how to open pdf file in new tab in mvc using c# : Batch pdf to jpg Library SDK class asp.net .net windows ajax GSP-RPT-SPS-0503%20LBST%20Final%20Report%20Space%20Earth%20Solar%20Comparison%20Study%20050318%20s16-part1968

E
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– A C
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Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
Final Report
5-149
Further scenario specific data which depend on the installed SOT capacity are listed in the
following chapters, see 5.1.3.
b) 
SOT plant with electricity storage via pumped hydro
The concept of a SOT plant with electricity storage via pumped hydro is similar to the
concept with a hydrogen storage. The reference SOT plant with a central receiver and
thermal storage defined in chapter 1.2. generates electricity for ~ 6,400 full loads hours
per year. Consequently, the electricity storage via pumped hydro has to bridge about
2,360 h/yr. Planned plant shut downs for maintenance reduce the equivalent capacity
factor of 0.96 resulting in ~ 8,400 h/yr operating hours.
Table 5-2 sketches the scheme of the base load optimized SOT plant with electricity
storage via pumped hydro.
ELECTRICITY
Central receiver
Solar field
(Heliostats)
heat
electricity
heat
Heat
Thermal storage (13 h)
GROSS OUTPUT:
Equivalent of 220 MW
e
@ 6, 400 h/yr * 0.96
NET OUTPUT: 153 MW
e
@ 8,760 h/yr * 0.96
PUMPED HYDRO O SOT PLANT
POWER BLOCK
Equivalent of 153 MW
e
@ 2,360 h/yr * 0.96
electricity
Figure 5-5: Scheme of the SOT plant with thermal storage and electricity storage
via pumped hydro
Because of lower losses due to the additional electricity storage the net electricity output
of the system is higher compared to the hydrogen storage variant (see Table 5-2).
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E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
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Final Report
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
5-150
Maximum electricity output SOT_gross
220 MW
e
Maximum electricity output SOT plant_net
153 MW
e
Maximum electricity output FC/CCGT_net
153 MW
e
Required land area per plant (zone 0)
13.9 km²/plant
Required land area per plant (zone 1)
22.5 km²/plant
Annual full load hours
8,400 h/yr
Table 5-2: Technical data for base load optimized SOT plant with electricity
storage via pumped hydro
5.1.2 Scenario data
In the this chapter technical data for each base load scenario are presented for terrestrial
concepts with:
a) electricity storage via hydrogen with 220 MW
e
central receiver solar power plant
modules which supply 108 MW
e
each
and with
b) electricity storage via pumped hydro with 220 MW
e
central receiver solar power plant
modules which supply 153 MW
e
each.
More detailed technical assumptions concerning installed capacities, energy storage
means and high-voltage power transmission are discussed in the Report Annex (see
chapter A2).
Figure 5-6 to Figure 5-9 depicts the resulting SOT installations in zone 0 and zone 1
depending on the storage technology applied.
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E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
Final Report
5-151
a) 
Scenario 0.5 GW
Greece:
H
2
:~ 0.1 GW
e
PH~ 0.1 GW
e
Spain:
H
2
:~ 0.2 GW
e
PH~ 0.3 GWe
Source: PV-GIS; modificated by LBST
Electricity storage: H
2
: hydrogenPH: pumped hydro
Turkey:
H
2
:~ 0.2GW
e
PH~ 0.1 GW
e
Scale: 0.1 cm = 0.1 GW
e
Figure 5-6: Installed SOT plant capacities in zone 1 for 0.5 GW scenarios with
electricity storage H
2
/ pumped hydro
b) 
Scenarios 5 GW
Greece:
H
2
:~ 0.4 GW
e
PH~ 0.6 GW
e
Spain:
H
2
:~ 2.1 GW
e
PH~ 1.5 GWe
Source: PV-GIS; modificated by LBST
Electricity storage: H
2
: hydrogenPH: pumped hydro
Turkey:
H
2
:~ 1.5GW
e
PH~ 1.5 GW
e
Italy:
H
2
:~ 0.6 GW
e
PH~ 0.9 GW
e
Portugal:
H
2
:~ 0.4 GW
e
PH~ 0.6 GWe
Scale: 0.1 cm = 0.1 GW
e
Figure 5-7: Installed SOT plant capacities in zone 1 for 5 GW scenarios with
electricity storage H
2
/ pumped hydro
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E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Final Report
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
5-152
c) 
Scenario 10 GW
Greece:
H
2
:~ 0.4 GW
e
PH~ 0.6 GW
e
Spain:
H
2
:~ 4.1 GW
e
PH~ 3.8 GWe
Source: PV-GIS; modificated by LBST
Electricity storage: H
2
: hydrogenPH: pumped hydro
Turkey:
H
2
:~ 4.1GW
e
PH~ 3.8 GW
e
Italy:
H
2
:~ 0.8 GW
e
PH~ 1.2 GW
e
Portugal:
H
2
:~ 0.4 GW
e
PH~ 0.6 GWe
Scale: 1 cm = 7.5 GW
e
Figure 5-8: Installed SOT plant capacities in zone 1 for 10 GW scenarios with
electricity storage H
2
/ pumped hydro
d) 
Scenario 50 GW
Greece:
H
2
:~ 2.1 GW
e
PH~ 2.9 GW
e
Spain:
H
2
:~ 11.4 GW
e
PH~ 14.7 GWe
Source: PV-GIS; modificated by LBST
Electricity storage: H
2
: hydrogenPH: pumped hydro
Turkey:
H
2
:~ 31.1GW
e
PH~ 25.6 GW
e
Italy:
H
2
:~ 4.1 GW
e
PH~ 5.1 GW
e
Portugal:
H
2
:~ 1.2 GW
e
PH~ 1.8 GWe
Scale: 1 cm = 7.5 GW
e
Figure 5-9: Installed SOT plant capacities in zone 1 for 50 GW scenarios with
electricity storage hydrogen / pumped hydro storage
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E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
Final Report
5-153
e) 
Scenario 100 GW
Greece:
H
2
:~ 8.3 GW
e
PH~ 6.2 GW
e
Spain:
H
2
:~ 34.7 GW
e
PH~ 22.0 GWe
Source: PV-GIS; modificated by LBST
Electricity storage: H
2
: hydrogenPH: pumped hydro
Turkey:
H
2
:~ 41.5 GW
e
PH~ 58.8 GW
e
Italy:
H
2
:~ 12.4 GW
e
PH~ 9.1 GW
e
Portugal:
H
2
:~ 3.1 GW
e
PH~ 4.0GWe
Scale: 1 cm = 75 GW
e
Figure 5-10: Installed SOT plant capacities in zone 1 for 100 GW scenarios with
electricity storage H
2
/ pumped hydro
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E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Final Report
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
5-154
f) 
Scenario 500 GW
Greece:
H
2
:~ 11.2 GW
e
PH~ 15.6 GW
e
Spain:
H
2
:~ 34.7 GW
e
PH~ 73.9 GWe
Source: PV-GIS; modificated by LBST
Electricity storage: H
2
: hydrogenPH: pumped hydro
Turkey:
H
2
:~ 193 GW
e
PH~ 272 GW
e
Italy:
H
2
:~ 18.0 GW
e
PH~ 25.6 GW
e
Portugal:
H
2
:~ 4.5GW
e
PH~ 6.3GWe
Scale: 1 cm = 75 GW
e
Libya:
H
2
:~ 45.6 GW
e
PH~ 22.0 GW
e
Algeria:
H
2
:~ 45.6 GW
e
PH~ 22.0 GW
e
Egypt:
H
2
:~ 18.2 GW
e
PH~ 18.9 GW
e
Tunisia:
H
2
:~ 27.4 GW
e
PH~ 22.0 GW
e
Morocco:
H
2
:~ 83 GW
e
PH~ 22 GW
e
Figure 5-11: Installed SOT plant capacities in zone 1 for 500 GW scenarios with
electricity storage hydrogen / pumped hydro
The following figures show the resulting amounts of power which have to be transmitted
via HVDC from zone 1 and zone 0 into zone 2 for the 500 GW scenarios. Figure 5-12
shows the power transmission via HVDC for the terrestrial concept with electricity storage
via hydrogen and Figure 5-13 shows the results for electricity storage via pumped hydro.
E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
Final Report
5-155
~143 GW
e
TURKEY
~18 GW
e
SPAIN
~1.6 GW
e
GREECE
Turkey
~18 GW
e
~28 GW
e
~46 GW
e
Egypt
Libya
Tunisia
Algeria
Morocco
~46 GW
e
~84 GW
e
Figure 5-12: Required power transmission from zone 0 (North Africa) and zone 1
(European sunbelt) via HVDC for 500 GW scenario with electricity storage via H
2
~228 GW
e
TURKEY
~40 GW
e
SPAIN
~6.3 GW
e
GREECE
Turkey
~19 GW
e
~22 GW
e
Egypt
Libya
Tunisia
Algeria
Morocco
~22 GW
e
~22 GW
e
~22 GW
e
Figure 5-13: Required power transmission capacities from zone 0 (North Africa)
and zone 1 (European sunbelt) via HVDC for 500 GW scenario with electricity
storage via pumped hydro
In all other scenarios with lower power levels described above no additional power
transmission via HVDC is required. Only for 500 GW base load HVDC are needed.
E
ARTH AND 
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-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Final Report
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
5-156
5.1.3 Costs
In the following calculated costs and their assumptions are presented for terrestrial
concepts with electricity storage via hydrogen and pumped hydro.
a) 
Electricity storage via H
2
Table 5-3 shows assumptions for cost data calculations and levelized electricity costs
(LEC).
Unit
0.5 GW
5 GW
10 GW
50 GW
100 GW
500 GW
Maximum electricity output SOT
MW
220
220
220
220
220
220
Investment
EUR
688,900,000
601,300,000
578,800,000
532,100,000
514,300,000
477,300,000
Specific investment electrolysis
EUR/kW
H2
500
500
500
500
500
500
Efficiency electrolyzer
65%
65%
65%
65%
65%
65%
Maximum electricity input
electrolyzer
MW
e
112
112
112
112
112
112
Investment electrolysis plant
EUR
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
Required storage capacity
d
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
Number of loading unloading
cycles
50
50
50
50
50
50
Required net storage capacity
Nm3 H
2
2,984,425
2,984,425
2,984,425
2,984,425
2,984,425
2,984,425
Max. pressure
bar
20
20
20
20
20
20
Min. pressure
bar
2
2
2
2
2
2
Specific gross storage capacity
Nm3/l
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
H
2
remaining in storage
Nm
3
/l
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
Specific net storage capacity
Nm3/l
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
storage utilization
90%
90%
90%
90%
90%
90%
Required storage
l
181,456,990
181,456,990
181,456,990
181,456,990
181,456,990
181,456,990
Storage volume per spherical
pressure vessel
l
3,000,000
3,000,000
3,000,000
3,000,000
3,000,000
3,000,000
Specific investment
EUR/unit
1,917,345
1,917,345
1,917,345
1,917,345
1,917,345
1,917,345
Number of spherical pressure
vessels
60
60
60
60
60
60
Investment hydrogen storage
EUR
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
Efficiency FC/CCGT
55%
55%
55%
55%
55%
55%
Specific investment FC/CCGT
EUR/kW
e
500
500
500
500
500
500
Maximum electricity output
FC
MW
e
108
108
108
108
108
108
Electricity generated by
FC/CCGT
kWh
e
/yr
246,215,073
246,215,073
246,215,073
246,215,073
246,215,073
246,215,073
Equivalent full load period
FC/CCGT
h/yr
2,283
2,283
2,283
2,283
2,283
2,283
Technical availability
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
Final Report
5-157
Unit
0.5 GW
5 GW
10 GW
50 GW
100 GW
500 GW
Electricity generation total
MWh
e
/
(30 yr)
27,256,281
27,256,281
27,256,281
27,256,281
27,256,281, 27,256,281
Investment SOT
EUR
688,900,000
601,300,000
578,800,000
532,100,000
514,300,000
477,300,000
Investment electrolysis plant
EUR
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
86,000,000
Investment storage
EUR
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
116,000,000
Investment FC/CCGT
EUR
53,925,849
53,925,849
53,925,849
53,925,849
53,925,849
53,925,849
Total
EUR
944,825,849 857,225,849 834,725,849 9 788,025,849 9 770,225,849 733,225,849
Share equity
1
1
1
1
1
1
Share dept
0
0
0
0
0
0
IRR
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
Interest rate dept
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
6.0%
Useful lifetime
yr
30
30
30
30
30
30
Dept term
yr
30
30
30
30
30
30
Capital costs
T EUR/
(30 yr)
2,059,217
1,868,295
1,819,257
1,717,476
1,678,682
1,598,041
Insurance
of
investment/yr
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
Insurance
EUR/(30 yr)
141,723,877
128,583,877
125,208,877
118,203,877
115,533,877
109,983,877
O&M SOT
EUR/kWh
e
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
O&M SOT
EUR/(30 yr)
126,443,592
126,443,592
126,443,592
126,443,592
126,443,592
126,443,592
O&M electrolyzer
of
investment/yr
1.5%
1.5%
1.5%
1.5%
1.5%
1.5%
O&M electrolyzer
EUR/(30 yr)
38,700,000
38,700,000
38,700,000
38,700,000
38,700,000
38,700,000
O&M Fuel cell/CCGT
EUR/(30 yr)
73,864,522
73,864,522
73,864,522
73,864,522
73,864,522
73,864,522
Electricity costs
EUR/kWh
e
0.090
0.082
0.080
0.076
0.075
0.071
Table 5-3: Calculated electricity costs of SOT plants for base load scenarios with
electricity storage via H
2
(without HVDC)
Figure 5-14 shows the resulting LEC of the base load optimized SOT plant with integrated
hydrogen storage. The different resulting costs base on the different assumptions and
predictions for SOT plant development of [S&L 2003], see also chapter 3. LEC SOT (min)
bases on technology and cost assumptions of “SunLab” and LEC SOT (bandwidth) on
predictions and calculations of “Sargent&Lundy”.
E
ARTH AND 
S
PACE
-B
ASED 
P
OWER 
G
ENERATION 
S
YSTEMS 
– A C
OMPARISON 
S
TUDY
Final Report
Comparison of base load scenarios (WP1)
5-158
0.000
0.020
0.040
0.060
0.080
0.100
0.120
0.5
5
10
50
100
500
Scenarios [GW
e
]
LEC [US$/kWhe
LEC SOT (min)
LEC SOT (bandwidth)
Figure 5-14: LEC of terrestrial SOT with electricity storage via hydrogen with
range of uncertainty
For further comparisons LEC SOT (min) was selected as reference concept, see therefore
also discussion in chapter 3. The diagram in Figure 5-15 bases on data for LEC SOT (min)
with a primary SOT reference system from “SunLab” [S&L 2003].
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested