Figure3.1:Work owineSim.(Boxeswithdottedlinesdenotethemodulesdeveloped
inthiswork).
design,therearenoctitious componentssuchasvoltageorcurrentsources. . Thus,a
new libraryfor dierent types ofvoltage andcurrent sources suchas sine, pulse and
squarewave,hasbeenaddedineSim.Alibrarywhichgivesthefunctionalityofprinting
andplottinghasalsobeencreated.
Theschematiceditorprovidesanetlistle,whichdescribestheelectricalconnections
ofthedesign.InordertocreateaPCBlayout,physicalcomponentsarerequiredtobe
mappedintotheirfootprints. Toperformcomponent t tofootprintmapping,CvPcbis
used. Footprintshavebeencreatedforthecomponentsinthenewlycreatedlibraries.
PcbnewisusedtodrawaPCBlayout.
Afterdesigningacircuit,itisessentialtochecktheintegrityofthecircuitdesign.
Inthecaseoflargeelectroniccircuits,breadboardtestingisimpractical.Insuchcases,
electronicsystemdesignersrelyheavilyonsimulation. Theaccuracyofthesimulation
results canbeincreasedbyaccuratemodelingofthecircuit elements. . ModelBuilder
providesthefacilitytodeneanewmodelfordevicesandeditexistingmodels.Complex
circuitelementscanbecreatedby hierarchicalmodeling. . SubcircuitBuilder r provides
aneasywaytocreateasubcircuit.
ThenetlistgeneratedbySchematicEditorcannotbedirectlyusedforsimulationdue
tocompatibilityissues. NetlistConverterconvertsitintoNgspicecompatibleformat.
The typeofsimulation to be performedand thecorrespondingoptions areprovided
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throughagraphicaluserinterface(GUI).ThisiscalledKiCadtoNgspiceConverterin
eSim.
eSimuses Ngspice for analog,digital,mixed-level/mixed-signalcircuitsimulation.
Ngspiceisbasedonthreeopensourcesoftwarepackages[14]:
 Spice3f5(analogcircuitsimulator)
 Cider1b1(couplesSpice3f5circuitsimulatortoDSIMdevicesimulator)
 Xspice(codemodelingsupportandsimulationofdigitalcomponentsthroughan
eventdrivenalgorithm)
ItisapartofgEDAproject.NgspiceiscapableofsimulatingdeviceswithBSIM,EKV,
HICUM, HiSim,PSP,andPTMmodels.Itiswidelyusedduetoitsaccuracyevenfor
thelatesttechnologydevices.
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Chapter4
GettingStarted
InthischapterwewillgetstartedwitheSim. Wewillrunthroughthevariousoptions
availablewithanexamplecircuit. Referringtothischapterwillmakeonefamiliarwith
eSimandwillhelpplantheprojectbeforeactuallydesigningacircuit.Letsgetstarted.
4.1 eSimMainWindow
4.1.1 HowtolauncheSiminUbuntu?
Afterinstallationiscompleted,tolauncheSim1.Gototerminal.
2. Typeesimandhitenter.
TherstwindowthatappearsisworkspacedialogasshowninFig.4.1.
Figure4.1:eSim-Workspace
The default t workspace e is s eSim-Workspace e under home directory. . To o create new
workspaceusebrowseoption.
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4.1.2 Main-GUI
ThemainGUIwindowofeSimisasshowninFig.4.2TheeSimmainwindowconsists
Figure4.2: eSimMainGUI
ofthefollowingsymbols.
1. Toolbar
2. Menubar
3. Projectexplorer
4. Dockarea
5. Consolearea
Toolbar
 OpenSchematic: Thersttoolonthetoolbari.e. SchematicEditor.Clickingon
thisbuttonwillopenEeschema,theKiCadschematiceditor.
 Convert t KiCad to Ngspice: : This s converter r converts KiCad spice e netlist t into
Ngspicecompatiblenetlist. TheKiCadtoNgspicewindowconsists s oftotalve
tabs as s namely y Analysis, Device Model, Source Details, Model l Library, , Subcir-
cuits.Oncethevalueshavebeenentered,presstheConvertkey.Itwillgenerate
.cir.outleinthesameprojectdirectory.
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Figure4.3: Toolbar
Note thatKiCad to Ngspice Converter r canonly y be usedif current projecthas
createdtheKiCadspicenetlistle.cir.
ThedetailsoftabsunderKiCadtoNgspiceconverterareasfollows:
Analysis
ThisfeaturehelpstheusertoperformdierenttypesofanalysissuchasOperating
pointanalysis,DCanalysis,ACanalysis,transientanalysis. Ithasthefacilityto
{ InserttypeofanalysissuchasACorDCorTransient
{ Insertvaluesforanalysis
Source Details
eSimsourcesare addedfromeSim
Sources library. . Sourcesuchas s SINE,AC,
DC,PULSEareinthislibrary.Theparametervaluestoallthesourcesaddedin
theshcematiccanbegiventhrough’SourceDetails’.
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NgspiceModel
Ngspicehasinbuiltmodelsuchas ip op(D,SR,JK,T),gain,summer etc. . which
canbeutilisedwhilebuildingacircuit. eSimallowstoaddandmodifyNgspice
modelparameterthroughNgspiceModeltab.
DeviceModeling
DeviceslikeDiode,JFET,MOSFET,IGBT,MOS etcusedinthecircuitcanbe
modeledusingdevicemodellibraries.eSimalsoprovideseditingandaddingnew
modellibraries. WhileconvertingKiCadtoNgspice,theselibrarylesareadded
tothecorrespondingdevicesusedinthecircuit.
Subcircuits
Subcircuits arecircuits withincircuit. . Subcircuitinghelpstoreusethepartsof
the circuits. . Thesubcircuits s in n the maincircuits s areadded d usingthis s facility.
