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Duringtheglobalrecessionandsaggingtimberpricesoftheearly1980s,another
accommodationwasmade,becauselandownerswerehavingadifficulttimeselling
anytimber,especiallyharvestswithahighvolumeofsalvagematerial.Toalleviate
theproblem,theRegionalForesterallowedfortimbersaleswith50percentofthe
timber(byvolume)insalvagestatetobeexportablebecausethemillswerelosing
moneyandthesalvagematerialcreatedafirehazard.Permitsweregrantedduring
calendaryears1984,1985,and1986tosell12.7mmbf(57,000m
3
),31.6mmbf
(140,000m
3
),and17.6mmbf(79,000m
3
)respectively.Oncethemarketimproved,
thepermitsystemwasnotrenewed.
56
BureauofLandManagement— BLMinAlaskahasonlyafewsmallsales,andthey
areonlytothelocalAlaskamarkettomeetdomesticneeds.Allapplicationstoexport
timberfromBLMlandsareforwardedtotheSecretaryoftheInteriorforadetermina-
tion.ThisisdifferentfromtheForestService,wheretheRegionalForesterforAlaska
hasthatauthority.
BothaccessandtimberarelimitedonBLMlandsinAlaska;therefore,noregulations
havebeenwrittenasoflate1994pertainingtotheexportoflogsfromBLMlandsin
Alaska.
AsFederalregulationshavebecomeprogressivelymorerestrictive,someStatesin
thePacificNorthwesthavebegunissuingsimilarlegislationlimiting(invariousde-
grees)theexportoflogsfromState-ownedlands.SomeoftheStateshavehadfairly
strictlogexportrulesregardingpublictimbersincestatehood,andothersdidnot
issueanysuchregulationsuntilmandatedbytheFederalGovernmentwithFRCSRA
1990(seefootnote33);itessentiallybannedlogexportsfromallStatelands.The
historyofStaterestrictionsforWashington,Oregon,Alaska,California,Idaho,and
Montanawillbediscussed.
BeforetheStatesofthePacificNorthwestareaddressedindividually,however,the
wholesubjectofthelegalityofState-ownedtimberexportrestrictionsshouldbedis-
cussed,becausetheconstitutionalityoftheseregulationshasbeensuccessfullychal-
lengedtwiceinthepast10years.OnecasechallengedAlaskaforregulatingpublic
timber;theotherconcernedFederalregulationofState-ownedtimber.Inboth
instances,therestrictionswerefoundunconstitutional.
ThefirstrulingwastheresultofthecaseofSouth-CentralTimberDevelopment,Inc.,
atimbercompanyinAlaska,againstWunnicke,anAlaskaStateofficial.South-Central
TimberchargedforemostthatanAlaskaStateprovision,whichimposeda“primary
manufacturerequirement”mandatingthatalltimberpurchasedfromtheStateundergo
atleastsomeformofpartialprocessingwithintheState,violatedtheCommerce
ClauseoftheU.S.Constitution.TheNinthCircuitCourt’sdecision,
57
renderedin
1984,struckdowntheAlaskaStatelaw.Thecourtfoundthatthislawconstituteda
burdenoncommerce,andthatdespitetheexistenceofasimilarFederalpolicycon-
cerninglogsonFederallands,CongresshadnotexpresslysanctionedtheState
statute.
PacificNorthwest
States
TheStates’Regulatory
Authority
56
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,Alaska
RegionRegionalForester.1987.LetterdatedJanuary23.
Onfilewith:AlaskaRegionalOffice,USDAForestService,
Box21628,Juneau,AK99802.
57
South-Centralvs.Wunnicke(467US82(1984)).
27
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AlthoughthisrulingappliedtoAlaska,theotherStatesinthePacificNorthwestsoon
questionedtheirownsimilarlogexportregulations.Asaresult,someStatesaban-
donedorignoredtheirexistingrules,andothersdecidedtowaitforspecificcourtor
Federalactionbeforeimplementinganychanges.
South-CentralTimberCo.vs.WunnickeeventuallyledtoFRCSRAof1990(seefoot-
note33),whichfederallysanctionedStatestatutestoprohibitallormostlogexports
frompubliclands.The1990actremovedState-ownedtimberinthelower48States
fromtheexportsupplyscene(exceptfor25percentofWashington’sharvest).
ProhibitingalllogexportsfromState-ownedor-administeredlands,thisactwasthe
firstFederalregulationtoissueablanketexportbanonallspecies(unlessexempted)
frompubliclands.
TheportionregardingState-ownedtimberregulationsledtothesecondkeyruling
bearingonStates’authority.ThispartofFRCSRA1990wasrenderedunconstitutional
in1992,againbytheNinthCircuitCourt.However,thelawhassincebeenamended
(seefootnote42)andnowlegallyprovidesforStatestatutestolimitlogexports.At
thistime,Statesthathaveprogramsprohibitinglogsexportsmaycontinuethemonce
theyareacceptedbytheDepartmentofCommerce.
Washington
Keyregulations
Year
LogConservationandFull
EmploymentAct
1968
WashingtonAnnotatedCode
1990
TherewerenoStaterestrictionsprohibitinglogexportsfromWashingtonuntil
FRCSRAof1990(seefootnote33)wasenactedandmandatedsuchregulations,
althoughanearlierattempthadbeenmadeinthelate1960s.
TheWashingtonStateLogConservationandFullEmploymentAct,proposedin1968
asInitiativeMeasureNo.32,wouldhaverequiredallState-ownedlogstobepro-
cessedwithintheState,orwithin15miles(24km)ofStateborders,andwouldhave
definedprimarymanufactureas“makingalllongitudinalsurfacesofthelogflatorcon-
vertingasubstantialportionintoveneerorchips.”Washington’sfirstandonlyautono-
mousattemptatlogexportrestrictionswasdefeatedbythevotersonNovember5,
1968,byaratioof2to1.
Later,theCommissionerofPublicLandsfortheStateofWashingtondefendedthe
State’spositiononFederalandStatelogexportregulationsintestimonyin1972be-
foretheSubcommitteeonHousingandUrbanAffairsoftheU.S.SenateCommittee
onBanking,HousingandUrbanAffairs.
58
Hearguedthatintensivemanagementprac-
ticeswereimpracticaluntilthelogmarketspurredpricesanddemandup;thatthelog
58
Cole,Bert.1972.StatementbeforetheSubcommitteeon
InternationalFinanceoftheCommitteeonBanking,Housing
andUrbanAffairs,UnitedStatesSenate.Ninety-second
Congress,SecondSession.June8.Salem,OR.
28
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exportmarketstabilizedsomeareasofemployment;thatthelogexportmarketpro-
motestheUnitedStates’roleinglobalfreetradeformutualadvantage;thatthelog
exportmarketplayedakeyroleintheState’strustincome;andthatthelogexport
marketwasneededtostabilizethedemandflowsbasedonthehistoricaltrendsinthe
domestictimbermarket.
59
ThefirstStatelogexportrestrictionswereissuedbythegovernorin1990,
60
tobe
effectivein1991,asaconsequenceoftheFederalmandate.Stateregulationsprohi-
bitedanypersonfromexporting,selling,trading,orexchangingexportrestrictedtim-
berfromtheUnitedStatesandalsooutlaweddirectandindirectsubstitution.
IntheStateregulations,thosepersonsnotallowedtopurchasethetimberdirectly
fromtheWashingtonStateDepartmentofNaturalResourcesweregrantedleniency
througha“grandfatherclause,”whichallowedthemtopurchaseuptoone-thirdofthe
volumeoftimberpurchasedinanexport-restrictedtimbersaleifthetimberwastobe
processedatadomesticfacilityduring1991.Thisvolumewastobereducedtoone-
fifthin1992andto10percentin1993.
Oftheexport-restrictedtimber(thefederallyallotted75percentoftheState’stimber
harvest),theState’scontractsrequireddomesticprocessingproportionatetothetim-
beredarea,speciesmix,andgrade.
Hardwoods,westernredcedar,andspeciesfederallydeclaredtobesurplustodo-
mesticneedsarespecificallyexemptfromWashington’srestrictions;anyotherex-
emptionsarehandledcasebycase.
SincetheenactmentoftheFRCSRAA1993(seefootnote42),Washingtonistheonly
StatetohaverulesandrequirementsinplaceandapprovedbytheDepartmentof
Commerceforregulatingtheirowntimber.Theseregulationsarethesameasthose
issuedintheWAC240-15(seefootnote60),exceptthattheportionregardingthe
25-percentexportallowancehasbeenremoved.Beforethisamendment,Washington
hadbeentheprimaryexporteroflogsfromStatelands.
Oregon
Keyregulations
Year
Oregon’sFirstBan
1961
EmergencyAct
1963
BallotMeasure
1982
ExecutiveOrderNo.90-22
1990
59
StateofOregon,LegislativeResearchBranch.1974.
RegulationofLogExportsinOregon,California,Alaska,
Washington,BritishColumbia,andAlberta.Salem,OR:304.
60
StateofWashington.1990.WashingtonAnnotatedCode
(WAC)240-15(November21).
29
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IncontrasttoWashington,OregonfirstlimitedlogexportsfromState-,county-and
city-ownedlandsin1961byanemergencyact.
61
Thisactprohibitedlogexportsto
foreignportsbutdidnotplacerestrictionsoninterstatetrade.Itrequiredthatallpublic
timberharvestedfrompubliclandsinOregonbe“primarilyprocessedwithinthe
UnitedStates.”Primaryprocessingwasdefinedasthatstageofmanufacture“next
beyondthelogformofsaidtimber.”
62
Violatorswouldbefoundguiltyofa
misdemeanor.
InMay1963,thelawwasamendedtoallowtheStateDepartmentofForestryto
grantaforeignexportpermitifnofeasibleeconomicmarketfortheharvestedlogs
wasavailableintheUnitedStates.Thisprovisionwasinplaceuntilitwasrepealed
in1981.
63
TheForeignProcessingAdvisoryCommittee(threepeopleinvolvedinthe
timberindustry)wasprovidedforinthisamendedlaw.
64
Untilitwasdisbandedin
1977,thecommitteeactedtoadvisetheStateForestertohonorpermitapplicationsin
caseswhere
65
...uponapplicationofthepersonincontroloftheuseordispositionofsuch
timberiftheDepartment[offorestry]findsthatsuchtimber[was]currently
inlogformandthatthereisnoreasonablemarketthereforewithinthose
areasoftheUnitedStatestowhichitcouldbeeconomicallytransportedfor
primaryprocessing.
Timberwasrequiredtobeinlogformbeforetheapplicationcouldbefiled,sothat
prospectivebidderscouldnotbidonunharvestedtimbercontractswiththeguarantee
ofhedgingprofitsfromexportpotential.Therevisedactof1963alsoamendedthe
primaryprocessingprovisiontoexemptPort-Orford-cedarfromtherestrictions.
Ofthenineapplicationsrequestedbefore1966,threeweregranted,andofthe12ex-
portpermitsappliedforunderthisact,4wereapproved.Thefourthandfinalpermit
issuedwasnotawardeduntil1980,ayearbeforethe1963provisionallowinglogex-
portpermitswasrepealed.Allpermitsweregrantedforscaledandraftedlogsthatdid
nothavealocalbuyer.Thestrongdomestictimbermarketisevidenthere,inthatonly
threeotherpermitswereappliedforbetween1966and1980forState-ownedtimber,
eventhoughFederaltimberwasremovedfromtheexportmarketduringthistime.
61
StateofOregon.1961.OregonLawsof1961,Chap.700,
p.1433-4[HouseBill1663].ApprovedbytheGovernorMay
31,1961.Salem,OR.
62
StateofOregon.1961.OregonForestLawsand
AdministrativeRules.Salem,OR:17-18.
63
StateofOregon,65thOregonStateLegislativeAssembly.
1989.EnrolledSenateJointResolution8.Salem,OR:1.
64
Section6oftheOregonlawof1963specifiedthatthe
StateForester(orhis/herdeputyorassistant),plustwoothers
appointedbytheGovernor,wouldcomprisethecommittee.
Ofthelattertwo,onewastobeengagedprimarilyinlogging
withinOregonandtheotherwithintheOregonlumberindustry.
65
StateofOregon.1973.OregonForestLawsand
AdministrativeRules,ForestryandForestProducts.526.815,
StandardsforPermitsforForeignProcessing.
30
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TheState’sexportrestrictionsremainedinplaceforalmost20yearsbeforebeing
challengedin1982byacourtcase,whichlaterprovedtohavecharacteristicssimilar
toSouth-CentralTimbervs.Wunnicke.AlthoughtheNinthCircuitCourtpresidedover
thiscase,aswellastheSouth-CentralTimbercase,itdidnotsupporttheconstitu-
tionalityargumentputforwardin1982afterconsideringtheevidence.Twoyearslater,
though,inlightofthecourt’sstanceontheconstitutionalityofAlaska’srestrictions,
Oregon’slocaldistrictattorneys,whoadministertheregulations,wereencouragednot
toenforcethelaw:
66
TheAttorneyGeneralhaspreviouslyconcludedthatOregon’sunprocessed
logexportban...isprobablyunconstitutional....TheSupremeCourt’sde-
cisiondoesnotchangeourconclusionthattheOregonstatutesareprob-
ablyunconstitutionalandthatnoenforcementactionshouldbeunder-
takenunderthesestatutes....
AlthoughOregon’srestrictionsremainedonthebooksuntiltheendofthedecade,
theywereneitherenforcednorstatedintimbersalecontracts.Asaresult,by1987,
nearly40percentofallStatetimberhadbeenpurchasedbylogexportingfirms.
67
InJune1989,regardlessoftheNinthCircuitCourt’sdecisionontheunconstitu-
tionalityofrestrictingState-ownedpublictimber,Oregonvotersapprovedaballot
measure(legislativereferendum)byaratioofninetooneinfavorofalogexportban
fromState-ownedlands.TheamendmentstatedthatneithertheStateLandBoard,
whichoverseesincomefromcommonschoolfundlands,northeStateForestercould
authorizethesaleorexportoftimberfrompubliclandsinOregonunlessthetimber
hadbeenprocessedinOregon.Thisconstitutionalamendmentwasconditionalon
enablinglegislationbyCongress,whichdidnothappen.Ashorttimelater,FRCSRA
1990(seefootnote33)mandatedthattheregulationsagainbemodified.
Oregon’sgovernor
68
directedtheStateForestertoadopttemporaryrulesgoverning
substitutionnolaterthanNovember1,1990,andpermanentrulesimplementing
FRCSRA1990nolaterthanDecember20,1990.Regulations
69
issuedinresponseto
theExecutiveOrderstatedthatapersoniseligibletobidontimberfromState-
ownedlandsifthepersoncertifiesthattheywillneitherdirectlyorindirectlyexport
unprocessedwoodproductsoriginatingfromStateorprivatelandsinOregon(private
landsareincludedtoclearlypreventsubstitution)norconveyunprocessedStatetim-
bertoanyotherpersonnoteligibletopurchaseStatetimber.Otherscouldapplyto
purchaseStatetimberafterJune1991iftheyhadnotexportedtimberfromprivate
landsduringtheprevious2years.Aprovisionwasincludedforexceptions.
66
Hines1987:10(seefootnote5).CitingFrohnmeyer,D.
1982.OfficialCommunicationfromtheAttorneyGeneral,
StateofOregon,toH.MikeMiller,StateForester,Stateof
Oregon,December14,1982.
67
StateofOregon,OregonLegislativeAssembly.1989.
EnrolledSenateJointResolution8.1989RegularSession.
Salem,OR:1.
68
GovernorofOregon.1990.ExecutiveOrder90-22,
March12.
69
OregonStateBoardofForestry.1990.Oregon
AdministrativeRules,Chap.629,Div.31.
31
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Therestrictionsspecificallylimitedindirectsubstitutionforthefirsttime,bystatingthat
nopersoncouldselltimberfromState-ownedlandstosomeonenoteligibletopur-
chasetimberdirectlyfromtheState.Bylimitingthesubstitutiontopublicandprivate
landsinOregon,thatStatehasallowedapersontolegallybidforpublictimberin
OregonwhilepurchasingprivateexportlogsinWashington.
70
Alaska
Keyregulations
Year
AlaskaNativeClaimsSettlementAct
1971
South-CentralTimbervs.Wunnicke
1984
AdmittedtotheUnionin1959,Alaskadoesnothavealonghistoryoflogexportre-
strictions;butithasatumultuousone,giventheAlaskaNativeClaimsSettlementAct
(ANCSA;seefootnote44),andtheNinthCircuitCourtofAppeals,whichoverturned
theStatestatutebanninglogexports.
PassedbyCongressin1971,ANCSAprovidedforthetransferof40millionacresof
FederallandsinAlaskatoIndians,Eskimos,andAleuts,tosettleaboriginalland
claimsoftheNativepeoples.Thoselandsbecameprivateholdings,notundersuper-
visionoftheBureauofIndianAffairs.Nativetimberharvestsarenotsubjecttoprimary
processingrequirements.
InsoutheastAlaska,AlaskaNativesreceivedahalf-millionacresoflargely
unharvestedpublictimberlandsasprivateowners,mostlyin1979-80,andmostly
drawnfromNationalForests.Logexporting,controversialinAlaskaaselsewhere,
beganatoncefromtheselands.MostNativetimberisexportedasroundlogs,and
mostofAlaska’slogexportsarefromNative-ownedprivatelands.
71
LogexportpolicyforState-ownedtimberlandshasconsistentlysupporteddomestic
processing.Theissuemaybenegligible,however.HarvestsfromStatelandholdings
inAlaskaaccountedforlessthan3percentofthetotal1995Alaskaharvest.
InMay1974,anearlierpolicyrequiringexportedlogstoberoughlysquaredwas
tightened:
72
Cantsmaybemanufacturedfromallspeciesforexportandshallbe
consideredtohavereceivedprimarymanufacturewhensaweduptoa
maximumthicknessof12inches[30.5cm]andmaybeofanywidth.
Timberscutthickerthan12inchesmustbesquaredonfoursidesalong
theirentirelengthwithallowancesforone-thirdofeachdimension
(thicknessandwidth)allowedinwane.
Anycantscutlargerthan12inchesrequiredsquaringalongtheentirelengthwitha
1/3waneallowanceforeachdimension.ThisstatementrecitedtheStatepolicythat
“roundlogsmaynotbeexportedasamarketablecommodity.”
70
TheOregonian.1990.Stateadoptsprivatelogexport
restrictions.December22:Sect.D:5.
71
Knapp,Gunnar.1992.Nativetimberharvestsinsoutheast
Alaska.Gen.Tech.Rep.PNW-GTR-284.Portland,OR:U.S.
DepartmentofAgriculture,ForestService,PacificNorthwest
ResearchStation.48p.
72
AlaskaAdministrativeCode76.130,citedinStateof
Oregon1974(seefootnote59).
32
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Thetimberregulationsissuedin1974alsocontainedprovisionsfortheexportof
chips.Previously,chipshadtohaveoriginatedfrommillresiduesandloggingand
havenomarketvaluebeforetheycouldbeconsideredforexport.Thesenewregula-
tionsallowedchipsmadefromsurplusroundwoodtoreceiveprimarymanufactureand
befreelyexportedfrominteriorAlaskaifthatwastheirplaceoforigin(precludinguse
ofinteriorAlaska’soceanportsastrans-shipmentpointsforchipsfromotherpartsof
Alaska).Thisallowedharvestedtimber,whichotherwisewouldhavehadanegligible
valuewhensawnintolumber,tobemanufacturedintoamoremarketablecommodity.
ChipsfromsoutheastAlaska(eastoflongitude141
o
W.)requiredapprovalbythe
StateCommissionerofNaturalResourcesbeforetheywouldbeallowedforexport.
OnJuly2,1982,thedomesticprocessingprinciplewasreinforced
73
withamandate
thatthe“directorwill,inhisdiscretion,requirethatprimarymanufactureoftimberre-
movedunderthischapterbeaccomplishedwithintheStatetotheextentconsistent
withthelaw.”Itfurtherspecifiedthatforthe
...purposesofthissection,thedirectorwillconsidertimberwhichhasbeen
manufacturedintoaproductforusewithoutfurtherprocessingashaving
beenprimarilymanufacturedonlyifthedirectordeterminesthatthereisa
marketfortheproduct.
InOctober1982,Alaska’sprimarymanufacturedefinitionwasredefinedas:
74
...thebreakdownprocessinwhichlogsarereducedinsizebyaheadsaw,
gangsaw,oredgertotheextentthattheresidualcants,slabsorplanksdo
notexceedanominaleightandthree-quarterinchesinthickness.
Alaska’slocal-manufacturepolicywassooncontestedasarestraintoftradethat
onlytheFederalGovernmentcouldimpose.In1984,theSouth-CentralTimbervs.
Wunnickecasewasdecided.ThedecisionreturnedbytheNinthCircuitCourtof
AppealsruledthattheStatecouldnolongerlimitlogexports,becausesuchare-
strictionviolatedtheCommerceClauseoftheU.S.Constitution.Thecourt’sruling,
therefore,invalidatedtheprimarymanufactureregulationoptionoftheAlaskaAd-
ministrativeCode,whichstatedthattheDirectoroftheDepartmentofNaturalRe-
sourcesmayrequirethatprimarymanufactureoflogs,cordwood,bolts,orother
similarproductsbeaccomplishedwithinAlaska.
75
ThememorandumissuedbytheStateasaresultofthedecisiondeclaredthatthe
Statewouldnotrestrictprimarymanufacture.Alaskacurrentlyhasnorestrictionson
logexportsfromState-ownedlands.
California
Keyregulations
Year
CaliforniaPublicResourcesCode,
Section4650.1
1973
Proposition130
1990
AB790
1993
73
AlaskaAdministrativeCode71.230.
74
AlaskaAdministrativeCode71.910.
75
AlaskaAdministrativeCodeSect.71.230and71.910.
Thesesectionswerecreatedin1982toreplaceSect.
76.131,whichhadbeentherelevantauthorizationsince1974.
33
California’sfirstlogexportrestrictionsappearedin1973.
76
Theserestrictions,enforced
bytheCaliforniaDepartmentofForestryandFireProtection,prohibitedthesaleof
State-ownedormanagedtimbertoaprimarymanufactureroutsideoftheUnited
States,andprohibitedthepurchaseoftimberwhichwasintendedtobeusedasa
directorindirectsubstitutefortimberfromprivatelandsownedorundercontrolofthe
purchaserwithin200miles(322km)ofthesaleboundary,(inotherwords,themarket
area).Theseregulationsspecifiedthat(seefootnote76):
...timberfromStateforestsshallnotbesoldtoanyprimarymanufactureror
toanypersonforresaletoprimarymanufacturerwhomakesuseofsuch
timberatanyplantnotlocatedwithintheUnitedStatesunlessitissawn
onfoursidestodimensionsnotgreaterthan4inchesby12inches[10by
30.5cm].
AcommentreleasedbytheCaliforniaStateForester’sOfficenotedthathaving“only
fourcommercialStateforeststotalingabout69,000acres[27600ha]withanannual
cutof35millionboardfeet[160000m
3
],”trulyminimizedtheimpactofthepublicre-
sourcescode(seefootnote59).ViolatorswerethenprohibitedfrompurchasingState
foresttimberfor5years.Thisrulewasineffectuntil1984.
AftertheNinthCircuitCourtofAppealsmadeitsdecisiondeclaringAlaska’sstatue
restrictinglogexportsfromStatelandsunconstitutionalin1984,California’sattorney
generaldecidedthatthecurrentlawinCaliforniawouldcontinuetobeenforceduntil
itwasoverturnedorremovedbythelegislature.Theattorneygeneralconcludedthat
aStateagencydoesnothavethepowertodeclareastatuteunenforceable(oruncon-
stitutional),regardlessofacircuitcourtdecision.
77
TheDepartmentofForestrythereforewillhavetowaitfortheCaliforniacourtora
FederalcourttospecificallyinvalidatethatportionofPRC4650.1(seefootnote76)
beforetheystopenforcingit.Hence,thebanimposedin1974isstillonthebooks
today,restrictinglogexportsoriginatingfromStatelandsinCalifornia.
OtherlegislationhasbeenproposedinCaliforniatofurtherrestrictlogexports.Anun-
successfulinitiative,Proposition130,wasintroducedinCaliforniaaftertheFederal
publiclandsrestrictionswentintoplacein1990.Itwasintendedtogobeyondthe
limitationssuggestedbyFRCSRA1990(seefootnote33)byextendingtheexportre-
strictionstolimitexportsfromprivatelandsaswellasprohibittheStatefrombuying
timberortimberproductsfromanyonesellingtimberforforeignexport(theassumption
hereisthattimberimplieslogs).AlsoknownastheForestandWildlifeProtectionand
BondActof1990,thisunsuccessfulballotmeasurewouldhavepermittedownersto
usetheclearcuttingmethodfornomorethan12.5percentoftheirharvestuntil1996,
providedthattheydidnot,amongotherthings,selllogsdirectlyorindirectlyforfor-
eignexport.
76
CaliforniaPublicResourcesCode,Sect.4650.1(1973).
77
Cobb,Ted.1984.LetterdatedJune21fromCobb,Staff
Counsel,toCliffordE.Fago,StateForester.Copyonfilewith:
PacificNorthwestResearchStation,4043RooseveltWayNE,
Seattle,WA98105
34
In1993,California’slegislaturerevisedtheState’sexportrestrictionsfortimberfrom
State-ownedlands.
78
The1973substitutionlanguagewasdropped,butitsintent
wasretainedbyprohibitingtimbersalesfromStateforeststofirmsthathadsoldun-
processedtimberfromprivatelandstoforeignpurchaserswithinthepreviousyearor
withinayearaftertheendofthefirm’stimber-salecontractwiththeState.
UnprocessedtimberisdefinedincurrentlawasitisinFRCSRAA1993(seefoot-
note42).Theexistingmaximumsizeforexportedsawnwood—4by12inches(10by
30.5cm)—wasretained.However,exportofclearcantslessthan12inchesthickwas
permitted,aswasshipmentabroadofwaneycantsoflowergrades,lessthan8-3/4
inches(22.2cm)thick.Westernredcedarwasexceptedfromthesecantrules.
Exportsofotherwoodproductswereexpresslypermitted.Theseincludedpoles,
piling,chips,veneer,plywood,shakesandshingles,aspen(
Populus
spp.)pulpwood
bolts,andlogsdestinedforchip-making.
The1993lawalsoestablishedpenalties.Violatorsareprohibitedfrompurchasing
Stateforesttimberfor5yearsandmayhavetheiroperatinglicensesuspendedforup
to1year.
Idaho
Keyregulations
Year
IdahoCode
1958
TimberSupplyStabilizationAct
1989
SinceIdaho’sinceptionasaStatein1890,logsfrompubliclandshavehadtoreceive
primarymanufacturewithintheState,
79
(exceptfora3-yearreprieve;seebelow).
AccordingtoIdahoCode:
80
StateBoardofLandCommissionersareherebyrequiredwhencontracting
forthesaleoftimberonlandsownedbytheStatetoprescribethatthe
timbercutfromsaidlandsundersaidcontractshallbemanufacturedinto
lumberfortimberproductswithintheStateofIdaho.
TheonlyexistingexportexceptionwasforlogsfromState-ownedlandsdestinedfor
useinwoodpulpmanufacturing.Unpeeledcedarpoles,rough,greenlumber,and
cantswereconsideredmanufactured;however,cantshadtomeetcertainrequire-
ments.CantswereeligibleforsaleandexportfromtheStateifthecantsweretobe
soldtoamanufacturerownedbyacompanyotherthanthecurrentownerofthe
cants.
TheserigidregulationsestablishedintheIdahoCodedidcausesomedifficulty;one
examplewasthehandlingofdamagedinsect-killedtimberinsoutheasternIdaho.
SoutheasternIdahoisanareaoflowmillcapacity,andthemillslocatedtherecould
nothandlethevolumeofsalvagetimber;butwhenmillslocatedoutsidetheState
requestedtimber,theyweredeniedaccesstoitbecauseoftheregulations(seefoot-
note79).TheIdahoCodewasenforceduntilthemid-1980s.
78
CaliforniaStatutes1993,c.964(A.B.790,Sec.1).
79
Jones,DonaldD.1978.LetterdatedJune7fromJones,
Administrator,DivisionofForestResources,Departmentof
Lands,toJohnE.Woodring,StaffCounsel,Washington
StateSenate,Olympia,WA.
80
IdahoCodeSect.58-403,(1958).
35
A3-yearbreakinthelimitationoccurredin1986asaresultofthedecisionrendered
intheSouth-CentralTimbercase(seefootnote57).Idaho’sattorneygeneraldeemed
thecontractualexportrestrictionunconstitutionalanddirectedtheIdahoStateBoard
ofLandCommissionersandtheIdahoStateDepartmentofLandstoceaseenforce-
mentandremovesuchlanguagefromthetimbercontracts.
81
Thisdidnotlastlong.
In1989,beforetheenactmentoftheFRCSRAof1990(seefootnote33),theState
ofIdahoreestablisheditsregulationsoninterstatecommercewiththeTimberSupply
StabilizationActof1989.
82
FirstintroducedinMarch1988byGovernorCecilAndrus,
theactaddedChapter10toTitle58oftheIdahoCodetopromotethewoodproc-
essingindustryinIdaho,toincreaseprivateandpublicrevenues,and
...toactasamarketparticipantinthetimbermarketinawaythathelps
enhancethelong-termmaximumvalueofStateforestsbyensuringthatan
adequateproportionofthetotalsalesoftimbersoldbytheStateofIdaho
issoldtoqualifiedpurchaserswithinIdaho.
UndertheTimberSupplyStabilizationAct,95percentofthesalesfromStateforests
areofferedtoqualifiedbidders.Theremaining5percentareofferedtoallbidders.
Thecodecontainssomeexceptionstodealwithmarketconditions.Timbersales
offeredtoqualifiedbidders,butnotpurchased,arethenopentoallbidders,inside
andoutsidetheState,orifadislocationofthetimbersupplyoccursanditcouldbe
deemedsurplustotheneedsofthequalifiedbidders,thenitagainisopentoall.
Regardlessofthepurchaser,theTimberSupplyStabilizationActprohibitstheexport
ofunprocessedtimberoriginatingonStatelandstodestinationsoutsidetheUnited
States.
TheIdahoStateBoardofLandCommissionersisresponsibleformaintainingalistof
eligiblebiddersandfortherulesandregulationsnecessaryforenactment.Allpur-
chasersbetween1980and1989wereautomaticallyplacedonthebidlist;allothers
arerequiredtoapply.Anybiddersremovedfromthelistareineligibletoparticipatein
biddingfortimbersalestoqualifiedbiddersfor5years(seefootnote82).
Pulplogsareexemptfromtherestriction,andcantsareconsideredmanufacturedun-
lesstheyhavebeendebarkedsolelytobeexportedoutsidetheStatetoreceivefur-
therprocessing.
Montana
Keyregulation
Year
HR724
1990
Until1990,therewerenorestrictionsinplaceinMontanaregardinglogexports,pri-
marilybecauseofthehistoricallynegligibleamountoftimberharvestedandexported
fromtheState.ThefirstregulationswerenotapproveduntilOctober1990,inHR
724.
83
HR724,writteninresponsetoFRCSRA1990(seefootnote33),elaborateson
81
Hines,1987:10(seefootnote5).
82
TimberSupplyStabilizationActof1989,IdahoCodeSect.
58-1001et.seq.(1989).
83
ForestResourcesConservationandShortageReliefActof
1990,1991,MT.HB724,1991,MT.ALS372(1990,1991).
36
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