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21.1 GraphVisualizationCommands(NestedLayout)
267
Figure21.4: couplesWithRating,orderbynumMovies,generatedwithN=50,000
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268
VisualizationandDebugging
21.2 yCompUsage
yComp[KBG
+
07] is s the default graph h viewer of GrGen, and{ when startedas s a server
process {canbecontrolledbythedebuggerofGrShellviaaTCP/IPconnection. . Besides
thethingsalreadymentionedin2.2.5,wewanttogivethefollowinghints:
 whenstartedonadump,youmustpresstherightmostplaybuttontostartlayout
 playwiththelayoutoptionsoeredintheLayoutmenuuntilyoundagoodvisual-
ization,congureitthenintheGrShell;don’tforgettopresstheplaybuttontoapply
thechanges
 youcanpanebypressingandholdingthemiddlemousebuttonwhilemovingthemouse
 youcanzoomwiththemousewheelatthepositionofthecursor
 hoveringovergraphelementsdisplaystheattributes
 youcanselectgraphelementswiththeleftmousebuttonanddeletethemwithdelto
gainabetteroverview
 by y activating edit modewiththe3rdrightmostbuttonyoucanmovenodesaround,
whichallowsyoutoxabadlayout(ratherseldomneeded)
 the e context menu opened by pressingthe right mouse buttonover a graph element
allowsyoutoexploretheadjacentnodesinnon-edit-mode,ordeletetheelementinedit
mode
 youcansearchwithCtrl-for/forthepersistentnameoranattributevalue(or r by
clickingintotheleftsearcheld),thematchingelementsgethighlighted
21.3 DebuggingRelatedCommands
-
debug
-
enable
-
disable
-
Enablesanddisablesthedebugmode.Thedebugmodeshowsthecurrentworkinggraphin
ayCompwindow.AllchangestotheworkinggrapharetrackedbyyCompimmediately.
-
debug
-
set
-
layout
-
Text
-
option
-
Name
-
String
-
Setsthedefaultgraphlayout algorithmtoText. . If f Text t isomitted,alistoftheavailable
layout algorithms is displayed. . The e following layout t algorithms are e supported: : Random,
Hierarchic,Organic,Orthogonal,Circular,Tree,Diagonal,Incremental Hierarchic,
Compilergraph.FortechnicalgraphsHierarchicworksnormallybest;Compilergraphisa
versionof Hierarchiccuttingsomeedges,itmaybeofinterestifHierarchiccontainstoo
manycrossingedges. Organicistheothergeneralpurposelayoutavailable,theotherlayouts
areratherspecial,butthisshouldnotpreventyoufromusingthemiftheyttoyourtask
;). Theoptionversionallowstospecifylayoutoptionsbynamevaluepairs. Theavailable
layoutoptionscanbelistedbythefollowingcommand.
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21.4 UsingtheDebugger
269
-
debug
-
get
-
layout
-
options
-
Printsalistoftheavailablelayoutoptionsofthelayoutalgorithm.
-
debug
-
layout
-
Forces re-layout t of f the graph shown inyComp (same e as s pressing the play buttonwithin
yComp).
-
debug
-
set
-
node
-
mode
-
Text
-
DumpNodeContinuation
-
-
debug
-
set
-
edge
-
mode
-
Text
-
DumpEdgeContinuation
-
Conguresthedisplayofthevisualdebugstatesforthenodes/edges.Thefollowingmodesare
supported:matched,created,deleted,retyped.Changethisifyoue.g.wantthematched
elementstobemarkedmorevisibly,oradded/deletedelementstobecoloredgreen/red.
GraphRewriteSequence
-
debug
-
exec
-
xgrs
-
SimpleRewriteSequence
-
This executes the graph h rewrite sequence SimpleRewriteSequence in the debugger. . Same
asexec SimpleRewriteSequenceintheprevious s chapter,butallowstracingtherewriting
processstep-by-step.
