Common 802.1X Problems
• Equipment / Overhead
–Requires authentication server(s)
• More power
• More licenses
–Requires supported equipment (printers and other 
oddballs out there can cause issues)
• Complicated to set up
–Often a long-term project
–Phased deployment
–Really need an existing robust/mature infrastructure 
first
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Common 802.1X Problems (Cont)
• Almost always exceptions
–Devices that can’t conform (printers/copiers)
•Backup Plan : Sticky MAC or MAC AuthBypass (MAB)
–General exceptions to policy
•PXE booting items
•Hardware/software test networks
–Temporary exceptions to policy
•OS reloads
•Booting from windows -> linux
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Common 802.1X Problems (Cont)
• Client side problems
–How often does the link actually go down on the 
client?
•Kicked cables
•Power fluctuations 
•Machine shutdown/suspend at COB
•Reboots (think reboot Wednesday!)
–Additional configuration on the software side for 
the supplicant
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Classic Attack on 802.1X
In 2004 a security researcher demonstrated an attack 
against wired 802.1X with a hub.  By inserting a hub, a 
rogue device could simply wait until the connection was 
authenticated and then piggyback once the connection 
was approved by spoofing the authorized client. I’ve 
provided links to the sources at the end. 
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Problems with the Attack
By default, could only really use UDP because TCP 
causes a race condition:
1. Rogue device sends out a SYN to the far end
2. Far end sends back a SYN/ACK which hits both devices
3. The legit device should respond with a RST/ACK
4. The rogue device responds with an ACK
It’s a race!  Who will win?
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The Update to the Attack
How can we improve upon the classical attack?
• Hubs don’t really exist anymore so we need 
something else
• Want to be able to use TCP as well as UDP
• Want to maintain invisibility on the network
PROOF OF CONCEPT
Demo Configuration 
What’s a Bridge?
A Network Bridge connects multiple network 
segments at the Data Link Layer (layer 2 OSI)
• IEEE 802.1D standard defines bridges
• A switch is a special kind of bridge, namely it 
has multiple ports 
Bridges in Linux
• Kernel module
–Integrated into the 2.6 series kernel
–Standard in most distributions
• User-land utilities
–Bridge-utils
•Usually available in most distributions, although not 
always installed
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