Also,eSimprovidesuswiththefacilitytoeditalreadyexistingsubcircuits.
 Simulation: : Thenetlist t generatedusingtheKiCadtoNgspice converteris sim-
ulatedusingsimulationbutton. ClickingontheSimulation n buttonwillrunthe
Ngspice simulation for r current t project. . Python n plotting g window w will open, as
shown in n Fig. 4.4. . It t shows the e output t waveform m of current t project. . In n the
NgspicetabwecanviewtheoutputplottedbyNgspice.
 Foot t Print Editor: : Clicking g on the e Footprint Editor r tool l willopenthe e CvPcb
window. This s windowwillideallyopenthe.net lefor thecurrent project. . So,
beforeusingthistool,oneshouldhavethenetlistforPCBdesign(a.netle).
 PCBLayout: : ClickingontheLayout t Editor r toolwillopen n Pcbnew,the layout
editor usedin n eSim. . In n this s window, , one willcreatethe PCB. It t involves lay-
ingtracksandvias,performingoptimumroutingoftracks,creatingoneormore
copperlayersforPCB,etc. Itwillbesavedasa.brdleinthecurrentproject
directory.
 ModelEditor: : eSimalso o gives anoptiontore-congure themodellibrary ofa
device. It t facilitates theuser tochangemodellibrary ofdevices suchas diode,
transistor,MOSFET,etc.
 Subcircuit: : eSimhasanoptiontobuildsubcircuits. Thesubcircuits s canagain
havecomponentshavingsubcircuitsandsoon. Thisenablesuserstobuildcom-
monlyusedcircuitsassubcircuitsandthenuseitacrosscircuits.Forexample,one
13
Figure4.4: SimulationOutputinPythonPlottingWindow
canbuilda12Voltpowersupplyasasubcircuitandthenuseitasjustasingle
component across circuits withouthavingtorecreateit. . Clicking g on Subcircuit
Builder toolwillallowonetoeditorcreateasubcircuit.
Menubar
{ NewProject: : Newprojects s arecreatedintheeSim-workspace. . Whenthis
menuis selected,anew windowopensupwithEnter r Project nameeld.
TypethenameofthenewprojectandclickonOK.Aprojectdirectorywill
be createdin eSim-Workspace. . The e name of this folder r will be e the same
as thatof the projectcreated. . Makesureprojectnamedoes s nothaveany
spaces.
{ Open Project: : This s opens the le e dialog of f defalut workspace e where the
projectsarestored. Theprojectcanbeselectedwhichisthenaddedinthe
projectexplorer.
{ Exit: Thisbuttonclosestheprojectwindowandexits.
{ Help:Itopensusermanualinthedockarea.
14
ProjectExplorer
Projectexplorerhastreeofalltheprojectpreviouslyaddedinit. Onrightclicking
theprojectwecansimplyremoveorrefreshtheprojectintheexplorer. Alsoon
double/rightclicking,theprojectlecanbeopenedinthetexteditorwhichcan
thenbeedited.
Dockarea
Thisareaisusedtoopenthefollowingwindows.
1. KiCadtoNgspiceconverter
2. Ngspiceplotting
3. Pythonplotting
4. Modelbuilder
5. Subcircuitbuilder
Console Area
Consoleareaprovidesinformationabouttheactivitydoneincurrentproject.
15
Chapter5
SchematicCreation
The rststepin the designof anelectronic systemisthe design ofits circuit. . This
circuitisusuallycreatedusingaSchematic Editorandis s calledaSchematic. . eSim
uses Eeschema as s its s schematic editor. . Eeschema a is s the e schematic editor r of f KiCad.
It isapowerfulschematiceditorsoftware. . It t allows thecreationandmodicationof
components andsymbollibrariesandsupports multiple hierarchicallayers of printed
circuitdesign.
5.1 FamiliarizingtheSchematicEditorinterface
Fig.5.1showstheschematiceditorandthevariousmenuandtoolbars.Wewillexplain
thembrie yinthissection.
5.1.1 Topmenubar
Thetopmenubarwillbeavailableatthetopleftcorner.Someoftheimportantmenu
optionsinthetopmenubarare:
1. File-Thelemenuitemsaregivenbelow:
(a) New-Clearcurrentschematicandstartanewone
(b) Open-Openaschematic
(c) OpenRecent-Alistofrecentlyopenedlesforloading
(d) SaveWholeSchematicproject-Savecurrentsheetandallitshierarchy.
(e) SaveCurrentSheetOnly-Savecurrentsheet,butnotothersinahierarchy.
(f) SaveCurrentsheetas-Savecurrentsheetwithanewname.
(g) Print-Accesstoprintmenu(SeeFig.5.2).
(h) Plot-PlottheschematicinPostscript,HPGL,SVForDXFformat
(i) Quit-Quittheschematiceditor.
2. Place-Theplacemenuhasshortcutsforplacingvariousitemslikecomponents,
wire andjunction, onto the schematiceditor window. . SeeSec. . 5.1.5 toknow
Figure5.1:Schematiceditorwiththemenubarandtoolbarsmarked
Figure5.2:Printoptions
moreaboutvariousshortcutkeys(hotkeys).
3. Preferences-Thepreferencesmenuhasthefollowingoptions:
(a) Library-Selectlibrariesandlibrarypaths
(b) Colors-Selectcolorsforvariousitems.
(c) Options-Displayschematiceditoroptions(Units,Gridsize).
(d) Language-Showsthecurrentlistoftranslations. Usedefault.
(e) Hotkeys-Accesstothehotkeysmenu. SeeSec.5.1.5abouthotkeys.
(f) Readpreferences-Readcongurationle.
17
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