Mexico’sU.S.borderStates,Chile,andNewZealandmustbedebarkedandheat
treated(versusdebarkedandfumigatedinthecasesofChileandNewZealand).
Tropicalhardwoodlogsmustbeeitherdebarkedorfumigated.Temperatehardwoods
mustbeeitherfumigatedordebarkedandthenheattreated.Logandlumberimports
fromeasternRussia(andotherplacesnorthoftheTropicofCancerandeastoflongi-
tude60
o
E.)mustbedebarkedandheattreated.
InMarch1997,afterabout500importpermitshadbeenissued,aU.S.DistrictCourt
inSanFranciscoplacedaninjunctiononissuanceofnewpermits.Thedecisionap-
pliedtotemperatehardwoodandsoftwoodlogsandlumber,includingkiln-driedsawn
items.Newpermitsfortropicalwoodswerenotimpededbythedecision,andneither
wereexistingpermitsforotherwoods,althoughrevisionsinthelatterarenotallowed.
Thebasisforthedecisionwasenvironmentalconcerns.APHISbeganarevisionof
theirenvironmentaldocumentation,tobecompletedforacourthearinginMay1998.
Canada
Becauseofrecentsupplyrestrictions,theissuanceofmultipleuseregulations,and
pricefluctuations,Canadianmillsandtimberbuyershavebeenlookingoffshoreto
supplythemselveswithneededtimber.Thisinterestinimportedtimbersuppliesled
theFoodProductionandInspectionBranchoftheFederalAnimalandPlantHealth
Directorate,PlantProtectionDivision,toissueadirectivebarringtheimportoftimber
unlessitistropical(growsonlyintropicalclimatesnotfoundinNorthAmerica)oritis
beingimportedfromacountryforwhichapestriskassessmenthasbeendone,simi-
lartothosedonebytheUnitedStates(APHIS)forChileandNewZealand.Todate,
onlytheformerUSSRhasbeenevaluatedandpestriskrequirementsestablishedto
bantheimportationofpestanddiseasethatcoulddecimateNorthAmericantimber
stands.Therefore,asofMay1994,onlytimberfromthecontinentalUnitedStates,
tropicaltimber(theaccepted,specifiedspecies),ortimberfromtheformerUSSR
countriescanbeimportedintoCanada.Unmanufacturedwoodproductsaredefined
aslogs,lumber,woodpackingmaterial,woodchips,bark,woodmulch,andshingles
thathaveundergoneonlyprimaryprocessing,consistingoftheremovaloflimbs,
debarking,roughsawing,roughshaping,andsprayingwithfungicideorinsecticide.
98
Thedirective,basedonthePlantProtectionAct,S.C.1990,c.22andthePlantQuar-
antineRegulationsC.R.C.,c.1273,requirethatallimportedlumbermustbekilndried
(andcertifiedtohavemetcertaindegreesofheattreatment)andwrappedsoonafter
kilndryinginsuchawayastopreventreinfestation.Nopermittoimportisrequired.
ItemsnotkilndriedarenotallowedintoCanada.Exemptionsincludetimberproducts
fromtropicaltreesthatarecompletelyfreeofbark(exceptlogs),otherprocessedand
manufacturedwoodproducts(also100percentfreeofbark),orbyacase-by-case
exemptionforeducational,scientific,orindustrialpurposes.Toobtainanexemption
suchasthelastone,prospectiveimportersmustcontacttheAssociateDirectorofthe
ImportSection,PlantProtectionDivision.
Acknowledgments
Thisreportwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithouttheassistanceandsupportof
DonaldFloraandRichardHaynes.Totheseindividualsandmanyotherswhohave
answeredinnumerablequestionsandreviewedvariouscopies,thankyou.
98
Bradnock,W.T.1994.Memorandum[ofMay16]tothe
Trade:ImportofLogs,LumberandOtherUnmanufactured
WoodProductsfromAreasOtherThantheContinental
UnitesStatesandtheFormerUSSR.Copyonfilewith:
PacificNorthwestResearchStation,4043RooseveltWay
NE,Seattle,WA98105.
47
Convert pdf image to jpg - Convert PDF to JPEG images in C#.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF project
How to convert PDF to JPEG using C#.NET PDF to JPEG conversion / converter library control SDK
reader convert pdf to jpg; convert .pdf to .jpg
Convert pdf image to jpg - VB.NET PDF Convert to Jpeg SDK: Convert PDF to JPEG images in vb.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF project
Online Tutorial for PDF to JPEG (JPG) Conversion in VB.NET Image Application
convert from pdf to jpg; best convert pdf to jpg
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested