how to open pdf file in new tab in mvc using c# : Convert pdf images to jpg software control cloud windows azure .net class gtr_4364-part2010

theMontanaDepartmentofStateLandsproposalissuedspecificallytodefineand
prohibitsubstitutionofStatetimberforprivatelogsheadingforexport.Itisanact
prohibitingtheuseofunprocessedtimberfromStatelandsasasubstitutefor
unprocessedtimberexportedfromtheUnitedStates.
HR724amendedRule26.6.411
84
asanagreementnottoexportlogsfromState
lands.ThedefinitionswereadoptedfromFRCSRA1990.Therulestatesthatany
personpurchasingtimberfromtheStateofMontanamustsignanonexportagree-
menttocertifythattheyarenotexportinglogsfromtheirlandsorfromStatelands.
Thisagreementstatesthat:
85
...unprocessedtimber,asdefinedinthe[ForestResourcesConservation
andShortageRelief]Act,originatingfromlandsownedbytheStateof
MontanashallnotbeexportedfromtheUnitedStates,orbesold,traded,
exchanged,orotherwisegiventoanypersonunlessthatpersonagrees
nottoexportsuchunprocessedtimberfromtheUnitedStatesandagrees
torequiresuchprohibitioninanysubsequentresale.
SubstitutionoccurswhenapersonpurchasingtimberfromtheStateofMontanahas
exportedunprocessedtimberfromprivatelandsintheStateanytimeintheyearprior
tothepurchasedate.SurplusspeciesarethosedeemedsobytheSecretaryof
Commerce.
NoregulationshavebeenadoptedtoincorporateHR724todate.Thereisno
enforcementmechanismavailableeither,becauseofnegligibleexportactivity.
ExportRestrictions
forBritishColumbia
ThefirstcommercialrecordoflogexportsfromBritishColumbia,whichoccurredlate
inthe1800s,wasashipmentdestinedforPugetSound.
86
This,however,wasone
ofanegligiblenumberoflogexportsfromBritishColumbiasincetheProvincewas
recognizedin1869—aresultofprogressivelyrestrictivelogexportrestrictionsatthe
ProvincialandFederallevels.LogexportlimitationsandrestrictionsinBritish
Columbiawerefirstenactedwithin20yearsofitsbecomingaProvincewithinthe
Canadianconfederacy.Sincebeforethestartofthe20thcentury,logexportrestric-
tions,taxation,feesandpenaltieshavemerelyplayedvariationsonthethemeofex-
portbanswithoutadrasticallyprogressivechangeintheoverallscorethroughouttime.
AComparativeHistory
Legislativefoundation
Year
CanadianConstitutionAct
1867
Landownershipandlegislative
designations
Various
84
AgreementNottoExportStateLogs.Mont.AdminR.
26.6.411(1990).
85
Mont.AdminR.26.6.411,Sect(2)(a)(ii)(1990).
86
Shinn,1993:4(seefootnote6).
37
Convert pdf images to jpg - Convert PDF to JPEG images in C#.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF project
How to convert PDF to JPEG using C#.NET PDF to JPEG conversion / converter library control SDK
.pdf to jpg; bulk pdf to jpg converter
Convert pdf images to jpg - VB.NET PDF Convert to Jpeg SDK: Convert PDF to JPEG images in vb.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF project
Online Tutorial for PDF to JPEG (JPG) Conversion in VB.NET Image Application
convert pdf photo to jpg; convert .pdf to .jpg online
TheCanadianFederalgovernmentenactedtheCanadianConstitutionAct,alsocalled
theBritishNorthAmericaAct,in1867.ThisactcreatedCanadaandassignedthe
Provincesmanagementofnaturalresources.Asaresult,whenBritishColumbia
formallybecameamemberoftheCanadianConfederacy4yearslater,theProvince
retainedhercontrolofthenaturalresourceslocatedwithin,whiletheFederalGovern-
mentremainedresponsibleforoverseeinginternationaltrade.Consequently,British
Columbiahasledthewayinregulatinglogexportsalmostsinceitsinceptionintothe
confederation.TheFederalGovernmenthasadoptedregulationsmimickingtheProv-
ince’stoobtainthesameobjectives,butthisdidnothappenuntilWorldWarII.
TheoverallpurposeoftheProvincialandFederalpolicieshasbeentomaintainand
enhanceProvincialdevelopment,providejobs,ensurethatallaspectsofthetimber
industryremainsolventduringtheupsanddownsoftheeconomy,andensurethat
essentiallyalltimbercutwithintheProvinceissubjecttothesameexportcontrols.
Althoughtheserestrictionsseemhighlyprotectionary,leniencyhasexistedduring
timesofrecession,essentiallybecauseharvestlevelstendtobegreaterthanthe
volumeindemand.Duringthesetimes,logexportshavebeenpermitted,oratleast
factoredintolegislationtomaintainemploymentlevelssothatforestproductswould
remainaviableindustry.Butthosecaseshavebeenrarehistorically.
Since1901,BritishColumbiahasdirectlyprohibitedexports,eventhoughtheProvince
employedtaxesandfeesasearlyas1888onlogsbounddirectlytotheexportmarket
todeterpotentialexporters.
WhethertheProvinceortheDominionexercisesexportcontroldependsonthelands
beingadministered.Therearefourrelevantcategories:
Designation
Definition
Control
Nonroyaltylands
Grantedbefore1887
Federalonly
Pre-1906land
Includethemajority
Federal
grantsor
ofprivatelands
Crowngrants
Post-1906land
Grantedafter1906
Provincial
grants;also
Crowngrants
Non-Provincial
Indianreserves,
Federal
lands
NationalDefense
Lands,andFederal
reserves
Historically,thelogexportrestrictionsofBritishColumbiahavebeenmonitoredmore
closelyandhavebeenmoreprohibitivethanthoseoftheUnitedStates,andthepri-
maryreasonrestsonthescaleoflandownershipintheProvincevs.theU.S.Pacific
Northwest.Oneprimaryfactorleadingtothesignificantdifferencesinscopeofthe
restrictionsisthepercentageoflandscoveredbytherestrictions.In1991,forestre-
sourceownershipinBritishColumbiawas95percentProvincial,1percentFederal,
and4percentprivate.
38
Online Convert PDF to Jpeg images. Best free online PDF JPEG
it as easy as possible to convert your PDF Download and try RasterEdge.XDoc.PDF for .NET processing, converting, compressing and stroing images, documents and
.net convert pdf to jpg; change pdf to jpg on
Online Convert Jpeg to PDF file. Best free online export Jpg image
So, feel free to convert them too with our tool. Easy converting! It enables you to build a PDF file with one or more images.
convert multiple pdf to jpg online; bulk pdf to jpg
AdifferenceinexportpolicybetweenthePacificNorthwestandBritishColumbiais
thattheProvincialgovernmentofBritishColumbiagenerallyimplementedtherestric-
tionsfirst,whichtheFederalGovernmenteventuallyadoptedforthecountry(although
sometimesupto35yearslater).Theprocesstendstohavebeentheoppositeinthe
UnitedStates,withFederallawssettingthestandardandStatessubsequently
instigating,oreventuallyadoptingbydecree,similarrestrictions.
ThissectionwillfirstdiscussBritishColumbialogexportrestrictionandthenhighlight
thelaterFederallegislation.MuchofthehistoryofCanadianFederalandProvincial
legislationisbasedonmaterialprovidedfromShinn(seefootnote6).
Keyprovisions
Year
BritishColumbiaLandAct
1891
BritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentAct
1901
BritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentAct
1903
TimberManufactureAct
1906
TimberManufactureAct
1909
BritishColumbiaForestAct
1912
BritishColumbiahascontinuallyrefinedandredesigneditslogsexportrestrictions
sinceitsfirstyearsasamemberoftheCanadianDominion.Theevolutionofexport
policieshasbeenbasedonensuringmanufacturewithintheProvinceandmaintain-
ingahealthyProvincialforestindustry.
Beginningin1888,justayearafterjoiningtheCanadianDominion,BritishColumbia
enacteditsfirstregulatoryventure:levyingataxonalllogsexportedfromtheProv-
ince.Amoredirectmethodofexportcontrol,however,quicklyfollowed.
TheBritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentof1891restrictedtheexportoflogscut
fromCrownlandstowithin-Provinceuse.ThentheBritishColumbiaLandActAmend-
mentActof1901amendedthe1891actbyaddingthepossibilityofallowingspecific
exceptiontoexportlogs.Yetwhilerecognizingthepossibilityofexportinglogsinthe
LandActof1901,thenextLandAct,theLandActof1903,extendedtheexportre-
strictionstoincludenonroyaltylands.ThisLandActimposedaconditionalrefundable
taxontimberfromnonroyaltylandstoberefundedifthetimberwasforlocaluseor
manufacture.(Thistaxeventuallywasdeclaredunconstitutionalin1926.)
RapidindustrygrowthsoonledtomorelegislationasCanadianshurriedtomeetthe
surgeinU.S.demandfortimberforconstructionaftertheSanFranciscofires.Toreg-
ulatetheboomingindustry,theTimberManufactureActof1906,alsoknownasthe
ForestAct,extendedtheexportbanofthe1891LandAmendmentActtoinclude
landsgrantedbytheCrownafterMarch12,1906,sothatlandssubjecttothePro-
vincialexportrestrictionswouldincludeareasgrantedinthefuture.Theactof1906,
however,didnotrenewtheexemptionclausepermittinglogexportsprovidedforin
theLandActAmendmentActof1901.Norestrictiononexportappliedtologsfrom
Federallandatthispoint(seefootnote86),althoughtothisday,nonroyaltylandsare
accountableonlyforexporttaxesandfees.AccordingtoShinn(seefootnote6),this
actistreatedinpolicydiscussionsastheinitialrestrictivepolicymeasureregarding
logexports.
EarlyProvincial
Regulations
39
C# Create PDF from images Library to convert Jpeg, png images to
C# Create PDF from Raster Images, .NET Graphics and REImage File with XDoc Batch convert PDF documents from multiple image formats, including Jpg, Png, Bmp
convert pdf file into jpg; changing pdf to jpg on
VB.NET PDF Convert to Images SDK: Convert PDF to png, gif images
VB.NET components for batch convert high resolution images from PDF. Convert PDF documents to multiple image formats, including Jpg, Png, Bmp, Gif, Tiff, Bitmap
best pdf to jpg converter; convert pdf file to jpg
Theproductiongrowthin1906dramaticallyreverseditselfoverthenext3years.This,
coupledwithotherdeterioratingmarketconditions,ledtoapoorforesteconomy,and
demandfellprecipitously.Consequently,asacorrectivemeanstomaintainsomein-
dustryactivitywithintheProvince,theTimberManufactureActof1909wasenactedto
renewtheprovisionsof1906andaddtheexportexemptionpossibilitythathadexisted
intheBritishColumbiaLandActAmendmentActof1891.
By1912,theProvincialgovernmentrealizedtheneedforanorganizationtooversee
thetimberresourcesoftheProvince;thereforetheForestActof1912establishedthe
BritishColumbiaforestrybranch,whichalsoconsolidatedtheLandActAmendment
Actof1903andtheTimberManufactureAmendmentActof1909.The1912acten-
abledtheProvincialgovernmenttorestricttimbercutonCrownlandsgrantedafter
1906tousewithintheProvince,unlessthetimberwasspecificallyexemptedbythe
Lieutenant-GovernorinCouncil.Thelegislationhasremainedvirtuallyunchanged
since1909.
Keyprovisions
Year
TimberandRoyaltyAct
1914
BritishColumbiaForestActAmendmentAct
1916
OrderinCouncil
1918
WiththeonsetofWorldWarI,BritishColumbiapassedtheTimberandRoyaltyActof
1914,allowingtheLieutenant-Governortoissueanexemptionfromalllogexportre-
strictionstogainmorerevenuesfortheProvincialgovernment.Thisreleaseoftimber
wastohavebeendoneinconjunctionwitharoyaltytaximposedonexportsinanother
efforttomakemoneyfortheGovernment(seefootnote6).In1916,theForestAct
AmendmentActrenewedthisblanketexemptionoption.
Undertheauthorityoftheselaws,by1918theLieutenant-Governorhadorderedthe
speciesexemptionsbereimposedexceptforgrade3cedar.
87
Theselawsalsopro-
videdfortheformationoftheLogExportAdvisoryCommittee(LEAC),whosepurpose
wastoadvisetheLieutenant-Governoronexportexemptions.
TheseProvincialregulationsremainedinplaceuntilthemid-1970sandweremodels
forfutureFederallegislation,whichwasintroducedin1947,someofwhichsuper-
sededtheProvinciallegislation.
Keyprovisions
Year
BritishColumbiaForestAct
1974
BritishColumbiaForestAct
1978
GeneralOrder
1984
OrderinCouncilNo.1252
1987
OrderinCouncil
1988
BritishColumbiahistoricallyhashadvariouslevies,fees,andtaxes;however,through-
outthe1970sand1980s,extensiveincreasesinthefeesinlieuofexportwerein-
curredforlogexports.
