ments is hampered by conﬂicting and unrecorded ownership claims and double or
multiple sale of the same plot of land. Providing jobs and improvements of the physical
environment should create a social environment where slum residents can improve
their livelihood with social and tenure security as a fundament. In addition to the need
for new forms of spatial planning with their associated need for relevant spatial and
non-spatial information, there is a manifest need to deliver quick and cheap ‘cadastres’
adopting methods of recording various types of land tenure, ﬁtting into the modern
approach to slum upgrading. So, urbanization requires ‘ﬁt-for-purpose’ cadastres.
With regard to food security, the situation currently is that about 868 million people are
undernourished, which corresponds to 12.5% of the world’s population. Problems are
getting worse. Providing food for 9.5 billion people in 2050 requires a 70% increase of
the global food production and up to 100% more in developing countries. This produc-
tion growth can be realized for 80% by higher yields and increased cropping intensity
and for 20% by land expansion: globally, it is estimated that in general 4.2 billion ha is
suitable for agriculture, of which 1.6 billion ha already is being cultivated. Africa holds
60% of the area of uncultivated lands. Analyses show that another 120 million ha of cul-
tivated land is required: in Latin America 52 million ha and in Africa 64 million ha; 32 mil-
lion ha also need to be irrigated. The total yield increase is then potentially 68% in Africa,
89% in East/North Africa, 53% in Latin America, 86% in South Asia and 81% in East Asia.
To boost the agricultural production, two kind of measures are considered to be nec-
essary, namely (a) a change of institutions and policies and (b) a change of technical
The technical approach assumes the availability of improved crop varieties, better use
of water, more use of fertilizers, better control of pests and diseases, improve low mech-
anisation, better roads, better electricity supply, and improvement of the currently very
limited technology transfer and adoption.
From an institutional approach, constraints and barriers should be removed in the ﬁeld
of i) incentive structures, ii) land and water institutions and access to land and water
resources, iii) collaboration, iv) services including knowledge exchange, research and
ﬁnance, and v) access to markets. Especially the access to and management of land and
water needs to be improved markedly; the lack of clear and stable land and water rights
and weak regulations and enforcement has contributed to many conﬂicts over land
access and competition for water use. In particular, the inclusion of customary and tra-
ditional use rights in national legislation is urgently needed; land and water institutions
can be strengthened and common property systems should be protected in order to
providing secure land tenure.
Recognizing that many institutional and technical factors play a role, it remains that
when the ‘land question’ is not brought to a proper solution, problems around land
and water rights will severely obstruct the progress in achieving food security. The reg-
istration of land and natural resource rights is critical to providing security to people in
rural areas and to enable them to negotiate from a better position with both investors
and government. However, levels of rights registration are very low in many parts of
the world, especially in Africa. At the current rate of operation, such systems will take
decades to cover the territory of many countries’, says FAO. This is the real challenge.
When it comes to climate change, it is noted that land makes up a quarter of the
earth’s surface and its soil and plants hold three times as much carbon as the atmos-
phere. More than 30% of all greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) arise from the land use
sector. Livestock-related emissions of carbon and methane account for 14% of the total
GHG emissions, more than the transport sector. Deforestation, agriculture and livestock
grazing are the major land use changes that increase the release of carbon into the at-
mosphere (31% of human-induced GHG emissions). Land use changes and the burning
of fossil fuels such as oil and coal are the two dominant elements. At the same time, it
is essential to recognize that agriculture has the largest sequestration potential, which
makes it unique. Other sectors can only reduce their emissions, while agriculture also
can remove carbon from the atmosphere.
As said in the paragraphs on urbanization and food security, there are many measures
needed but amongst them ‘land tenure’ and ‘land use management’ are expected to
contribute signiﬁcantly. Unspeciﬁed property rights in forest areas and the allocation of
forest land to commercial users by governments have led to widespread deforestation
as a result of uncontrolled logging and conversion of forest land to other use.
Tenure security is central to the sustainable management of land and other natural
resources and should be mainstreamed into climate change mitigation and adaptation
In conclusion, sustainable monitoring systems, land management systems and ‘ﬁt-for-
purpose’ cadastres should serve as a basis for climate change mitigation and adapta-
tion as well as for prevention and management of related natural disasters.
Currently, the informal economy is still substantially present in many countries. Eco-
nomic activities require good rules; these rules include rules which establish and clarify
property rights, reduce the costs of conﬂicts, increase the predictability of economic
interactions, and provide contractual partners with protection against abuse. The in-
tegration of the informal and the formal economy is therefore steady UN-policy. This
means, that informal settlements inevitably will be connected to the formal economy
in the future. Leaving informal economic transactions unrecorded is unsatisfactory:
how can we maintain that a country shows economic growth when a major part of the
economy is unrecorded? How can we speak about GDP per capita when countries don’t
know the number of citizens? But the problem of informality is worse: most poor peo-
ple in Asia and Africa render unseen because of the lack of up to date civil registration
systems. By consequence they are born and die without ever being counted. Bringing
informality to formality therefore has an aspect of being counted, being registered.
Bringing the informal into the formal systems has always been the goal of land re-
form. Although experiences in the past are not always encouraging, the debate was
reopened 10 years ago by de Soto, urging for the creation of a legal property system
that does justice to the way people in the informal sector deal with possessions, their
attitudes and their informal arrangements. Linking informality and formality is to a cer-
tain extent a matter of recording. When it comes to immovable things, ‘ﬁt-for-purpose’
cadastres should contribute.
In conclusion, the demand is clear: more than ever before, sustainable monitoring sys-
tems, land management systems, and land administration systems (‘cadastres’) need
to serve as a basis for tackling rapid urbanization, food insecurity, climate change, and
informality. The way how governments deal with the land issue is increasingly phrased
as ‘land governance’. Land surveyors should develop the capacity to address a broad
range of people-to-land relationships and provide low cost methods for quick record-
ing processes, including safeguarding sustainability through sound maintenance and
Brief reﬂection on the statements of CADASTRE 2014
It will be diﬃcult to achieve the above mentioned social goals without innovative ‘ca-
dastres’. Let’s review the statements of CADASTRE 2014 with regard to their future role
in this innovation, beginning with the ﬁrst one. In ‘The Economist’ (11 January 2014) we
can read what we also know from scientiﬁc publications, namely that in general state
owned lands are not well managed; also an inventory of such lands is often missing.
The same counts for public-law restrictions imposed on private land. As many govern-
ments own large tracts of land, the solution of many societal problems depends on
how these lands and other public interests are managed. Therefore, the ﬁrst statement,
that CADASTRE 2014 includes both private and public rights to lands, has had great
The separation of maps and registers still hampers the development of information
infrastructures, which are needed to streamline information-based governance. Thus
the second statement, linking maps and registers equally remains true.
The quest for innovative systems cannot be answered without digital technology. The
demand for systems that are ‘cheap’, ‘easy to operate’, ‘quickly perform’, to be handled
by ‘low educated’ people, requires high-tech solutions. Often ‘low-cost’ is associated
with ‘low-technology’, but the reverse is true: without high-tech, no good and at the
same time simple systems are possible, and without high-tech it will not be possible
to employ operators with limited vocational education. The widespread use of mobile
technology and location devices is one example. Therefore we need high-tech, which
means technical system design based on conceptual cadastral modelling, as expressed
by the third statement.
In this context, the adoption of the land administration domain model by the ISO as a
worldwide standard is signiﬁcant, meanwhile embraced by many countries and adopt-
ed by the UN/Habitat as a precondition for future ‘cadastres’ (see also section 7). Work-
ing manually has proven to be cumbersome when it comes to ‘big data’: working with
‘pen and pencil’ as the fourth statement says, is not sustainable.
Statements 5 and 6, about the ‘privatized cadastre’ and the ‘cost recovering’ cadastre’ are
statements of an organizational nature, which might guide political decisions when ap-
propriate. Reckoning that globally the majority of lands (‘parcels’) is not surveyed or re-
corded, a prediction is that land surveyors – both from public and private sectors – need
to work together to get the job done (‘all hands on deck’), which does not necessarily
create a ‘privatized cadastre’, but at least a robust private sector involvement. Further pri-
vatization will anyhow be considered within the framework of public tasks (governance
issue). Cost recovery of at least the maintenance costs is deﬁnitely on the global agenda,
although the ﬁnancial crisis from 2008 also reveals the darker side of the coin, as can be
seen in Annual Reports and Accounts from various EuroGeographics members in Europe.
In sum, CADASTRE 2014 is a fundament for solving societal problem as described in
the previous paragraphs. For designers of these future cadastres CADASTRE 2014 will
remain a guiding set of statements and principles to take care of.
Conclusions and laudatio
Indeed, with so many global issues developing at full scale during the last twenty or so
years, the quest for purposeful land information and land information systems or ‘ca-
dastres’ is manifest: whether we review policy documents on urbanization, food short-
age, climate change or economic growth, one way or another security of land tenure
is mentioned as a prerequisite for tackling the problems. Recognizing that concepts
of land information systems (‘cadastres’) and other land related services is an urgent
need, CADASTRE 2014 has been a beacon in this turbulent world, providing the general
statements and principles for thinking about ‘cadastres’ and guiding governmental and
non-governmental organizations to getting their things right. The translation of the
document in some 28 languages is an unparalleled performance. The global survey-
ing community honours the lead-authors Jürg Kaufmann and Daniel Steudler for their
Augustinus, C. (2009). Improving access to land and shelter. World Bank, 2009.
de Soto, H. (2000). The Mystery of Capital. Basic Books, Perseus Books Group.
FAO (2012). Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure. Rome, Italy.
HLPE (2011). Land tenure and international investments in agriculture. FAO, Rome,
Jerven, M. (2013). Poor Numbers. Cornell University Press, London, UK.
Payne, G. (2005). Getting ahead of the game: a twin track approach to improving exist-
ing slums and reducing the need for future slums. Environment and Urbaniza-
tion, Vol. 17, No.1.
Quan, J. and N. Dyer (2008). Climate Change and Land Tenure. IIED/FAO Land Tenure
Working Paper No.2.
Schneider, F. (2002). Size and measure of the informal economy in 110 countries
around the World. Canberra, Australia.
UN (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. New York, USA.
UN (2012). World Urban Prospects 2011 Revision. April 2012, New York, USA.
UN/Ecosoc (2012). Ministerial Declaration on promoting productive capacity.
UN/Habitat (2008). State of the World’s Cities. Nairobi Kenya.
3 REVIEW AND IMPACT OF THE SIX STATEMENTS
OF CADASTRE 2014
Jürg KAUFMANN, Switzerland
The year 2014 is an excellent opportunity to review what the impact of CADASTRE 2014
has been over the last 16 years since its publication in 1998. It is interesting to see how
further vision documents have been established since, the latest being the report on
“Future trends in geospatial information management: the ﬁve to ten year vision” man-
dated by UN-GGIM (2013).
The UN-GGIM report documents the “thoughts of leaders in the geospatial world as to
the future of this industry”. It has a somewhat similar focus as CADASTRE 2014, and it
therefore is well-suited to serve as a benchmark in order to review the six statements
that CADASTRE 2014 has put up. Selected declarations of this report show that CADAS-
TRE 2014 seized the trends and contributes to solve current and future problems.
Figure 2: Statement 1 of CADASTRE 2014.
State of implementation
The concept of extending the content of the cadastre by public-law restrictions has been
widely understood. However, in many countries – especially in developing or transiting
ones – priority is given to the establishment of a private-law property cadastre, which is
urgently needed for the development of the land market as an important pillar for the
national economies and also an indispensable basis for national geodata infrastructures
(NSDI). Implementation eﬀorts, therefore, were undertaken primarily in developed coun-
tries, where the traditional cadastre is more or less complete and in operation. An exam-
ple is New Zealand having published recently ‘Cadastre 2034, a 10–20 Year Strategy for
developing the cadastral system: Knowing the ‘where’ of land-related rights’ (LINZ, 2014).
Another example is Switzerland, where the cadastre for public-law restrictions on land-
ownership rights (PLR-Cadastre) is currently being implemented. It follows the principles
of CADASTRE 2014 and contains a subset of data restricting landownership rights.
Assessment of impact
The traditional cadastral procedures are applied to secure the high quality needed
for the management of legal arrangements concerning the land and the land tenure,
including the restrictions stipulated by the public laws. The necessary information to
handle these aspects must be reliable and authoritative. CADASTRE 2014 initiated the
process of inclusion of restrictions into the cadastre, which is shown by prominent ap-
proaches in the domain of RRR (rights, responsibilities and restrictions).
The UN-GGIM report addresses the problem of data quality as follows:
2.6.1 The issue of liability for the quality and accuracy of data is likely to grow in promi-
nence over this period. Historically, NMCAs and other providers of geospatial informa-
tion have largely been able to avoid this issue, publishing disclaimers that strive to ab-
solve them from any litigation risk.
2.6.3 The response to this increasing risk over the next few years seems likely to take one
of two forms: a continued acceptance of the risk, with government legislation to mini-
mise the litigation risk; or the development of a ‘warranted’ data model, where at least
some attributes of data will contain a form of guarantee.
CADASTRE 2014 aims exactly at collecting and delivering liable information concern-
ing all types of boundaries (Kaufmann, 2008) to support land management and sus-
Figure 3: Statement 2 of CADASTRE 2014.
State of implementation
In many countries especially in those where the cadastre has been re-activated or re-es-
tablished, uniﬁed organizations combining the cadastral surveying and the land registry
functionality were implemented. Quite often, also a topographic mapping functionality
has been included. In countries, where information technology is well advanced the re-
spective services can now be oﬀered to customers with combined web-based solutions
providing services for both, ‘maps’ and ‘registers’.
Assessment of impact
This convergence of the two functionalities of cadastral systems was often ventured into
based on the recommendation by CADASTRE 2014. The UN-GGIM report speaks there-
fore of national mapping and cadastral authorities NMCAs.
The eﬃciency of institutions according to the UN-GGIM report is an important issue:
5.1.4 In some countries, a major trend will be to replace obsolete data collected many
decades ago as the economic beneﬁts of up-to-date data can now be quantiﬁed; in other
countries a major trend will be adapting business models and access regimes to meet the
changing expectations of an ever-more demanding customer base accustomed to easy
access to online mapping in a user-friendly environment.
Many countries have re-engineered their cadastral services in this sense and the stakehold-
ers in the land market can address a one-stop-shop to settle their land and property aﬀairs.
Figure 4: Statement 3 of CADASTRE 2014.
State of implementation
In the ﬁeld of data modelling the implementation work took place rather hesitant. A ﬁrst
step, the description of data sets in UML diagrams was executed and models therefore
exist. But the use of tools with computer-readable conceptual model descriptions and
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