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Chapter1
Introduction
Thisguideprovidesin-depthinformationaboutmanagingfontsandimagesinthexPressionoutput
processingsystem. Someinformationrelatestospecificversionsoftheserverandmaynotapply
toallversions.
InformationBoxes
Thefollowingcoloredboxesalertyoutospecialinformationinthedocumentation.
Caution:Thecautionboxwarnsyouthatafatalerror,unsatisfactoryoutput,orlossofdatamay
occurifyoudonotfollowthedirectionscarefully.
Tip:Atipofferssuggestionstosimplifyataskordescribesausefulshortcut.Theymayalsodescribe
analternatewaytousethetechniquesdescribedinthetext.
Note:Anoteoffersinformationthatemphasizesorsupplementsimportantpointsofthemaintext.
xPressionHome
Theterm“xPressionHome”referstothelocationwherexPressionwasinstalledonyourserver.By
defaultonWindowsservers,thelocationisC:\xPression,butyourinstallermayhaveselected
adifferentlocationduringinstallation.PleaseconsultwithyouradministratorsorITpersonnelto
determinethelocationwheretheyinstalledxPression.ThroughoutthexPressiondocumentation,we
willrefertothislocationas“xPressionHome”.
EMCDocumentSciencesTechnicalSupport
Formoreinformationortosolveaproblem,youcancontactEMCDocumentSciencesTechnical
Supportinoneofthefollowingways:
OnlineSupport:h
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Introduction
UnitedStates:800-782-4362
Canada:800-543-4782
Worldwide: +1-508-497-7901
Foradditionalworldwideaccessnumbers,visit:
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Chapter2
Images
Thesimplestdefinitionofadigitalimageisthatitisarectangulararrayofp
i
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s
.Thepixelisthe
smallestandmostbasicunitofadigitalimage. Thinkofapieceofgraphpaper,whereeachsquare
canbeacolor.Apixelplaysthesameroleinadigitalimage.
Whenimagesarerepresentedonanimagingdeviceataparticularsize,theyacquirer
e
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n
.The
resolutionofanimageisthenumberofpixelsperunitmeasurewhendisplayedonaparticular
imagingdevice.
Forexample,ifyoudisplaya100x100pixelimageatasizeof1”by1”,theimageresolutionwouldbe
100DPI(dotsperinch).Thesameimagecouldbescaledto2"x2"andwouldthenhavetheresolution
of50DPI.Noticethattheimageitselfdoesnothaveresolution,itonlyacquiresresolutionwhen
displayedataparticularsize.Someimageformatsincludetheimagesizeintheirdefinition,butthis
conceptisartificialandexistsonlybecauseitisconvenientformanyapplications.
Digitalimagesarerepresentedasrasterimagesorvectorgraphics.Rastergraphicsrepresentimages
asacollectionofpixels. Vectorgraphicsuseaseriesofdrawingcommandsinapagedescription
languagedesignedtodrawthegraphicattheresolutionoftheoutputdevice.
BitDepth
Ifapixelisasquareonapieceofgraphpaper(thatrepresentsyourimage)thenBitDepth,page13is
thenumberofcolorsyoucanusetofillthatsquare.Withabinaryimage(1-bitperpixel),youhave
onlyonecolor-black(thepaperiswhite). WithaCMYKimage(32-bitperpixel),youcanuse
upto4,294,967,296differentcolors.
BlackandWhite
Thesmallesttypeofimageisthebinaryimagewhereonebitisusedtorepresenteachpixel.Withthis
typeofimage,photographicgraytonescanbereproducedusingseveralmethods.
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DiffusionDitherPattern
Ditheringscattersdifferentcoloredpixelsinanimagetomakeitappearasthoughthereare
intermediatecolorsinimageswithalimitedcolorpalette.
HalftoneScreen
Themorecommonwaytorepresentshadesofgrayinablackandwhiterasterformatisthehalftone
screen. Halftoneisatechniquethatsimulatescontinuoustoneimagerythroughtheuseofequally
spaceddotsofvaryingsize.Thisimagehasbeenreproducedusingahalftonescreen.