ProvincialLegislation
ThroughWorldWarI
ProvincialLegislation:
RecentYears
87
Yellow-cedarorAlaska-cedar.Whetherwesternredcedar
wasincludedisnotclear.
40
C# Image Convert: How to Convert Adobe PDF to Jpeg, Png, Bmp, &
C# sample code for PDF to jpg image conversion. This demo code convert PDF file all pages to jpg images. // Define input and output files path.
convert pdf to jpg for online; change pdf to jpg format
C# Image Convert: How to Convert Tiff Image to Jpeg, Png, Bmp, &
RasterEdge.XDoc.Office.Inner.Office03.dll. RasterEdge.XDoc.PDF.dll. RasterEdge.XDoc. PowerPoint.dll. This demo code convert TIFF file all pages to jpg images.
convert pdf to high quality jpg; .pdf to .jpg online
Thefirsttaxonlogspermittedforexportwaspassedin1888.Bythe1950s,the
ratewasC$0.50percunit(100cubicfeet;2.8m
3
),andby1973,itwasincreased
toC$2.00percunit.BythefollowingMay,thetaxesonlogexportsbecameC$2per
cunitforlog-gradepulpwood,C$5percunitforcottonwood,C$40percunitfor
cypress(yellow-cedar),andC$10percunitforallotherspecies.
The1970salsobroughtthefirstmajorchangesintheProvinciallegislationsince
WorldWarI.Section92oftheBritishColumbiaForestActof1978,readthat:
88
AlltimbercutonCrownlands,oronlandsgrantedafterthetwelfthdayof
March,1906,oronlandsheldunderpre-emptionrecord,shallbeusedin
theProvinceorbemanufacturedintheProvinceintoboards,deal,joists,
laths,shingles,orothersawnlumber,orintochemicalwood-pulporpaper,
exceptashereinafterprovided;andallloggingandmanufacturingcamps
orpremisesusedoroccupiedforanypurposeoforinconnectionwiththe
cuttingormanufactureofsuchtimbershallbelocatedintheProvince.
Sections95-97oftheactalsograntedtheLieutenant-GovernorinCounciltheright
toauthorizeexportsofpiles,poles,railwayties,crib-timber,woodchips,mechanical
woodpulpandanyother“unmanufacturedtimber...uponsuchtermsandconditions
asheseesfit”ifwithin-Provincemanufacturingproblemsduetotopographicalrea-
sonsoccurred.Withtheloomingrecession,however,legislatinglogexportrestrictions
becamemorefrequent.
TheForestActof1979elaboratedonexportexceptionqualificationstothewithin-
Provincemanufacturerule.Theactidentifiedlogexportexceptionsfortimbersurplus
todomesticneedwithnoeconomicallyfeasibleusewithintheProvince,orthatwould
otherwisebewastedfromdecayorlackofreforestationofanold,unmarketablestand.
Thenin1986,timberstandsintheMidCoast,NorthCoast,andQueenCharlotteTim-
berSupplyAreasofBritishColumbiaweredeterminedtobeuneconomicalbecause
ofage,disease,remoteness,andassociatedtransportationcoststoharvestandproc-
essthetimberwithintheProvince.Therefore,anOrderinCouncilwasissuedpro-
vidingforablanketexemptionfromwithin-Provincemanufacturefortheseareas.
Canadian
Regulations
FederallegislationregardinglogexportsdidnotexistuntilWorldWarII.Provincial
landgrantedbefore1906andFederallandwereregulatedonlybytheProvince;logs
were,hence,freelyexportableuntilthattime.CrownregulationsissuedduringWorld
WarII,however,appliedtoallBritishColumbialogexports.
Keyprovisions
Year
WarMeasuresAct(2acts)
1940
NationalEmergencyTransitionPower
Act(NETPA)
1945
ExportandImportPermitsAct
1947
ExportandImportsPermitAct
1970
ExportandImportAct
1974
FederalRegulations,
WorldWarIItoPresent
88
StatutesofBritishColumbia1978,c23,s135,136,137.
41
VB.NET Create PDF from images Library to convert Jpeg, png images
Components to batch convert PDF documents in Visual Basic .NET class. NET converter control for exporting high quality PDF from images.
convert pdf file to jpg file; convert pdf image to jpg
C# TIFF: C#.NET Code to Convert JPEG Images to TIFF
Use C# Code to Convert Jpeg to Tiff. Define Jpeg images list. string[] imagePaths = { @"C:\demo1.jpg", @"C:\demo2.jpg", @"C:\demo3.jpg" }; // Construct List
convert pdf image to jpg image; best program to convert pdf to jpg
ThefirstFederalactpassedwastheWarMeasuresAct,inJuly1940,toprohibitthe
exportofunmanufacturedDouglas-fir(
Pseudotsugamenziesii
(Mirb.)Franco).By
December1940,anotherWarMeasuresActexpandedthespeciesconcernedto
includealltruefirs(
Abies
spp.)andprohibitedtheexportofallunmanufactured
woodproductsunlessspecificallyexempted.
By1945,therestrictionswerewrittenintotheNationalEmergencyTransitionPower
Act(NETPA)andthenagainintotheExportandImportPermitsActof1947.The
ExportandImportActremainsthestatutorybasisforFederallogexportrestrictions
today.
SincetheenactmentoftheCanadianConstitutionActin1867,whichgrantedthe
ProvincesrightsovernaturalresourcesandtheCrowncontrolofinternationaltrade,
theProvincehadbeenincontrolofexportsofforestproducts.WhentheCanadian
governmentenactedtheExportandImportsPermitActof1970,
89
theFederalGov-
ernmentwasgrantedauthorityoverallexports,includingthosefromprivatelands.The
FederalGovernmentreturnedexportcontroloverProvinciallandstotheProvinces,
whileitretainedcontroloverallremaininglands(exceptforIndianreservelandsand
Crown-grantedlandsbefore1906).Timberfromtheseprivatelands,Indianreserves,
Federallands,andlandsgrantedbytheCrownbefore1906,whichhadbeenfreeto
exportlogs,werenowunderFederalrestrictions.AFederalexportpermitisnowre-
quiredforalllogsleavingCanada,andtheFederalauthoritiesacceptProvincialde-
cisionsontimberunderitsjurisdiction.
TheExportandImportActof1974changedthefocusfromoneofpromotingnational
security,whichhadbeencarriedalongsincetheExportImportActof1947,topromot-
ingdomesticmanufacturingviaexportrestrictions.
BritishColumbia
AgenciesandExport
Procedures
TheMinistryofForestsofBritishColumbiaisinchargeofdefiningtheregulations
associatedwiththelawsoftheProvince.TheFederalMinistryofForeignAffairs
andInternationalTraderegulatesexportsfortheentirecountry.InitiallytheLogEx-
portAdvisoryCommittee(LEAC)and,later,theTimberExportAdvisoryCommittee
(TEAC)playedanadvisoryroleintheissuanceofexportpermitstothosewhoqualify.
TheLEACwasformedin1918andincludedamixofloggers,exporters,manufac-
turers andmembersoftheBritishColumbiaForestService.Itreviewedpermitap-
plicationsandadvisedtheMinisterofForestsandtheLieutenant-Governoronwhether
anexportpermitshouldbegranted.Criteriafortheseexemptionshavebeenmodified
overtimeonspecies,surplus,renewability,sustainability,andmarketarea.
In1918,physicalsurplusofharvestedlogswasallthatwasneededtoestablishthe
needforapermit.Thecriteriathenevolvedsothatanapplicantneededtoprovethat
theharvestedtimberwasactuallysurplustotheirmarketareabyshowingevidenceof
refusalbythreemillstopurchaseharvestedtimber.Thirtyyearslater,LEACchanged
therequirementtothreerefusalsfrommillsactuallyusingthetypeoflogthepermit
89
ExportandImportsPermitAct,R.S.C.1970,C.E-17,as
amended.
42
requestwasforandthatthelogsmusthavebeenavailabletodomesticbuyersforat
least60days.Thisphysicalsurplusdeterminant,availability,wasloweredto30days
in1969,andthento2weeksofadvertisinginappropriatepaperswithoutreceivinga
purchaseofferin1975.
90
Thisremainstruetoday.Federalpolicyalsochangedin
1975tomirrortheLEACchangeregarding2-weekadvertising.
TheFederalGovernmenttookaseatonLEACin1968.Thenin1969,theCanadian
MinistryofIndustry,Trade,andCommercechangedthepermittingprocesssothat
theFederallegislationandtheProvince’swouldbemoresimilar.Thepermitting
applicationandapprovalprocessisstilloverseenbytheProvince,althoughallex-
portsrequireaFederalexportpermitaswell.Ingeneralpractice,iftheProvincial
Lieutenant-Governorissuesalogexportpermit,thentheFederalDepartmentof
Industry,Trade,andCommercealsoissuesone.
91
Timberintendedforexportfrom
landsgrantedbytheCrownbefore1906(i.e.,notsubjecttoProvincialrestrictions)
aregrantedFederalpermitsontherecommendationofLEAC.In1975,theCanadian
GovernmentharmonizedtheirrestrictionswiththeProvince’sandhassincekeptup
withProvincialchanges.
Toexamineexemptionsandblanketapplications,asof1975,LEACmettoadviseon
permitapplicationsforsurplustimberfromProvinciallandsgrantedafter1906and
fromlandsrestrictedbyFederalpolicy.ThentheProvincialLieutenant-Governorin
CouncilandtheFederalMinisterofIndustry,Trade,andCommercemadethefinal
decisionastowhetherthetimberwasactuallysurplustoProvincialneedsorwasto
receiveprimaryprocessing.
In1984,theMinisterofForestsrefinedhisinterpretationoftheBritishColumbiaFor-
estActof1979,whichbasedexemptiononsurplus,economics,anduse.Thisre-
visionprovidedforexemptionsofstandinggreentimbertobeissuedforapercent-
ageofhemlock-balsam(hemlockandtruefirs)stands,ifitcouldbedemonstratedthat
harvestingwouldbeuneconomicalunlessthelogswerepredestinedtoreceiveda
premiumpriceontheexportmarket.Tobeapprovedfortheexemption,thelogshad
tocomefromremoteanduneconomicallyharvestableareasandhadtobeharvested
aspartofotheroperations.
TheLEACwasdisbandedin1986anditsadvisoryfunctionsgiventoTEAC.The
initialpurposeofTEACwastorecommendpermitstoexportstandinggreentimber
basedoneconomicneed.MembershipinTEACincludesindividualsinthelogtrade
communityandoperatesasanadvisorycommitteetothisday.
CurrentProcedures
TimberfromlandsgrantedbytheCrownpriortoMarch12,1906(exceptwhenthe
timberhasbeenincludedinatreefarmlicense),isconsideredexportableunderpart
12oftheForestActof1979andtherebynotsubjecttoProvincialexportcontrols.
Accordingtotheact,thetimberisnotsubjecttotherestrictionsandexemptionproc-
ess.Federalauthorities,however,requirethataProvincialexportpermitisobtained.
90
Shinn1993:8(seefootnote6).
91
Austin1969:13(seefootnote3);alsoShinn1993(see
footnote6).
43
Exemptionregulation
92
isbasedonthe1979ForestAct:
TheLieutenant-Governormayexemptfromuseormanufacturewithinthe
Province,aspeciesoftimberoravolumeoftimberforaperiodorsuc-
cessiveperiodsoftime,whetherstandingorfelled.Exemptionsofhar-
vestedvolumesover15000cubicmeters[3.3millionbd.ft.]orexemption
priortoharvestrequiresapprovalbytheLieutenant-GovernorinCouncil
throughanOrderinCouncil.
TheLieutenant-GovernorinCouncilmayexemptharvestedorstandingtimber.The
Ministercanexemptonlyharvestedtimberonapplicationslessthan15000cubic
meters(3.3millionbd.ft.)involume.Accordingtotheact,theMinisterofForests
mayexemptvolumesofharvestedtimberforexportaslongastheydonotexceed
15000cubicmeters(cum;3.3millionbd.ft.).Toestablishwhetherharvestedtimber
issurplustolocalneedsandmaybeexported,thelocationfromwherethetimber
originatedmustbeknown.Thisisbecausetimberfromthecoastissubjectto
inclusionintheVancouverRegionalBi-WeeklyExportList,andtimberfromtheinterior
mustgothroughaprescribedformofsurplustesting.Ifafterthistimberhasbeen
advertisedandreceivesnooffers,orhasbeenqualifiedassurplustimber,the
applicationissubmittedtoTEACforreviewandrecommendations.
SubstitutionregulationsexistinBritishColumbia,aswell,althoughtheyarenotas
restrictiveasthoseintheUnitedStates.AccordingtocurrentTEACpolicy,TEACwill
not
93
...consideroffersforlogsbeingadvertised...byanycompanyorindividual
whohasexportedlogsdirectlyorindirectlyfromtheProvinceforthepre-
viousthreemonths...norwilltheyrecommendanyapplicationsforexport
fromacompanyorindividualwhohassubmittedavalidofferforlogsbeing
advertisedontheBi-Weeklylistforathreemonthperiod.
Allstandingtimberapplications,wheretheMinistryhasconcludedthatforcoastal
timberunusualcircumstanceswarrantsuchanexemption,arereviewedbyTEAC.
General(orblanket)standingtimberexemptionsusuallyspecifyvolume,speciesand
timberqualityeligibleforexport,andinmostcases,theyencompassoneormoregeo-
graphicareasoftheProvince.
94
Long-termstandingtimberexemptionsalsoexist.
TheytooaregrantedbytheLieutenant-GovernorthroughanOrderinCouncil.A1990
OrderinCouncil,exemptingstandingtimberforMidCoast,NorthCoast,andQueen
CharlotteIslandmarketloggers,hasexpiredwithoutrenewal.
Feesinlieuofmanufacturestillexistandmustbepaidbyallwhoexporttimberfrom
Provinciallands.Forconiferoussawlogsmeetingthesurpluscriteria,afeeof100
percentoftheexportpremium(thedifferencebetweentheexportpriceandthe
domesticprice)mustbepaid.Forpulplogs,thefeeis40percent.Iftheexportex-
emptionisbasedoneconomiccriteriaoronusagecriteria,thefeeisthen15percent.
AminimumofC$1percummustbepaid.
92
BritishColumbiaMinistryofForests.1992.Provinceof
BritishColumbiaProceduresforExportofTimber.20700-02,
ExportProceduresDocument.October14:2.
93
BritishColumbiaMinistryofForests.1992:7(seefootnote92).
94
BritishColumbiaMinistryofForests.1992:8(seefootnote92).
44
AllProvincialfeesmustbepaidbythosewhohavebeenapprovedforanexportper-
mitbytheProvince.TheFederalGovernmentapprovestheexportexemption(asit
usuallydoes),andchargesaC$15Federalexportpermitfee.TheFederalfeemust
alsobepaidfortimberexportedfromlandsthatarenotsubjecttotheProvincialrules.
LogExportsFromIndian
LandsinBritish
Columbia
Indianbands
95
inBritishColumbiahavebeengiventherightstousetheresources
onfederallyownedlandwithinBritishColumbiaandtherestoftheDominion.Indian
timberregulationswerepromulgatedundertheIndianAct.Essentiallythetimberis
ownedbytheFederalGovernmentandissharedforuseandbenefitoftheIndians.
Rightstousethetimberareownedbythebandasawhole,whereeachmemberhas
equalrightstothetimber.Theproceedsfromanysale,forexportorotherwise,there-
foregotoatrustaccountfortheband,nottoaparticularindividual.
ThelandsareunderthejurisdictionoftheCanadianDepartmentofIndianandNorth-
ernAffairsandarenotrestrictedbytherulesandregulationsoftheBritishColumbia
ForestService.Therefore,thebanddoesnothavetogetapprovalforaProvincial
permitbeforeapplyingforaFederalpermit.Ifthebandwantstoexportgoods,they
mustdosothroughtheCanadianDepartmentofForeignAffairsinOttawa.Anaddi-
tionalapprovalisrequiredfromtheDepartmentofIndianandNorthernAffairsafter
thebandhasproventhatthereisnolocaluseforsuchtimber.
ImportRestrictions
Keydevelopments—
EarlyAnimalPlantandHealthInspectionService
(APHIS)ImportRestrictions
APHISLogImportRestrictionsSpecifictoNewZealandandChile
GeneralizedRulesforLogandLumberImports
MoratoriumonImportsunderAPHISRules
SinceitsEuropeanoccupancy,NorthAmericahasseentheaccidentalimportation
ofmorethan300insectsanddiseasesaffectingtreesandshrubs.Otherinsectsand
diseaseshaveaffectedfarmcropsandlivestock.Topreventfurtherincursions,the
AnimalandPlantHealthInspectionService(APHIS)wasestablishedintheU.S.De-
partmentofAgriculture.
EarlyAPHISregulationprohibitinglogimportsintotheUnitedStatesstemmedfrom
detailedpestriskassessments,whichfoundthatdangerousplantpestscouldbe
introducedtodomesticstandswiththeimportationoflogscontainingsuchthreats.
LogimportsintotheUnitedStatesfromcountriesotherthanCanadawereinlimited
quantities,though,becauseofthevastresourcesavailablehere,andtherewere
diseconomiesofscaleforanyonewhoundertooksuchaventure.TheAPHISimport
regulationsthereforecalledforinspectiononlyatportofarrival,followedbytreatment
orreexportifcertainplantpestswerefound.
AstheavailabletimbersupplyintheWesternUnitedStatesandCanadahasde-
clined,demandhasshiftedtonontraditionalsources.Woodmanufacturersarebegin-
ningtousetheforeignsourcestooffsetexpectedharvestreductions,andtoprovide
rawmaterialsfortheirfacilitiesatpricescompetitivewithorbetterthandomestic
UnitedStates
95
IndianbandscorrespondtoU.S.NativeAmericantribes.
45
prices.Thesources,particularlyNewZealandandChile,havedevelopedacommer-
cialinterestandexpertiseinforestmanagementandareenteringthelogexportmar-
ketwithincreasinglylargevolumesoftimberatcompetitiveprices.
AsdomesticmillsturnedtonewmarketsforviablesubstitutesforthedecliningNorth-
westtimbersupply,APHISrecognizedtheneedtoprotectthedomesticforeststands
frompeststhatmaybeimportedwiththetimberfromnontraditionalregions.Thepri-
marysourceoftimberhadbecome(andremains)NewZealand,soapestriskassess-
mentforradiatapine(
Pinusradiata
)andDouglas-firfromNewZealandwascon-
ductedbytheUSDAForestService.Itwasfoundthatfumigationandheattreatment
wouldberequiredto,respectively,killtheinsectsanddestroythefungifoundinthe
logsbeforetheywereimported.Asaresult,APHISamendeditsforeignquarantine
regulationstospecifyanexceptionforlogimportsfromNewZealandintheformofan
interimrule.
GuidelinesweresetbyAPHISforcareandhandlingofthelogsuntiltheyreceived
processingatafacilityintheUnitedStates.Beforebeingeligibleforimportintothe
UnitedStates,thetimberhadtobesawnfromlive,healthytreesthatwerefreefrom
decay,whichhadbeendebarkedtohelpidentifydeepboringwoodpestinfestations
andtoremoveotherpestshousedinthebarkofthetrees.Theregulationsalso
requiredthatthetimberbefumigatedwithmethylbromidewithin45daysoffelling.
Atthetimeofimport,theimportermusthaveheldanimportpermitoracertificate
issuedbytheNewZealandPlantProtectionServicesayingthatthelogshadbeen
treatedasrequiredbeforeimportation,withdocumentationstatingthetype,quantity,
andoriginofthelogsandverifyingthattherequiredphytosanitationtreatmentwas
done.
Animportinspectormightthenvisuallyinspectthelogsandevenrequireadditional
treatmentifthelogsdidnotmeetthenecessaryrequirements.Afterinspection,the
logswererequiredtogodirectlytothefacilitywheretheyweretobesawnandbe
heattreatedimmediately.
WithimportsfromChileincreasing,andinvolvingthesamespeciesasfromNew
Zealand,APHISextendedandmodifiedtheNewZealandprocedurestoembrace
bothsourcenations.
96
Thebroadenedrulesalsoaddedelementsofleniency.For
example,certificatescouldnowbesignedbyanauthorizedgovernmentemployee,
notspecificallyaplantinspectionperson,ashadbeenrequiredearlier.Inaddition,it
allowedwoodproductstobetransportedinthesameholdorsealedcontainerwith
anywoodarticles.APHISdidstipulatethatatleast7daysadvancenoticehadtobe
givenbeforethearrivalintotheport.
In1995APHISexpandedtoallsourcecountriestheirimportrulesforunmanufactured
woodarticles.
97
Thebroadenedrulesaddressedheattreatment,fumigation,irradia-
tion,andothermeansofpestcontrol.SoftwoodlogsfromsourcesotherthanCanada,
96
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,AnimalandPlantHealth
InspectionService.1993.ImportationofMontereypinelogs
fromChileandMontereypineandDouglas-firlogsfromNew
Zealand.FederalRegister58,No.215(November9,1993):
59348-59353.
97
U.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,AnimalandPlantHealth
InspectionService.1995.Importationoflogs,lumber,and
otherunmanufacturedwoodarticles.FederalRegister60,No.
101(May25,1995):27665-27682.
46
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested