MethodsofPayment ....................29
CashinAdvance ...................29
DocumentaryCollections.............29
LettersofCredit....................30
OpenAccount......................30
ExportFinancing.......................31
WhyFinance ......................31
CreditInsurance....................31
ExportFinancingResources ..........31
WheretoFindHelp.....................31
YourBusinessPlan .....................38
SuggestedBusinessPlanOutline.......38
TheMarket........................43
DefineYourMarket .................44
ABriefNoteonCredit...............45
Pricing ...........................45
Advertising........................46
Management...........................49
DutiesandResponsibilities ...........50
Salaries...........................50
Personnel .........................51
LoanApplicationandImpact .........51
FinancialPlan......................52
CashFlowProjectionWorksheet.......54
Pro-FormaBalanceSheet ............56
Pro-FormaIncomeStatement .........57
GeneralBusinessConcepts...............58
AdvertisingasPartofYourPlan.........58
OverallPromotionStrategy ...........59
TheFour“Ps”ofMarketing ..........60
ExternalFactorsAffectingMarketing ..61
DevelopingaMarketingPlan .........62
PuttingItAllTogether ...............63
AccountingandRecordKeeping ..........65
WhatSystemShouldYouUse? ........65
ElementsofBookkeeping ............66
KeepingRecords ...................71
GettingStarted.....................71
AppendixA............................73
SampleOutlineforanExportPlan
CONTENTS
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
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INTRODUCTION
Wanttogrowyourbusiness?Areyoulookingfornewcustomers?Doyouwanttoincreaseyourprofits?
Anybusinessownerlookingtosucceedwillansweryestothesequestions.Althoughthereareseveralwaysto
achievethesegoals,oneofthebestwaystogrowabusinessisbyexporting.
Nearly96%oftheworld’scustomersand66%oftheirbuyingpowerresidesoutsideoftheUnitedStates*.
Yet,somanyUnitedStatescompaniesonlymarketwithintheirownborders,virtuallyignoringtherestofthe
worldasaviablemarketplacefortheirproductsandservices.Why?Themostcommonreasonscitedare:
“Exportingistoocomplicated”
“It’stoorisky–Iwon’tgetpaid”
“IhaveallthemarketshareIneedhereintheUS”
“I’mnotlargeenoughtoexport”
“Differentlanguages,currencies,andculturesmakeittoodifficult”
“It’smorecostlytoexport”
“Toomuchpaperwork”
Aswithanybusinesstransaction,therearerisksassociatedwithinternationaltrade.However,exporting
canbeaveryprofitablecomponentofacompany’soverallmarketingstrategy.Salesinanewmarketcanboost
revenues.Sellingtoforeignmarketscanenhanceacompany’sdiversification,spreadingitsrisktocountries
whoseeconomiccyclemaynotcoincidewiththevariancesfoundintheU.S.market.Properlyprepared,a
smallbusinesscancompetewithitsrivalsintheglobalmarketplace.Withadvancesintechnology,theworld’s
marketplaceisbecomingmoreaccessibletoUScompanies,increasingtheiropportunitytogainmarketshare.
*Source:USSmallBusinessAdministration(www.sba.gov)
Mostpotentialexportersneedbasicinformationonhowtoexport.Thepurposeofthisplanningguideisto
helpyoupreparefortheopportunitiesandchallengesencounteredinbringingaproductorservicetoforeign
markets.Itprovidesastep-by-stepprocesstomoveyourcompanyfromadomesticmarket-onlybusinesstoa
blendedmarketofbothdomesticandinternationalcustomers.Theguidewillhelpyou:
• Assessyourcompany’sabilitytoexport
• Learnhowtoconductmarketresearchtodetermineviablemarketsforyourproducts/services
• Developanexportbusinessplantoclearlydefineyourgoalsandobjectives
• Findbuyersofyourproducts/services
• Understandthevariousmethodsofshippingproductstoforeigncountries
• Learnhowtosecureinternationaltradefinancingtofundexporting,mitigateriskandensurepayment
It’stimetogetstarted.Let’sdetermineifyourcompanyisreadytoexport.
BUSINESSPLANNING:AGUIDETOEXPORTING
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ASSESSINGYOURCOMPANY’SABILITYTOEXPORT
Thereareseveralwaystodetermineifyourcompanyisreadytoexport.Oneofthemostcommonmethods
usedbycompaniesisevaluatingthesuccessofsellingyourproductdomestically.Ifsalesofyourproductin
theU.S.haveastrongtrackrecord,thelikelihoodofsellingyourproductinaforeignmarketwillbegood.
EvenifyourproductmayhavedecliningsalesintheU.S.duetotechnology,stylechangesormarket
obsolescence,foreigncountriesmaycontinuetoshowastrongdemandforamorematureproduct.Their
buyersmaynotwant,need,orbeabletoaffordthemostadvanced,expensiveproduct.
Anotherwaytodetermineyourcompany’sexportreadinessistoevaluateyourproduct’sUniqueSelling
Proposition(USP).AUSPisamarketingconceptthatgaugeshowaproductdiffersfromothercompetitor
products.Willyourproducthaveacompetitiveedgeoveralready-establishedproductsinyourtargeted
market?Aretheremanycompetitorsinyourindustrysector?Whatcompetitiveadvantagecharacteristicswill
yourproducthaveoverothers?Price?Quality?Service?Answerstothesequestionsandotherswillhelpyour
companydetermineifit’sreadytoexport.
Yourmanagementteammustalsobecommittedtoleadingtheorganizationinitseffortstoattractnew
customersfromforeigncountries.Withoutacommitmentfromtopmanagement,anexportinitiativewillhave
difficultysurvivingwhenobstaclesareencountered.Whataremanagement’sreasonsandexpectationsfor
wantingtopursueanexporteffort?Aretheforeignmarketsmerelyasupplementfordomesticsalesoristhere
anewvisionfromthetoptobeatrueglobalcompany?Someofthemostcommonreasonsmanagement
pursuesanexportstrategyareto:
1.Enhancecompetitivenessofthecompany
2.Expandthecompanyfootprintintotheglobalmarketplacebyincreasingsalesvolume
3.Improvethecompany’sreturnoninvestment
4.Findnewmarketsfor“mature”productsinless-developedcountries
Managementshouldgothroughtheprocessofconductinganassessmentofitsexport-readiness.TheU.S.
Governmentoffersanassessmentquestionnairetohelpcompaniesdetermineiftheyhavethenecessary
strengthstocapitalizeontheexportmarkets.Theassessmentcanbefoundat
http://export.gov/begin/assessment.asp.Awealthofadditionalinformationregardingtheexportprocesscan
befoundatwww.export.gov.Theexport.govwebsitebringstogetherresourcesfromacrossthegovernment’s
spectrumofagenciestoassistU.S.companiesinplanningtheirinternationaltradestrategiesandsucceedinthe
globalmarketplace.
Findingnewcustomersmayrequireanincreaseinproductioncapabilitiesandhiringofadditional
employees.Newequipmentmayneedtobepurchased,moreoperatingspacemayberequiredandnew
methodswillneedtobeintegratedintothecompany’smarketingmix.Alloftheseconsiderationshave
financialimplicationsthatmustbeaddressedpriortoanycommitmenttoexportingismade.Acompanymust
havesufficientfinancialresourcestomanufacture,marketandshipitsproductsoverseas.Withoutadequate
capitaltofundthisoperation,thechancesoflaunchingasuccessfulexportoperationareslim.
Excellentcustomerserviceisafundamentalcomponentofanysuccessfulbusiness.Anassessmentmustbe
conductedbyyourcompanyonhowitintendstoprovideexcellentcustomerserviceforitsremoteclients.
Youwillneedtodeterminehowtoservicedefectiveproductscost-effectivelyandsatisfycustomer
BUSINESSPLANNING:AGUIDETOEXPORTING
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expectations.Youmustalsomakethecommitmenttomaintainahighlevelofservicetoyourdomestic
customerswhilepursuingapresenceintheinternationalmarketplace.
Dependingonthetypeofbusiness,therearealsopackagingandlabelingrequirementsandregulationsthat
mustbemet.Athoroughreviewofacountry’sregulationsisnecessarytoconformtotherules.Failuretodoso
willlikelypreventthesaleofproductsintothemarket.Productionmusthavethecapabilitytomodify
packagingandprintedmaterialsfortranslationofinformationintoseveraldifferentlanguages.
