mvc export to pdf : Convert pdf to jpg c# application Library tool html asp.net .net online ecbwp17204-part547

Frankel, J.A.andRose, A. K.(1998),\TheEndogeneityoftheOptimumCurrencyArea
Criteria",EconomicJournal,vol.108 n
o
449:pp.1009{25.
Garicano, L., LeLarge, C. . and d Reenen, J. V. . (2013), , \Firm Size Distortions and the
ProductivityDistribution: EvidencefromFrance",NBERWorkingPapers18841.
Greenaway,D.,Guariglia,A.andKneller,R.(2007),\FinancialFactorsandExporting
Decisions",JournalofInternationalEconomics,vol.73 n
o
2: pp.377{395.
Haynes, S. E.andStone, , J. . A.(1983),\SecularandCyclicalResponsesof U.S.Tradeto
Income: AnEvaluation n of TraditionalModels", , The e Review of f Economics and d Statistics,
vol.65 n
o
1:pp.87{95.
Hubbard, G.(1998),\CapitalMarketImperfectionsandInvestment",Journal ofEconomic
Literature,vol.36 n
o
3: pp.193{225.
Hummels,D.,Jorgensen, R.,Munch,J.andXiang,C.(2013),\TheWageandEmploy-
mentEectsofOutsourcing:EvidencefromDanishMatchedWorker-FirmData",American
EconomicReview,vol.forth.
Kohn, D., Leibovici, F. . and Szkup, , M. . (2012), , \Financial Frictions and New Exporter
Dynamics",Unpublishedmanuscript,NewYorkUniversity.
Lawless,M.andWhelan,K.(2014),\Wheredormsexport,howmuch,andwhy?",World
Economy,vol.forthcoming.
Love, I. . (2003),\FinancialDevelopment andFinancingConstraints: : InternationalEvidence
fromtheStructuralInvestmentModel",ReviewofFinancialStudies,vol.16 n
o
3: pp.135{
161.
Manova, K. . (2013), , \Credit t Constraints, , Heterogeneous s Firms and d International l Trade",
ReviewofEconomicStudies,vol.80:pp.711{744.
McQuoid, A. . and d Rubini, L. . (2014), , \The opportunity y cost t of exporting", , Unpublished
manuscript.
Melitz, M. . (2003), , \The Impact t of f Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations s and d Aggregate
IndustryProductivity",Econometrica,vol.71 n
o
6:pp.1695{1725.
Minetti,R.andZhu,S.(2011),\Creditconstraintsandrmexport:Microeconomicevidence
fromItaly",JournalofInternationalEconomics,vol.83 n
o
2: pp.109{125.
Nguyen, D. . and d Schaur, , G. . (2011), , \Cost t linkages transmit volatility across markets",
Unpublishedmanuscript.
Park, A., Yang, D., , Shi, , X. . and Jiang, Y. (2009), , \Exporting g and Firm Performance:
ChineseExportersandtheAsianFinancialCrisis",Nberworkingpapers,NationalBureau
ofEconomicResearch,Inc.
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
39
Convert pdf to jpg c# - Convert PDF to JPEG images in C#.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF project
How to convert PDF to JPEG using C#.NET PDF to JPEG conversion / converter library control SDK
convert pdf to jpg for; convert online pdf to jpg
Convert pdf to jpg c# - VB.NET PDF Convert to Jpeg SDK: Convert PDF to JPEG images in vb.net, ASP.NET MVC, WinForms, WPF project
Online Tutorial for PDF to JPEG (JPG) Conversion in VB.NET Image Application
change from pdf to jpg; convert pdf photo to jpg
Park, A., Yang, D., , Shi, , X. . and Jiang, Y. (2010), , \Exporting g and Firm Performance:
ChineseExportersandtheAsianFinancialCrisis",TheReviewofEconomicsandStatistics,
vol.92 n
o
4:pp.822{842.
Rajan, R. . G. and Zingales, L. (1998), , \Financial l Dependence and Growth", , American
EconomicReview,vol.88 n
o
3:pp.559{86.
Schiantarelli, F. . (1995), , \Financial l Constraints and d Investment: : A A Critical l Review of
MethodologicalIssuesandInternationalEvidence",inPeek,J.andRosengreen, E.(ed-
itors),IsBank Lending Important forthe Transmission n of MonetaryPolicy?,Boston,MA:
FederalReserveBankofBoston.