21.4 UsingtheDebugger
Thedebuggingprocessfollowsofaseriesofdebugsituations,whichresultfromauserselection
oftheunderlyingexecutionsituationsaccordingtointerest. Duringeachdebuggingstepthe
debugger{whichisapartoftheGrShell{printsthedebuggedsequencewiththecurrently
focused/activerulehighlightedyellow.Whatwillbeshownfromexecutingthisruledepends
onthe commands s chosen by y the user; ; and d on the fact t whether the focused d rule matches
or not. . An n active rule whichis already knownto matchis highlighted green. . The e rules
whichmatchedduringsequence executionare shownon darkgreenbackground,the rules
whichfailedduringsequenceexecutionareshownondarkredbackground;atthebeginof
anewloopiterationthehighlightingstateofthecontainedrulesisreset. Duringexecution
yComp
2
willdisplaythechangestothegraphfromeverysinglestep. Besidesdecidingon
what isshownfromthe executionofthecurrent rule,theuser determines withthe debug
commandswheretocontinuetheexecution(therulefocusednext;butagainthisdependson
success/failureofthecurrentlyactiverule). ThedebugcommandsaregiveninTable21.1.
Arunisshowninthefollowingexample130.
2
Make sure, that the path to your yComp.jar package is set correctly in the ycomp shell script within
GrGen.NET’s/bindirectory.
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270
VisualizationandDebugging
Inadditiontothecommandsforactivelysteppingorskippingthroughthesequenceexe-
cution,therearebreakpointsandchoicepointsavailable(toggledwiththebandccommands)
whichareonlyprocessedwhentheyarereached,butontheother handarealsoprocessed
if a user command would skip them. . Thebreak k points halt execution,focus the reached
sequence,andcausethedebuggertowaitforfurther commands(e.g. . dtoinspecttherule
execution endetailversus s s for just applying it). . Thechoice e points halt execution,focus
thereachedsequenceinmagenta,andaskforsomeuserinput;aftertheinputwasreceived,
executioncontinuesaccordingtothecommandpreviouslyissued.
Bothbreakpointsandchoicepointsaredenotedbythe%modier.The%modierworks
as a break point t if f it is s given before: : a a rule, an all bracketed rule, a variable predicate,
ortheconstants true/false. . The% % modier worksasachoice point ifitisappendedto
the$ randomizemodier switchingarandomdecisionintoauserdecision. . Thisholdsfor
the binary operators, the random match selector of all bracketedrules, therandom-all-of
operatorsandtheone-of-setbraces. Theideabehindthisis: : youneedsomerandomization
forsimulationpurposes|thenusetherandomizemodier$. Youwanttoforceacertain
decisionoverridingtherandomdecisiontotryoutanotherexecutionpathwhiledebugging
thesimulation ow|thenmodifytherandomizemodierwiththeuser(choice)modier%.
Theinitialbreakpointandchoicepointassignmentis givenwiththe%charactersinthe
sequencesafterthedebug execcommandsinthe.grsle. Thebreakpointandchoicepoint
commandsofthedebuggerallowtotogglethematruntime,overridingtheinitialassignment
(notationally yielding a a sequence e with h added d or removed % characters). . The e user input
commands$%(type)denechoicepointswhichcan’tbetoggledo.
Further commands allow to print the variables at a given n situation, the sequence call
stack,orafullstatedumpofthecallstackandthevariables.Orallowtodumpthecurrent
graph,orhighlightelementsinthegraph,denedbybeingcontainedina(possiblycontainer
valued)variable,orbeingvisitedaccordingtoavisited ag.
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21.4 UsingtheDebugger
271
EXAMPLE(130)
WedemonstratethedebugcommandswithaslightlyadjustedscriptfortheKochsnow ake
fromGrGen.NET’sexamples(seealsoSection23.1).Thegraphrewritingsequenceis
1
debug exec(makeFlake1* & (beautify &doNothing)* &makeFlake2* &beautify*)[1]
yCompwillbeopenedwithaninitialgraph(resultingfromgrs init):
Wetyped(etailedstep)toapplymakeFlake1stepbystepresultinginthefollowinggraphs:
Thefollowingtableshowsthe\breakpoints"offurtherdebugcommands,enteredoneafter
another:
Command
Activerule
s
makeFlake1
o
beautify
s
doNothing
s
beautify
u
beautify
o
makeFlake2
r
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272
VisualizationandDebugging
s(tep)
Executethecurrentrewrite rule (match,andrewriteincase it
matched;theresultinggraphisshown).
d(etailedstep)
Execute the e current t rewrite e rule e in a three-step p procedure:
matching-highlightingthefoundmatch,rewriting-highlighting
thechangingelements,andapplication-doingtherewriteshow-
ingtheresultinggraph.Inaddition,afterwardstheexecutionof
subrulesfromembeddedsequences(exec)isshownstepbystep.
(step)o(ut)
Continueexecutionuntiltheendofthecurrentloop.Iftheexe-
cutionisnotinaloopatthismoment,butinasequencecalled,
thecalledsequencewillbeexecuteduntilits end. . Ifneitheris
thecase,thecompletesequencewillbeexecuted.
(step)u(p)
AscendonelevelupwithintheKantorowitschtreeofthecurrent
rewritesequence(i.e. rule;seeExample130;atthemomentthe
command is s pretty y useless s because only y the e serialized form is
displayed).
r(un)
Continueexecution(untiltheendorabreakpoint).
a(bort)
Canceltheexecutionimmediately.
n(ext)
Gotothenextrewriterulewhichmatches,makeitcurrent.
(toggle)b(reakpoint)
Toggleabreakpointatoneofthebreakpointablelocations.
(toggle)c(choicepoint) Toggleachoicepointatoneofthechoicepointablelocations.
(edit)w(atchpoints)
Allowstoeditdatabreakpointsorthebehaviourforprogrammed
debugmessages.
v(ariables)
Printstheglobalvariablesandthelocalvariablesofthesequence
currentlyexecuted,whichisthetopmostsequenceofthesequence
callstack. Plustheallocatedvisited ags. . Tobemoreprecise
regardinglocalvariables: allvariableswhichweredened(and
havenotfallenoutofscopeagain) uptothesequenceposition
focussed.
t(race)
Printsthestacktraceofthecurrentsequencecallstack;thestack
traceincludesthebodyofeachsequencecalledatitsexecution
state.
f(ulldump)
Printsthestacktraceincludingthelocalvariablesofeachstack
frameplustheglobalvariables.
(dum)p(graph)
Dumpsthecurrentgraphasa.vcgleandshowsitinyComp.
This can be used d as s a a workaround to o check k the e real l state in
casetransaction/backtrackingrollbackis usedonagraphwith
nodenesting,whichmayleadtoabuggydisplay. Inaddition,an
undo.logiswrittenwiththeundocommandsforchangereversal
oftheopentransactionsthatwillbeappliedonrollback.
(as)-g(raph)
Asks for the value of theexternally denedtype that is tobe
showninthe debuggeringraphform(youmustimplement an
extensionhandlerabletoreturnanINamedGraphonrequestfor
this towork,see24.4). . Alternatively,youmayspecifyagraph
value,whichisthendisplayeddirectly.
h(ighlight)
Highlightstheelementsinthegraphwhicharemarkedwiththe
visited aggiven,orarecontainedinthevariablegiven(which
mightbeasimplescalarvariablecontainingagraphelement,or
acontainervariable). Multiplevariablesorvisited agsmaybe
givenseparatedbycommas.
Table21.1:GrShelldebugcommands
21.5 SubruleDebuggingandProgrammedHalts
273
21.5 SubruleDebuggingandProgrammedHalts
ThebasicgranularityofdebugginginGrGen.NETisthesinglerulecalledfromaninter-
pretedsequence.Butwithembeddedexecstherearefurthersequencesandactionsavailable
outside direct controland visibility ofthe debugger. . At t least theactions called d fromthe
embeddedsequences are showninthe debugger {incasedetailedmode is used. . But t the
localexecutionstateofimperativecodewhichmaybeusedfortaskswherepatternmatching
isnotbenecialiscompletelyinvisibletothedebugger.Onlytheeectsonthegraphbecome
visible.
Thereisaremedyforthissituation,code-embeddeddebuggingcommands,intheformof
callstoproceduresfromthebuilt-inpackageDebug.Withthemyoucanpunchholesintothe
coveringblanketthatallowyoutopeekatwhat’sgoingonunderthecovers.Thedebugging
commandsareusedforonetodirectlydisplayinformation,butfortheotherforhandlinga
stackofdebugmessages,intendedforrepresentingthecurrentstateofthecallnestingofthe
executingcode.
Theavailablecommandsare:
Debug::add(message(,object)*)
tobecalledwhenasubrulecomputationoraninterestingpieceofcodeisentered. The
messageisaddedtothedebugmessagesstackofthedebugger. Besidesthemandatory
message:string,anarbitrarynumberofotherparametersmaybegiven(ofarbitrary
type).
Debug::rem(message(,object)*)
tobecalledwhenasubrulecomputationoraninterestingpieceofcodeisexited. The
topmostentrymessageonthemessagesstackisremoved.Itischeckedthatthemessage
ofthetopmostaddedentryisidenticaltothemessageofcurrentremoval{youmust
alwayscalladdandreminpairs! Theemit t messagesonthewaytothetopmostadd
areremoved. Besidesthemandatory y message:string,anarbitrary numberofother
parametersmaybegiven(ofarbitrarytype).
Debug::emit(message(,object)*)
tobecalledwhensomeinterestingpointsinthecodearepassed.Themessageisadded
tothedebugmessagesstackofthedebugger.Besidesthemandatorymessage:string,
anarbitrarynumberofotherparametersmaybegiven(ofarbitrarytype).
Debug::halt(message(,object)*)
to becalledwhen some point in thecode is reachedthat is so interesting that you
wanttheexecutiontobreakinthedebugger. Ifcalled,thedebuggerhalts s execution,
displaysthemessagesstackinitscurrentstate,andprints outthehaltmessagewith
itsparameters.Besidesthemandatorymessage:string,anarbitrarynumberofother
parametersmaybegiven(ofarbitrarytype).
Debug::highlight(message(,object,string)*)
to becalledwhen some point in thecode is reachedthat is so interesting that you
wanttheexecutiontobreakinthedebugger,inordertodisplaysomevariablevalues
highlighted graphically y inthedebugger,inthesame way they are highlighted d when
anactionis matched. . If f called,the debugger halts execution,displays the messages
stackinitscurrentstate,anddisplaysthenodesandedgespassedwiththeadditional
parameters highlighted in the graph. . The e additional l parameters must t be given n in
pairs,rsttheentitytodisplay,thenthestringthatentrywillbeannotatedwithin
the debugger. . The e entity to display y may y be a node or edge, , which is s then n directly
highlighted,orastoragecontainingnodesoredges,allcontainednodes/edgeswillthen
behighlighted,or avisited ag(integer number),allgraphelements thatarevisited
274
VisualizationandDebugging
accordingtothat agarethenhighlighted. Besides,asrstmandatoryparameter,the
message:stringmustbegiven.
Some add d and d rem m are e automatically y inserted d by GrGen.NET T for you. . For r one e for
embeddedexecs,adebugmessageissentwhenanembeddedexecisenteredorexited,with
amessagestartingwiththenameofthecontainingrule. Fortheotherforproceduresand
compiledsequencedenitions,adebugmessageissentwhenaprocedureordenedsequence
is enteredor exited,with h amessagebeing equal to the name of theprocedureor r dened
sequence.
21.6 Watchpointconguration
Thebehaviourofthedebuggeruponreceivingcertaineventscanbedenedwithconguration
rules or watchpoints. . Whena a subrule debugging event (aka debug message), or a graph
changeevent,or anactionmatcheventoccurs,isthelistvisitedoneentryaftertheother,
andonecongurationrule checkedfora match. . Whenacongurationrule e orwatchpoint
matches,is its decisionapplied. . The e decisionmay betobreak executionanddisplaythe
currentexecutionstate,ortocontinueexecution,whichisofinterestforeventsthatnormally
breakexecutionbutshouldbebetterignored.
Besides deningtheconguration n rules s ofthe watchpoints beforehandwith h shellcom-
mands,canyouedittheminteractivelywiththeeditwatchpointcommandinsidethedebug-
ger.
Subrulemessages
-
debug
-
on
-
add
-
rem
-
emit
-
MessageFilter
-
break
-
-
debug
-
on
-
halt
-
highlight
-
MessageFilter
-
continue
-
MessageFilter
-
equals
-
startsWith
-
endsWith
-
contains
-
(
-
StringConstant
-
)
-
When the e string specied matches s the e message e of the debug event according g to o the
message lter r given, is s executioninterruptedby y the e debugger in case of an Debug::add,
Debug::rem, Debug::emit t which h normally y occurs silently, , those events are typically only
usedtorepresenttheexecutionstateofthecodeinthedebugger. Whenamatchhappens
foraDebug::haltorDebug::highlightisexecutioncontinuedwithoutinterruption,while
normallythosemessagesbreakexecutioninthedebugger.
21.6 Watchpointconguration
275
Actionmatchevent
-
debug
-
on
-
match
-
RuleName
-
break
-
continue
-
if
-
SequenceExpression
-
Whentheactionspeciedwasmatched,isexecutionhaltedinthedebuggerincaseofa
break.Thisisofinterestforrulesexecutedfromexecs,asnormalbreakpointsdon’tapplyto
them,thiswaywecansetabreakpointonaruleirrespectivefromwhereitiscalled(allowing
ustojustrunasequenceuntilanactionmatchofinteresthappens). Incaseofacontinue
isexecutionforcedtocontinue. Thisisofinterestfordetailmodedebuggingthatnormally
breaksoneachmatchedrule. Itallowsustoleaveoutuninterestingrulesfromdetailmode
debugging,toskipoverrulesinexecswithouttheneedtoacknowledgethem.
Thesequenceexpressionnallyallowsustodecideconditionally.Itisevaluatedwhenthe
congurationruleisevaluatedbecauseitseventoccured,ifitreturnstruetheconguration
rulematches,otherwiseitdoes notmatch. . Thethisentityis s overloadedforthesequence
expression (normally it t denotes the graph). . It t gives s access s to the match h found, you can
accesstheentitiesofthematchindot-Notation(e.g.this.node1). Thecongurationruleis
evaluatedforallmatchesincaseofanall-bracketedmatch,ifonereturnstrue,thedecision
iscarriedout.
Graphchangeevents
-
debug
-
on
-
new
-
delete
-
retype
-
set
-
attributes
-
TypeNameSpec
-
break

-
if
-
SequenceExpression
-
TypeNameSpec
-
only
-
Type
-
@
-
(
-
Name
-
)
-
Whenthegraphchangespeciedoccured(itscorrespondingeventwasred),isexecution
haltedinthedebugger. Thesupportedgraphchangesaregraphelementcreation,deletion,
retyping,orattributeassignment. TheTypeNameSpec c constrainsthisby typeorbyname.
Therstformmatchesonlywhentheelementisofthespeciedtype,incaseof onlyonly
if it is ofexactly that type and not a subtype. . The e secondformmatches only when the
elementis of thespeciedname,givenasstringconstant (rulesofthat kindaretypically
created interactively, but t due to the persistence of persistent names and d theexecution of
GrGenbeingasdeterministicaspossibleinbetweensinglerunsmakeevenstaticrulessense
{evenmoresoifyouassignthenamesonyourown).
276
VisualizationandDebugging
Thesequenceexpressionnallyallowsustodecideconditionally.Itisevaluatedwhenthe
congurationruleisevaluatedbecauseitseventoccured,ifitreturnstruetheconguration
rulematches,otherwiseitdoes notmatch. . Thethisentityis s overloadedforthesequence
expression(normallyitdenotesthegraph). Itgivesaccesstothenodeoredgethatwasjust
created,is gettingdeleted,isgettingretyped,or wasassignedto. . Soherewendsupport
forconditionaldatabreakpoints.
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