Anotherimportantfactorintheassessmentphaseisconsiderationaboutwhetheryourcompanyhasthe
shippingexpertisetodeliveritsproductquicklyandefficientlytocustomers.Problemsinshippingaproduct
canbecostlyfromafinancialstandpointaswellasdamagingtoacustomerrelationship.Futuresalesmaybe
jeopardizedbydelaysinshipmentsorlostgoods.
Doesyourcompanyhaveknowledgeof,andaccessto,exportpaymentmethodssuchasexportfinancing,
lettersofcreditandexportinsurance?Gettingpaidisoftentimesthemostchallengingpartoftheexport
process.Withoutthesefinancingtools,poorcashflowcaninhibitandultimatelystopfutureexport
transactions.
Finally,determiningyourcompany’sreadinessreliesuponathorough,well-writtenexportbusinessplan.
Thepreparationofthisdocumentwillhelpyoucompleteanassessmentofthemanyfactorsrequiredtostarta
successfulexportoperation.Theplanwillprovideconsistentguidanceformanagementandstaffinachieving
yourcompany’sgoalsandobjectives.
Recapping,herearethemostcriticalareasyoumustassessbeforemovingaheadwithanexportplan:
1.Goalsofmanagement
2.Qualificationsofmanagementandstaff
3.Productioncapacity
4.Abilitytomodifyproductifnecessary
5.Financialcapabilitiesofcompany
6.Shippingexpertise
Onceyouhavecompletedyourexportreadinessassessment,yournextstepistoconductmarketresearch.
BUSINESSPLANNING:AGUIDETOEXPORTING
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MARKETRESEARCH
Tobesuccessfulinstartinganexportoperation,yourcompanymustdeterminewhichmarketsarebest
suitedforyourproduct.Somequestionsyouwillwantansweredare:
• Whoareyourpotentialcustomers?
• Whatistheprofileofyourtypicalcustomer?
• Wherearethehighgrowthmarkets?
• Whoareyourmaincompetitorsinthesemarkets?
• Canyoudeterminetheirstrengthsandweaknesses?Whatareyours?
• WhatisyourUniqueSellingPropositioninyourtargetedmarkets?
• Howmuchproductwillyouhavetoselltojustifytheadditionalcostsofexporting?
• Whatsaleschannelswillyouusetogetyourproductintothemarkets?
• Whatlegalrequirementsmustyoucomplywithinyouridentifiedmarkets?
Therewillbemanyotherquestionsaswell,dependingonthetypeofproductyouaresellingandthe
businesssectorinwhichyouarecompeting.
Marketresearchisanessentialprocesstowardincreasingyourchancesofsucceedingininternational
markets.Itwillhelpyoutodeterminetheeconomic,politicalandculturalfactorsthatmayhaveaneffecton
yourdecisiontoexport.Informationfromtheseandotherfactorswillhelpyoudecideifyourproductwillsell
inaparticularmarket.
Therearetwomaintypesofmarketresearch:
1)PrimaryMarketResearch
Thistypeofresearchcollectsdataandinformationdirectlyfromthetargetedmarketthroughavarietyof
solicitationmethodsconductedbyyourcompany.Methodsincludetelephoneandsocialmediasurveys,focus
groupmeetings,potentialcustomerinterviews,scoutingcompetitors’productsandotherinformation-gathering
approaches.Sincethismethodrequirestimeandresources,ittendstobemoreexpensivethansecondary
marketresearch.However,theinformationgatherediscustomizedtothespecificneedsofyourcompany.
2)SecondaryMarketResearch
Usingthisapproach,acompanywillgatheritsdataandinformationonpotentialmarketsfromtrade
assistanceorganizations,publishedsourcesortheinternet.TradeassistanceorganizationsincludetheNew
YorkStateSmallBusinessDevelopmentCenter,theU.S.DepartmentofCommerce,U.S.SmallBusiness
Administration,WorldTradeCenters,ChambersofCommerce,internationaltradeconsultantsandotherexport
resourceentities.Publishedresourcesincludetradejournals,reportsfrominternationaltradeorganizations,
industryjournals,newsreports,etc.Theinternetprovidesaccesstomanypublicagencyorgovernmental
websiteswhichpossessawealthofstatisticaldataaswellasthelatestinformationoneconomic,politicaland
culturalchangestakingplacewithinacountryorregion.TheU.S.DepartmentofCommerceCommercial
Serviceofferscompaniescustomizedmarketresearchreports.Thereportscanbecustomizedtoacompany’s
BUSINESSPLANNING:AGUIDETOEXPORTING
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specifications.Thereportscancontaininformationaboutthesalespotentialofyourcompany’stargetmarkets,
effectivemarketinganddistributionstrategiesforthosemarkets,characteristicsofcompetitorsinthetarget
markets,specificbarrierstoexporting,thebestnewmarketsforyourcompany’sproducts,andothermarket
researchinformation.Thisapproachtendstobelessexpensivetoimplementthanprimaryresearch.However,
manysourcesonlycollectdataonaperiodicbasisandconsequently,theinformationmaynotbethemost
currentavailable.Itmaynotbeasfocusedastheinformationgatheredthroughaprimarymarketresearch
approach.
ProductClassification
Classifyingyourproductisessentialinmakingmarketresearchrelevant.Althoughtherearemany
differentclassificationsystems,themostcommononeusedistheHarmonizedSystem(HS),administeredby
theWorldCustomsOrganizationinBrussels,Belgium.TheHSisaninternationalcommoditycodingsystem
usedbymostcountriestoclassifytheirproducts.Mosttradedataisreportedintermsofvolumeandvalueof
theproductsbeingexported.UsingtheHSsystemwillhelpyougatherthemarketdataonyourproductsince
allimportandexportcodesusedbytheU.S.arebasedonit.TheHSisalsothestandardizedsystemtrading
partiesmustusetobasetheirtariffschedules.AnHSnumberhassixdigitsthatareharmonizedtoreflectthe
sameproductregardlessofitsoriginorthelanguageinwhichitisdescribed.Oftentimesthesix-digitcodewill
befollowedbyeithertwoorfouradditionaldigits.Theseadditionaldigitsprovidesub-divisionsofcategories
tobetterdefinethequalitiesofaparticularproduct.CompaniesintheU.S.alsorefertothisstatistical
classificationofcommoditiessystemasScheduleB.AllScheduleBnumbersaretendigitsinlength.
Inconductingyourmarketresearch,youwillfindmosttradeleaddatabasesuseHSnumberstoidentify
productsratherthantheproductname.ThisisbecauseproductnamesusedintheU.S.maybedifferentthan
thenameforthesameproductinanothercountry.Marketresearchreportsfrequentlyidentifygrowingmarkets
byusingtheHSforindustrysectors,ratherthanjustforindividualproducts.
MarketResearchChecklist
Afteryouhavedecidedonthetypeofmarketresearchyourcompanywillconduct,andhaveidentifiedthe
commoditycodesfortheproductsyouintendtoexport,itistimetoidentifythefastestgrowingmarketsfor
yourproduct.Youwillneedtogathermarketinformationonabroadspectrumoftopicsincluding:
demographics,politicalstability,tariffregulations,competitionandeconomicclimatetonameafew.Itis
importantforyoutodevelopachecklistofthemostimportantdataandinformationavailabletohelpyouin
yourdecisiontoselectaparticularmarketormarkets.
Herearesomeoftheresearchtopicsyouneedtoconsider:
1.Market–thesizeandtypeofmarket(i.e.fullydevelopedordevelopingmarket).
2.BusinessEssentials–businesspracticesandregulations,governmentinvolvement,currencyused,
languagespoken,relationshipwiththeUS,structureofthelegalsystem.
3.Competition–Whoarethey?Howdotheydobusiness?Howdominantarethey?
4.Economicclimate–economictrends,thestrengthofthedomesticeconomy,acountry’sacceptanceof
foreignproducts.
BUSINESSPLANNING:AGUIDETOEXPORTING
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5.Politicalclimate–thepoliciesoftherulinggovernmenttowardimports,thesupportitreceivesfromits
people,threatsfromothercountries.
6.Easeofentry–tariffregulations,availabilityofmarketresearchinformation,accesstotradeevents
likeinternationalexpositions,trademissions,industryassociationsandothernetworkingopportunities.
7.Jointventureorcooperativeagreementopportunities–abilitytoestablisharelationshipwithalocal
companyforthepurposeofgainingmarketaccessandsharingresources.
8.Culture–languageandcustomscanplayanimportantroleindecidingifamarketisacceptingofyour
product.Productnames,size,colorsandnumbersallareimportantfactorsthatmustbefullyresearched
toensurethereisnonegativeconnotationwiththeproduct.
Completingthismarketresearchwillhelpyoudeterminethemostattractivegrowthmarketsforyour
product.Onceyouhaveashort-listofcountriesasyourtargetmarkets,herearesomestepsyoushouldtaketo
furtherassessthesemarkets:
1.Examineproducttrends.Lookattheproductyouareplanningtosellaswellasrelatedproducts,since
theseproductsmayinfluencedemandforyours.Trytodeterminetheconsumptiontrendforyour
product.
2.Assesstheimpactofcompetitors.Sourcesofcompetitionincludethedomesticindustryineach
targetedmarketaswellasthecompetitorsfromothercountries.
3.Determinemarketingfactors.Analyzefactorssuchaseconomic,culturalandpolitical,distribution
channels,language,customsandotherissuesthatmayaffectthemarketingofyourproduct.
4.Lookattradebarriers.Foreignbarrierscanbetariffornon-tariff.Licensingissueswillneedtobe
determined.
5.Seekoutincentives.EithertheU.S.governmentorthetargetedmarketcountrymayofferincentives
fortheproductsyouintendtosell.
Thisassessmentprocesswillfurthernarrowyourfocustooneortwomarkets.Yournextstepshouldbeto
prepareforavisittothesepotentialmarkets.Travelingtothecountriesandreviewingyourresearchfindings
first-handwillassistyouinmakingthefinaldecisionaboutyourexportstrategy.Ifthecountriesarein
geographicproximitytoeachother,trytovisitallthecountriesinonetrip.Thismaybetiring,butthe
informationwillbefreshinyourmindwhenit’stimetomakeadecision.Thisapproachalsotendstobemore
costeffective.
BUSINESSPLANNING:AGUIDETOEXPORTING
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CONDUCTINGMARKETINGRESEARCH
Onceyouhaveselectedthemarket(s)youwishtotarget,youwillneedtoconductsomemarketingre-
search.Marketingresearchistheprocessofdeterminingthemarketingstrategiesthatwillbeusedtogainmar-
ketshare.Whereasmarketresearchisanassessmentofthepotentialmarketsforyourproducts,marketing
researchrequiresanassessmentofthetechniquesyouwillusetoprice,advertise,sellanddeliveryourproduct
tothemarket.Thesetechniqueswillcomprisetheformalmarketingplanyouwilldevelopforyourexportini-
tiative.Somequestionsyouwillneedtoanswerare:
• Whatmarketingmixwillbestpromotemyproducts?
• HowwillIdealwithdifferentlanguagesforwebsites,literature,brochures,labelingandother
printedmaterials?
• HowdoIpricemyproductsforexporting?
• HowwillIsellanddistributemyproducts?
• WhattypeofpaymenttermswillIusetogainmorebusiness?
• HowwillIgetpaid?
MarketingMix
Yourmarketingmixistheblendofmarketingapproachesyouwillusetosellyourproduct.Inmanycases,
managementexecutivesfollowthe“fourP’s”whendeterminingthemarketingmixfortheircompany.Thefour
P’sare:product,price,promotionandplacement.
Product
Thegoodsandservicesyousellareyourproducts.Theproductsmusthaveaperceivedvaluetothecus-
tomer.Otherwise,theywillnotgenerateanyinterestinthemarketandeventuallysaleswilldeterioratetoa
pointwhereitisunprofitabletocontinuetomarkettheproducts.Theproductsmustalsobeabletobemodified
tosuittheparticularneedsofeachforeignmarketwithoutgreatlyincreasingtheproductionordeliverycost.
Someofthequestionstobeaddressedinclude:
1.Whatneedistheproductsatisfyingforthecustomer?
2.Doyouneedtomodifyanexistingproductforyournewmarkets?
3.Howisituniquefromcompetitors’products?
4.Howwillyoubrandit?
5.Willyouchangetheproduct’sname?Size?Shape?Color?
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