Soderbery,A.(2014),\Marketsize,Structure,andAccess:Capacityconstraintsandtrade",
EuropeanEconomicReview,vol.forthcoming.
Stock,J.H.andYogo,M.(2005),\TestingforWeakInstrumentsinLinearIVRegression",
inAndrews,D.W.andStock,J.H.(editors),IdenticationandInferenceforEconometric
Models: EssaysinHonorofThomasRothenberg,Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress.
Tybout, J. R. (2001),\Plant-andFirm-LevelEvidence on"New"Trade Theo-
ries",NBERWorkingPapers8418.
VanBiesebroeck, J.(2005),\Exportingraisesproductivityinsub-SaharanAfricanmanu-
facturingrms",JournalofInternationalEconomics,vol.67 n
o
2:pp.373{391.
Vannoorenberghe,G.(2012),\Firmvolatilityandexports",JournalofInternationalEco-
nomics,vol.86 n
o
1: pp.57{67.
Wagner, J. . (2007), , \Exports s and d Productivity: : ASurvey y of the Evidence fromFirm-level
Data",TheWorldEconomy,vol.30 n
o
1:pp.60{82.
Wooldridge, J. (2002), Econometric c analysisof cross s section and panel data, Cambridge,
MA:TheMITPress.
Zilberfarb,B.-Z.(1980),\DomesticDemandPressure,RelativePricesandtheExportsSup-
plyEquation-MoreEmpiricalEvidence",Economica,vol.47 n
o
188: pp.443{50.
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
40
Online Convert Jpeg to PDF file. Best free online export Jpg image
So, feel free to convert them too with our tool. All your JPG and PDF files will be permanently erased from If you want to turn PDF file into image file format
changing pdf to jpg on; convert pdf image to jpg image
C# Create PDF from images Library to convert Jpeg, png images to
Best and professional C# image to PDF converter SDK for Visual Studio .NET. Batch convert PDF documents from multiple image formats, including Jpg, Png, Bmp, Gif
change pdf file to jpg file; c# convert pdf to jpg
A
DataAppendix
Thesampleisanunbalancedpanelofyearlyrm-leveldataovertheperiod1995-2001.Indexes
i, j, k,pandtrepresent t therm,the destinationserved,the sector the rmbelongs to, , the
productexportedandthetimeunit(year),respectively. Weprovideacompletedescriptionof
themainvariablesbelow.
A.1 Maininterestvariables
Foreignand Domesticsales(X
it
andY
it
). TheBRNcontainsdirectinformationontotal
salesandexportsales. Domesticsales s arethereforecomputedasthedierencebetweentotal
andexportsales.
Inputs. CapitalstockandthenumberofemployeesarefromtheBRN.Firmspecicimports,
byproductanddestination,aretakenfromtheFrenchcustoms.
Unitcostofinputs. TheUnitLaborCostisdenedastheratioofthewagebilloftherm
(W
it
) andthevalue-addeddivided d by y thesector-levelde ator of value-added(V
it
=P
kt
). The
UnitCapitalCostisdenedasthesumofnancialcost(FC
it
)anddepreciationofassets(D
it
)
overtherealvalue-addedoftherm(V
it
=P
kt
). Tocomputethedepreciationofassets,weused
adepreciationrateof10%,whichisinlinewiththenumbersreportedinEUklemsdata.
Price-costmargins. Theconstructionoftheprice-costmarginvariablefollowsTybout(2001).
Itisconstructedastheratioofsales(p
it
q
it
)netofexpendituresonlaborandmaterials(c
it
q
it
)
oversales:PCM
it
=
p
it
q
it
c
it
q
it
p
it
q
it
TFP. TFPis estimated d by y OLS S sector-by-sector, thereforeallowing for r dierent t input t coef-
cients across sectors. . Capital l is s de atedusing a gross xedasset de ator fromthe OECD
economicoutlookdatabaseandvalueaddedusingasectoralde atorfromtheEU-Klemsdata.
IncreasingReturnstoScale(IRS)sectorsarethesectorsforwhichthesumofcapitalandlabor
coecientsissignicantlylargerthan1.
Firm-specicratios(liquidity). Fourrm-levelnancialratiosarebuiltusingbalance-sheet
informationfromtheBRNdatabase.
1. WorkingCapitalRequirementratio.Denedasworkingcapitalrequirementoverlong-term
resources. Theworkingcapitalrequirementistheminimumamount t ofresourcesthata
companyrequires toeectively covertheusualcosts andexpensesnecessary tooperate
thebusiness. Itiscomputedasthedierence e betweentheliquidassetsandthecurrent
liabilities.Long-termresourcesaredenedasthesumofequityandnon-currentliabilities.
Thelatterincludesmedium-andlong-termdebt,thatisstandardandconvertiblebonds,
aswellasnancialdebtswithaduedateafteroneyear.
2. Self-Financingratio. Denedasretainedprotsoverlong-termresources.Retainedprots
aredenedasthecash owminusdividendspaidtoshareholders.
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
4
1
Online Convert PDF to Jpeg images. Best free online PDF JPEG
to make it as easy as possible to convert your PDF Your PDF and JPG files will be deleted from our SDK (XDoc.PDF for .NET) supports converting PDF document to
changing file from pdf to jpg; best pdf to jpg converter for
C# Image Convert: How to Convert Adobe PDF to Jpeg, Png, Bmp, &
C# sample code for PDF to jpg image conversion. This demo code convert PDF file all pages to jpg images. // Define input and output files path.
to jpeg; convert pdf to jpg batch
3. Short-termdebt ratio. . Dened d as s current t liabilities s (less than n a year) ) over the sum m of
current and d non-current t liabilities. . Current t liabilities s include, among g others, accounts
payable,deferredincomeandtaxandSocialSecurityliabilities.
4. Long-termdebtratio. . Denedasnon-currentliabilities(morethanayear)overthesum
ofcurrentandnon-currentliabilities.
Services exports. . Weusearm-leveldatasetonexportofserviceswhichcovers s theperiod
1999-2007. We e use this datatoidentify rms exportingservices at least once. . Theservices
coveredin the dataset t fall l into the Mode Iclassication by y the GATS, , covering allservices
exchangedbetweenresidentsandnon-residentsacrosstheborders.Thedatacomeeitherdirectly
fromthecompanyitself,orfromcommercialbanks declarations. . It t records foreachrmthe
annualamountofitstransactions,thenatureoftheservicetradedandthepartnercountry.
Multinationals. WeidentifythermswhicharealiatedtoabusinessgrouportoaMNC
usingadataset calledLIFIcontaininginformationaboutnanciallinkagesofrmslocatedin
France andallows identifyingthoserms whicharealiatedtoa multinationalgroup. . This
datasetisconstructedbytheFrenchnationalstatisticalinstitute(INSEE).TheLIFIdatasetis
usedindierentpapers,andinparticularDefeverandToubal(2013). Thedatasetcoversthe
period1993-2007.
Sharesofintermediaries. Aswedonothavedirectinformationontheshareofintermediaries
bysector,wehaveproceededasfollowstoconstructsector-specicsharesofintermediaries. The
constructionoftheseindicatorscontainsthreesteps. First,weidentifyinthecustomstherms
whichareintermediaries,throughtheirmainsectorclassicationprovidedinthebalance-sheet
data.Second,wematchtheHS6productcodeswith3-digitNACEsectorclassication.Third,
foreachofthese3-digitsectors,wecomputetheshareofintermediaries,eitherintotalexport
valuesorinthetotalnumberofexporters. Wethereforeendupwithtwosector-specic,time-
varyingindicatorsrepresentingtheimportanceofintermediariesinthesectorgiventheproducts
exportedbythissector.
Others. IndustryDomesticSales
kt
andNumberofrms
kt
arecomputedasthesectoraldomestic
salesminustherm’sownsales,thatis: log(Y
kt
Y
it
),andasthenumberofrmsoperatingin
therm’sindustry.
A.2 Instrumentsandcontrolsfordomesticdemand
Foreignanddomestic demands addressed to the rms: : baseline e instruments. . Our
preferredinstrumentisthesumofforeignimportsintheproduct-destinationservedbytherm
inyeart,weightedbytheshareofeachproduct-destinationintherm’stotalexportoverthe
period.Aproductisdenedatthe6-digit(HS6)level.ImportdatacomesfromBACI(CEPII).