Grayscale
Grayscaleimagesarecomposedexclusivelyofshadesofneutralgray,varyingfromblackatthe
weakestintensitytowhiteatthestrongest. Grayscaleimagesuse8-bitsperpixel. Eachpixelis
definedasablackvaluebetween0and255. Grayscaleimagesaredistinctfromblack-and-white
imagesinthattheyhavemanyshadesofgrayinbetweenblackandwhite.
IndexedColor
Indexedcoloralsousesonly8-bitsperpixel,butaddscolor.Indexedcolorworksbycreatingapalette
ofcolors(256)andonlyusingthosecolorsintheimage.
Whencreatingindexedcolor,thepalette(thecompletesetofcolorsavailable)determinesthecolor
fidelity.Programsthatcreateindexedcolorfilescaneitheruseastandardpalette(likethestandard
256colorpaletteusedbyWindows)oranadaptivepalette.Tocreateanadaptivepaletteyoumustuse
aprogramthatanalyzesthecolorsintheimageandpicksthe256thatwillbestrepresenttheimage.
Inallindexedcolorimages,theoriginalRGBorCMYKvaluesarereplacedbytheclosestpalettevalue
usingditheringwhennecessary.Indexedcolorfilescanbegrayscale,RGBorCMYKdependingupon
whatvaluesareinthepalette.Successfuluseofindexedcolordependsupontheuseofcolorinthe
imageandtheskillofthedeveloperwhocreatedthealgorithmforpickingthepaletteofcolorstouse.
RGB
TheRGBcolormodelisnativetodevicesliketelevisionsandcomputermonitors. Itiscalledthe
Additivemodel,becauseyoustartoutwithblack,andifyouadd100%ofRed,Green,andBlueyou
getwhite.
Inthismodel,eachpixelisdefinedby38-bitquantitiesrepresentingred,green,andblue.128,128,
128wouldbeagraycolor.0,0,0wouldbeblack,and255,255,255wouldbewhite.
Thisisnotthenativecolormodelforprinting,andthusmustbeconvertedtoCMYKbeforeitcanbe
printed.AsyouwillseeinRGBvsCMYK,page15,thisisahighlysubjectiveprocess.
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CMYK
InaCMYKimage,eachpixelisrepresentedby48-bitvalues,eachrepresentingthecolorsCyan,
Magenta,YellowandBlack.
Thisisthenativecolormodelforprintingandisusedformostprintapplications. Therearecolor
modelswithmorecolorsthatuseadditionalcolors(tomorefaithfullyreproduceblues,fleshtones
etc.),buttheyarenotsupportedbyxPression.CMYKiscalledthesubtractivecolormodelbecause
thepaperstartsoutwhite,andbyaddingtransparentink,lessandlesslightisreflectedfromthe
papertoyoureye.
RGBvsCMYK
RGBcolorcanreproducebasicallythesamerangeofcolorsasCMYKwithonly75%ofthedata,so
whyuseCMYK?RGBtoCMYKismorelikeatranslationthanadirectconversion.Thistranslationis
muchliketranslatingfromonelanguagetoanother.
• Aswithlanguage,somemeaning(color)canbelostinthetranslation
• AswithlanguagewhenyoutranslateRGB>CMYK>RGByouwillnotgetthesamevalueyou
beganwith
• Aswithlanguage,thetranslationmaybedifferentdependinguponwhotranslatesit(Photoshop,
theprinter,orxPressionimageconverters)
SpotColorsandHighlightColor
BothRGBandCMYKcolormodelsuseanumberofcolorsincombinationtorecreateallcolors.
Spotorhighlightcolormodelsdonotattempttorecreateallcolors,insteadeachcolorisprinted
withitsownink.
Spotcolorisusedwhenaprocesscolor(CMYKequivalent)isnotsufficient.Forexample,ifyouare
Coke,thereisaspecific"CokeRed"colorthatisrequired. Ifyouareprintingacolorbrochure,you
willuseCMYKplusaspotcolorin"CokeRed."Thespotcolorwillonlybeusedwhenprintingthe
logoorotherthingsthatyouspecificallywantinthatcolor.
Eventhough5colorsarebeingused,the5thcolorisNOTusedincombinationwithCMYK,isusedin
specificspotstoprovideanexactcolormatch.Itisnotuncommoninhigh-endprintapplicationsto
usemanyspotcolorsinadditiontoCMYK.Whengeneratingoutput,eachhighlightorspotcoloris
givenitsown8-bitimage(256shades).
Inoffsetprintingthereareanumberofinkvendorswhosellspecificcolorsofink(Forexample,
PantoneandFocoltone).PMS(PantoneMatchingSystem)colorsareverycommonlyusedasspot
color.Whenoffsetprinting,youcanuseblackplusonespottobeequivalenttodigitalhighlightcolor,
alsoatamuchlowerproductioncost.
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AdvancedFeatures
Thereareanumberofadvancedfeaturesthatareavailablewhenreproducingimages.Thesefeatures
areextensionsofthebasicconceptofanimageandarenotavailableinallclientapplications,print
streamsorimageformats.ForalistoffeaturesandtheirsupportacrossimageformatsandPDLs,
seeImageSupportvsFeatureSupport,page27.
Transparency
Imagetransparencyistheabilitytodefineaportionofanimagesothatitdoesnotappear,allowing
thebackgroundtoshow.Transparencyallowsthebackgroundtocompletelyshowthrough.
Imagesarerectangulararraysofpixels. Ifyourimageisnotrectangular,youneedtransparency
toavoiddisplayingthefullrectangularimage.
Thisfeatureisnotsupportedbyeveryimageformatorbyeverypagedescriptionlanguage.
ClippingPath
InPostScriptyoucandefineanenclosedarea(apath)thatwillbepreservedwhiletherestofthe
imageiscutofforclipped.
TransparentPixels
Certainpixelswithintheimagecanbedesignatedastransparent. Wherethesepixelsappear,the
imageistransparentandthebackgroundshowsthrough.
Translucency
Translucencyiswherevariousobjectscanbelayeredusingtheopacitysettingavailablein
applicationslikeAdobeInDesign.
ThisfeatureisnotsupportedbyxPression.Thereasonisthatthisisnotanaturalfunctionprovidedby
anyprintstream.TheworkaroundforthisfeatureistomontageimagesinaprogramlikePhotoshop.
ColorManagement
Colormanagementisthecontrolledconversionbetweenthecolorrepresentationsofvariousdevices
(suchasdigitalcameras,monitors,TVscreens,filmprinters,computerprinters,andoffsetpresses)
andcorrespondingmedia.
16
Images
Theprimarygoalofcolormanagementistoobtainagoodcolormatchacrossdevicessuchasprinters
andmonitors.Thisgoalisaccomplishedbymeasuringtheresponseofeachcolormanageddevice
andcompensatingforitsinaccuracieswhendisplayingcolors.EachmanageddevicehasanICC
(InternationalColorConsortium)profilethatdescribesitsresponse.
VectorGraphics
VectorGraphicsuseaseriesofdrawingcommandsinapagedescriptionlanguagetodrawthe
graphic. Vectorgraphicsarealwaysimagesattheresolutionoftheoutputdevice(forPDF,the
computermonitor).InaPDFfile,youcouldzoomto2000%andneverseetheeffectsofpixelization
(theabilitytoseestairsteppingorlargepixelsinanimage).Forthisreason,vectorfilesarecalled
"resolutionindependent."Thebenefitsofvectorgraphicsarealsoapparentwhenprintingdocuments
athighresolution.
Rasterimageshaveafixednumberofpixels.Asyouenlargethem,thepixelsbecomelargerandthe
resolution(thenumberofpixelsperunitmeasure)goesdown. Forthisreasonrasterimagesare
called"resolutiondependent."
CAD(ComputerAidedDesign)programs,AdobeIllustrator,CorelDrawandotherprogramscan
createvectorgraphicfiles.Outlinefontsarealsoexamplesofvectorgraphics.
MetafileFormats
Certainprogramsallowyoutocombinevectorgraphicsandimagesinasinglefile.Theseformatsare
calledMetafileformats.ThemostwellknownareWMF(WindowsMetafile),PostScript,andPDF.
ReproducingImagesonDigitalDevices
ThemajorityofxPressionusersproduceelectronicdocumentsordocumentsforprintondigital
printers.Thissectionwilldiscusstheissuesrelatedtomaintainingthebalancebetweenproduction
efficiencyandimagequalityforthesedevices.
HowPrintersWork
Inthissection,wewillwalkthroughtheprocessthatillustrateshowprintersreceive,process,and
producexPressiondocuments.
First,xPressionproducesanoutputfileinoneofseveralpagedescriptionlanguages(PDLs)suchas
PDF,PostScript,AFP,orPCL.Thefileissenttotheprinterthroughabatchortransactionalprocess.
Thesefilesarethenconvertedintobinaryimagesatthedeviceresolutionforeachcolortobeprinted.
Thisprocessiscalledrasterization.InPostScript,thisprocessisperformedbytheRIP(RasterImage
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Images
Processor).TherasterizationorRIPprocessmergesallimages,vectorgraphics,andtextintoasingle
imagethatcanbefedtothemarkingengine.
Forexample,ifyouhavea600DPIBlackandwhiteprinter,theresultoftheRIPprocessisa1-bit
imageat600DPI.Forafullcolorprinter,itwouldbe41-bitimagescorrespondingtoC,M,Y,andK
markingengines. Next,thefileisrasterized.
Thisimageistransferredtothemarkingengine.Inalaserprinter,alaseraimedataphoto-sensitive
drumwritestheimageontothedrumoftheprinter.Eachpixelisreproducebyhavingalasershine
ornotshineatapointonthedrum. Thischangesthemagneticqualitiesofthedrum. Asthedrum
turnsitpicksupmagnetizedplasticpowdercalledtoner.
Paperischargedwithareversepolaritysothatitattractsthepowder,andthepaperpassesbythe
drummagneticallytransferringthetonertothepaper. Thepaperisthenheatedtoaveryhigh
temperatureinafusingunittomeltthetonerontothepaper.
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Images
PDF
PDFisviewedusingAdobeAcrobat.AcrobatisanRGBRIP.IttakesPDFfiles,whichareinametafile
format,rasterizesthemtoscreenresolutioninRGB,anddisplaysthemonyourmonitor. When
printingfromAcrobat,theprintdriverconvertsthePDFintoaPDLappropriateforyourprinter.
HalftoneScreens
Onmostdigitalprintdevices,eachcolorisdefinedbya1-bitimage. Asaresult,theimagecan
onlycontaininkornotcontainink.
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Images
Inordertosimulatedshadesofgray,aprocesscalledhalftoningorscreeningis
used.
Thedevicepixelsaredividedintohalftonecells,andsomenumberofthosepixelsarecoloredto
approximatetintsofthecolorbeingimaged.
Inthesampleabove,thehalftonecellis8x8pixels(64totalpixels).Thecelloninthelowerlefthand
cornerhas32pixelscoloredblackandisrepresenting50%black.Becausethereare64totalpixels,this
scenariocanonlyrepresent64shadesofgray.
Thefollowinglistcontainstipsforusinghalftonescreens:
• Whenproducingascreenedphotographicimage,theeffectiveresolutioncanbenohigherthan
thescreenfrequency(typicallybetween60and130linesperinch(LPI))asahalftonecellcan
representonlyonepixelofanimage.
• Thenumberofcolorsthatcanberepresentedinahalftonedimagearedirectlyrelatedtothe
LPIofthescreensusedtoreproducethem.
• ThehighertheLPIofthescreen,thesmallerthehalftonecellindevicepixels,andthefewerthe
shadesofgraythatcanbereproduced.
• Despitethefactthatwesaveimageswith256colorsorgrayshades,digitalprintingcannot
reproduce256shadesofanycolorbecauseoflimitsimposedbyscreensandbythedevices
themselves.
OptimizingImagesforYourPrintingProcess
Bydefault,xPressiondoesagreatjobofoptimizingtheperformanceandqualityofimagesusedin
documents.Ingeneral,youdon’thavetothinktoomuchabouthowtheyfunction,theyjustwork.
Thereareparticularjobsandparticularimagesthatrequirefinetuning.Usually,therearetwomajor
issuestoconsider:Filesizeandimagequality.Largerfilesizesdonotalwaysequatetobetterquality.
Thissectionwillfocusonhowtooptimizefilesizeforperformanceandquality.
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