Denoting !
ijp
theaverage shareofeachproduct p anddestination j inrmi’s exports over
theperiod,andM
jp;t
theimports ofdestinationj j ofproductpduringyear r t,thisvariableis
computedas:
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
42
C# Image Convert: How to Convert Tiff Image to Jpeg, Png, Bmp, &
RasterEdge.XDoc.PDF.dll. C:\input.tif"; String outputFilePath = @"C:\output.jpg"; // Convert tiff to jpg. C# sample code for TIFF to jpg image conversion.
convert pdf file into jpg; convert pdf into jpg format
C# PDF Convert to Tiff SDK: Convert PDF to tiff images in C#.net
Supports for changing image size. Also supports convert PDF files to jpg, jpeg images. C# class source codes and online demos are provided for .NET.
convert pdf to jpg for online; convert multi page pdf to jpg
FD
it
=
X
j;p
!
ijp
M
jp;t
(6)
Themirrorofthisvariablefordomesticdemandis:
DD
it
=
X
p
!
ip
M
FR;p;t
(7)
whereM
FR;p;t
denotestheFrenchimportsofproductpduringyeart. Alternatively,weuse
similarinstrumentsandcontrolsfocusingontherm’scoreproduct,denedastheHS-4product
withthehighestaveragevalueofexportsovertheperiod. !
core
ij
istheweightofdestinationjin
rm’sicoreproductexports. Wecompute:
FD
core
it
=
X
j
!
core
ij
M
core
j;t
(8)
AndthemirrorofthisvariableisDD
core
it
,ietheFrenchimportsforeachrmicoreproduct
int.
Beginning of the period weights. . In n table 8, , we e compute instruments similar to those
denedbyequations(13)and(7)abovebutusebeginning-of-the-periodweights,i.e. !
ijp
and
!
ip
arecomputedtherstyearorthersttwoyearsthermexportsoverthe1995-2001period.
Sectorandlocation-sectorspecicweights.IntheestimationsreportedinTable9columns
1to4,ourinstrumentsusesector-specicweights(columns1and2)orlocation-sectorspecic
weights(columns3and4). Thesealternativeweightsareexpectedtoaddresstheissueofrm
selectioninforeignmarkets.
First,informationabouttheexportstructureoftherms’mainsectorofactivity(3-digits)
isusedtocomputeweightsre ectingtheshareoftheHS6productandcountryofdestinationin
sectork’stotalexportsinFrance. Alternatively,weconstructsector-specicweightsusingthe
frequencyoftheproduct-destinationcellinsectorkexports;i.e.thenumberofrm-levelexport
owscorrespondingtoaproductandadestinationoverthetotalnumberofrm-levelexport
owsofthesector. Thesectorweightsarethenusedtocomputethealternativeinstrumentfor
rms’exports:
FD
kt
=
X
j;p
!
kjp
M
jp;t
(9)
Firm-level informationis s only used d to allocaterms s indierent sectors, , but t the weights
usedtocomputetheinstrumentscannotbeaectedbyrmselectioninforeignmarkets. Table
9mentions exactlywhentheweightsusedtoconstructtheinstrumentre ecttheshareofthe
product-destinationinthesector’stotalexports,orthefrequencyofthat product-destination
cellinsectork’sexports.
InTable9,columns (3)and(4),wealsouseinformationaboutthelocationofthermin
France,wherethelocationisidentiedforeachrmbyits\departement"oflocation. French
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
43
C# TIFF: C#.NET Code to Convert JPEG Images to TIFF
Use C# Code to Convert Jpeg to Tiff. Firstly, you may use following C# sample code to transform string[] imagePaths = { @"C:\demo1.jpg", @"C:\demo2.jpg", @"C
.pdf to .jpg online; c# pdf to jpg
VB.NET PDF Convert to Images SDK: Convert PDF to png, gif images
Resize converted image files in VB.NET. Convert PDF to Jpg, Png, Bmp, Gif, Tiff and Bitmap in ASP.NET. Embed PDF to image converter in viewer.
convert pdf pictures to jpg; convert pdf to high quality jpg
departementsareadministrativeareas,whicharesubsetsoftheFrench\regions". Denotingby
lthe\departement"oflocation,ourinstrumentbecomes:
FD
kl;t
=
X
j;p
!
kljp
M
jp;t
(10)
Firm-specic taris. . We e use informationontaritoconstruct alternative instrumentsfor
exportsales.Firm-specictarisarecomputedas:
t
X
it
=
X
j;p
!
ijp
t
jp;t
(11)
wheret
jp;t
representstheMFNtariof destinationjinproduct p. . Thedatacomes s from
theITC.Similarresultsareobtainedwithboundtaris.
Exposure to civil wars. . Weconstructtwovariablesre ectingtheexposureofagivenrm
itoacivilwar incountry j. . The e rst isa dummyvariable thatequals1 ifat least one the
destinationstowhichthermexportedint 1experiencesacivilwarinyeart. . Thesecond
equalsthesumofthenumberofcivilwarsthedestinationservedbytherm,weightedbythe
shareofexportsinthesedestinationsint 1:
War
X
it
=
X
j
X
ij;t 1
X
i;t 1
CW
j;t
(12)
whereCW
j;t
isadummythatequals1ifthedestinationjexperiencedacivilwarint.The
dataoncivilwarscomesfromtheCorrelatesofWar(CoW).
Transport costs. . We e adapt the methodology ofHummels et al. (2013)to our data. . More
precisely,wehavecomputedforeachrmatime-varyingmeasureoftransportationcostsusing
informationonoilprices,distancetothedestinationsservedbytherm,weight-valueratiosof
its shipments,andtransportationmode. . Contrary y toHummels etal.(2013),we donothave
direct informationon n the transport t mode,so weuse aproxyfromCristea et al. (2013)who
provideestimatesoftheshareoftradeusingeachtransportationmode(air,rail,road,sea)by
sectorandcountry-pairs.Usingthisdata,weassociateeachproductanddestinationtoamain
transport mode,denedasthemodewiththehighestshareintheCristeaet al.(2013)data.
WethenfollowthemethodologyproposedbyHummelsetal.(2013),whoconstructshipment-
specictransportationcostsusingdataonoilprices,distanceandbeginning-of-periodweight
tovalueratio.Moreprecisely,wecomputetransportcostsas:
ijpt
=
jp
0
+
jp
1
Q
jp0
X
jp0
+
jp
2
ln(oil
t
)+
jp
3
ln(Dist
j
)+
jp
4
ln(Dist
j
)ln(oil
t
)
where
Q
ijp0
X
ijp0
is the weight-to-value e ratio of exports s of f product t p to destination j j at t the
beginningoftheperiod,oil
t
istheoilpriceinyeartandDist
j
isthedistancetothedestination
country(fromCEPII).Thecoecients
jp
i
,i=0;:::;4areproduct-destination-transportmode
specic,andtakenfromHummelset al. (2013)
45
. FollowingHummels s et al. (2013),we then
45
Seetheironlineappendix,section2,formoredetails.
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
44
aggregatethetransportcostsbyrm-yearusingbeginning-of-the-periodweights:
it
=
X
jp
!
ijp
ijpt
(13)
where!
ijp
istheshareofeachproductpanddestinationjinrmi’sexportsatthebeginning
oftheperiod.
Instrumentsforimports. Wecreateinstrumentsforrm-levelimportsusingasimilarvariable
asforexports. Firms’importsareinstrumentedusingtheforeignsuppliedaddressedtotherm,
FS
it
. More e precisely, we compute thesumofthe foreignexports inthe product-destination
fromwhichthermimportsgoodsduringyeart,X
jpt
,weightedbytheshareofeachproduct-
destinationintherm’stotalimportsovertheperiod
ijp
. Aproductisdenedatthe6-digit
(HS6)level,
ijp
.ExportdatacomesfromBACI(CEPII).Thisvariableiscomputedas:
FS
it
=
X
j;p
ijp
X
jp;t
(14)
Exposuretothe1997-1998Asiancrisis.Weconstructavariablesimilartotheoneproposed
forcivilwars:
Crisis
X
it
=
X
j
exp
it
Crisis
j;t
(15)
whereCrisis
j;t
isadummyvariablethatequals1after1997fortheveAsiancountriesthat
werehitthemostbytheAsiancrisis(Thailand,Korea,Philippines,Indonesia,Malaysia)and
exp
it
isadummyvariablethatequals1ifthermexportedtooneofthesecountriesin1995or
1996.
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
45
B
Instruments: rststages
Table15: Baselineresults: rststage
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Dep. Var.
lnexportsales
lnexportsales
Instrument
FD
it
FDcore
it
FD
it
lnInstrument
it
0.398a
0.404a
0.379a
0.515a
0.283a
(0.039) (0.038) (0.037) (0.044) ) (0.034)
lnInstrument
it
0.216a
0.146a
(0.032) (0.034)
lnDomesticdemand
it
0.091a
0.103a
0.112a
0.127a
(0.029)
(0.030) (0.029) ) (0.031)
lnDomesticdemand
it
0.097b
0.089c
(0.040) (0.054)
lnNumberofrms
kt
0.364c
(0.186)
lnIndustrydomesticsales
kt
0.139a
(0.046)
Observations
143515 143515
143515
143515
143515
107113
101414
FirmFE
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yeardummies
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Sectoryeardummies
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
RobustStandard errors,clusteredbyindustry,inparentheses.
c
signicantat10%;
b
signicantat5%;
a
signicantat1%. 2SLSestimations.
Thistable contains s the rststage estimates of Table 4. . The e instruments are the e following. . In n columns(1), (2), (3), (4), (6), (7): : foreign
demand inHS6productsexported bythe rm(FD
it
inthemaintext)-instrumenttaken inrstdierence incolumns(6)and (7);incolumn
(4): foreign n demandforthecore (HS4)productexported bythe rm(FD
core
it
inthe maintext).
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
46
Table16:Additionalrststageestimations
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
Dep. Var.
lnexportsales
Instruments
lnFD
it
0.359a
(0.040)
WarX
it
-0.093b
(0.041)
lnt
X
it
-0.009
b
(0.004)
lnt
X
i;t 1
-0.001
(0.003)
ln
it
-0.076b
(0.035)
Asiancrisis
97 01
*Exposed
i
-0.040a
(0.014)
lnFD0
it
0.110a
(0.021)
lnFD
0;1
it
0.150
a
(0.030)
lnFD
kt
0.266
a
(0.054)
lnFD
f
k;t
0.602a
(0.145)
lnFD
kl;t
0.027
a
(0.008)
Observations
114514
85163
89743
143515 109971
80899
138469 138469 9 137715
RobustStandard errors,clusteredbyindustry,inparentheses.
c
signicantat10%;
b
signicantat5%;
a
signicantat1%. 2SLSestimations.
Thistable containsthe rst t stage e estimates of the following regressions. . Columns s (a) and d (b): : Table e 5, , columns(2) and d (4); ; columns (c):
Table6,column(2);column (d): : Table12,column(6);column(e)and(f): Table8,columns(2)and(5);columns(g)to(i): Table9,columns
(1),(2)and (4). . All l estimationsinclude e rm xed eectsandsectoryeardummiesand domestic demand. . See e the dataappendixformore
detailsonthecomputation each oftheinstruments.
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
47
C
Additionaltables
Table17: Baselineresults,excludingimportsfromFrancefromthecomputationoftheinstru-
ment
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Estimator
2SLS
2SLS
Dep. Var.
lndom. sales
lndom. sales
lnExportsales
it
0.143a
0.229a
0.149a
0.015
(0.032) (0.031) (0.029) (0.023)
lnNumberofrms
kt
0.285a
(0.083)
lnIndustrydomesticsales
kt
0.113b
(0.047)
lnDomesticdemand
it
0.107a
0.116a
0.121a
(0.022)
(0.018) (0.018)
lnExportsales
it
exportratio
i0
0.616a
(0.144)
lnExportsales
it
0.269a
0.420a
(0.066) (0.121)
lnDomesticdemand
it
0.080a
0.064a
(0.016) (0.021)
Observations
143492
143492
143492
143492
107101 101404
FirmFE
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yeardummies
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Sectoryeardummies
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Kleibergen-Paapstat.
68.95
72.00
65.82
34.27
25.61
8.75
RobustStandard errors, , clustered d by industry,in parentheses.
c
signicantat 10%;
b
signicantat5%;
a
signicant at1%. All estimations
but (6) (rstdierences)include e rm xed eects. . The e critical l value e for r the e weak instruments testisbased on a10% 2SLS biasat t the e 5%
signicance level,which is16.4isallestimations. . The e instrumentisthe foreign demand in HS6products exportedbythe rm(FD
it
in the
main text)- instrumentstaken inrstdierence incolumns(5)and(6)- from which we have excluded the importfromFrance.
E
C
B
W
o
rki
n
g
Pap
e
r
1
720
,
Au
g
u
st
20
1
4
48
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested