Figure6.1:FinalcircuitschematicforRClowpasscircuit
Figure6.2:NetlistgenerationforPCB
6.1.2 MappingofcomponentsusingFootprintEditor
OncethenetlistforPCBiscreated,oneneedstomapeachcomponentinthenetlistto
afootprint.ThetoolFootprintEditor isusedforthis.eSimusesCvPcbasitsfootprint
editor. CvPcbisthefootprinteditortoolinKiCad.
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Figure6.3:Footprinteditorwiththemenubar,toolbar,leftpaneandrightpanemarked
6.1.3 FamiliarisingtheFootprintEditortool
If one opens s the e Footprint t Editor r after r creating g the e .net t netlist t le, , the Footprint
editorasshowninFig.6.3willbeobtained. Themenubarandtoolbarsandthepanes
aremarkedinthisgure. Themenubarwillbeavailableinthetopleftcorner. . The
left pane has a list ofcomponents inthe netlist le andtheright pane has a list of
available footprints for eachcomponent. . Note e that t if f the e Footprint Editorisopened
beforecreatinga‘.net’le,thentheleftandrightpaneswillbeempty.
Toolbar
SomeoftheimportanttoolsinthetoolbarareshowninFig.6.4. Theyareexplained
below:
1. Savenetlistandfootprintles-Savethenetlistandthefootprintsthatareasso-
ciatedwithit.
2. Viewselectedfootprint-Viewtheselectedfootprintin2D.SeeSec.6.1.4formore
details.
3. Automaticfootprintassociation-Performfootprintassociationfor r eachcompo-
nentautomatically.Footprintswillbeselectedfromthelistoffootprintsavailable.
4. Deleteallassociations-Deleteallthefootprintassociationsmade
5. Displaylteredfootprintlist-Displayalteredlistoffootprintssuitabletothe
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Figure6.4: Someimportanttoolsinthetoolbar
selectedcomponent
6. Display y full l footprint list -Display the list of all footprints available (without
ltering)
6.1.4 Viewingfootprintsin2Dand3D
To view w a a footprint in 2D,select it from the e right pane e andclick on View w selected
footprint fromthemenubar. . Let t usview thefootprint forSM1210. . ChooseSM1210
fromtherightpaneasshowninFig.6.5. OnclickingtheViewselectedfootprint t tool,
theFootprintwindowwiththeviewin2Dwillbedisplayed. Clickonthe3Dtoolin
theFootprintwindow,as showninFig.6.6. . Atopviewof f theselectedfootprintin
3Disobtained. Clickonthefootprintandrotateitusingmousetoget3Dviewsfrom
variousangles. Onesuchsideviewofthefootprintin3DisshowninFig.6.7.
6.1.5 MappingofcomponentsintheRCcircuit
ClickonC1fromtheleftpane.ChoosethefootprintC1 fromtherightpanebydouble
clickingonit. Click k onconnectorP1fromthe leftpane. . ChoosethefootprintSIL-2
fromtherightpanebydoubleclickingonit. SimilarlychoosethefootprintR3 forthe
resistorR1. ThefootprintmappingisshowninFig.6.8.Savethefootprintassociation
by clicking g onthe Save e netlist and footprint les s tool l from the CvPcb b toolbar. . The
Save Net t and d component List t window appears. . Browsetothedirectorywherethe
schematic lefor this project is savedandclick onSave. . Thenetlist t gets savedand
theFootprintEditorwindowclosesautomatically. Notethatoneneedstobrowsetothe
directorywheretheschematicleissavedandsavethe‘.net’leinthesamedirectory.
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Figure6.5: Viewingfootprint t for SM1210: : 1. . ChoosethefootprintSM1210fromthe
rightpane,2.ClickonViewselectedfootprint
Figure6.6: Footprintviewin2D.Clickon3D toget3Dview
6.2 CreationofPCBlayout
Thenextstepistoplacethefootprintsandlaytracksbetweenthemtogetthelayout.
ThisisdoneusingtheLayout Editor r tool. . eSimusesPcbnew,thelayoutcreationtool
inKiCad,asitslayouteditor.
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Figure6.7: Sideviewofthefootprintin3D
Figure6.8: Footprintmappingdone
6.2.1 FamiliarizingtheLayoutEditortool
ThelayouteditorwiththevariousmenubarandtoolbarsisshowninFig.6.9.
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Figure6.9: Layouteditorwithmenubar,toolbarsandlayeroptionsmarked
Figure6.10: Toptoolbarwithimportanttoolsmarked
Toptoolbar
SomeoftheimportantmenuoptionsinthetopmenubarareshowninFig.6.10. They
areexplainedbelow:
1. Saveboard-Savetheprintedcircuitboard
2. Moduleeditor-Openmoduleeditortoeditfootprintmodulesorlibraries
3. Readnetlist-Importthenetlistwhoselayoutneedstobecreated.
33
4. Performdesignrulescheck-Checkfordesignrules,unconnectednets,etc.,inthe
layout.
5. Selectworkinglayer-Selectionofworkinglayer
6. Showactivelayerselectionsandselectlayerpairforrouteandplace-Selectlayer
intopandbottomlayers.Italsoshowsthecurrentlyactivelayerselections.
7. Modefootprint:Manual/automaticmoveandplace-Moveandplacemodules
6.2.2 Hotkeys
Alistofhotkeysaregivenbelow:
1. F1-Zoomin
2. F2-Zoomout
3. Delete-DeleteTrackorFootprint
4. X-Addnewtrack
5. V-AddVia
6. M-MoveItem
7. F-FlipFootprint
8. R-RotateItem
9. G-DragFootprint
10. Ctrl+Z-Undo
11. E-EditItem
The list canbeviewedbyselectingPreferences s fromthetopmenubarandchoosing
ListCurrentKeysfromtheoptionHotkeys.
6.2.3 PCBdesignexampleusingRCcircuit
ClickonLayoutEditorfromtheeSimtoolbar. ClickonReadNetlist t toolfromthetop
toolbar. ClickonBrowseNetlistles s ontheNetlistwindowthatopensup. Selectthe
.netlethatwasmodiedafterassigningfootprints.ClickonOpen. NowClickonRead
Current Netlist t onthe e Netlist window. . The e messageareainthe Netlist windowsays
thattheRC
pcb.nethasbeenread. ThesequenceofoperationsisshowninFig.6.11.
Thefootprintmoduleswillnowbeimportedtothetoplefthandcorner ofthelayout
editorwindow.ThisisshowninFig.6.12.Zoomintothetopleftcornerbypressingthe
keyF1orusingthescrollbuttonofthemouse. Thezoomedinversionoftheimported
netlistisshowninFig.6.13.
Let us now place this inthe center ofthe layout editor window. . Click k on n Mode
footprint: Manual/automatic c move and place e tool l from the e top toolbar. . Place e the
cursornearthecenterofthelayouteditorwindow. RightclickandchooseGlobmove
andplace. Choosemoveallmodules.ThesequenceofoperationsisshowninFig.6.14.
ClickonYesontheconrmationwindowtomovethemodules. ZoominusingtheF1
key.ThecurrentplacementofcomponentsafterzoominginisshowninFig.6.15a.We
needtoarrangethemodulesproperlytolaytracks.RotatetheconnectorP1byplacing
34
Figure6.11: Importingnetlistletolayouteditor: 1. . BrowsenetlistFiles,2. Choose
theRC
pcb.netle,3.ReadNetlistle,4.Close
Figure6.12:Footprintmodulesimportedtotopleftcorneroflayouteditorwindow
thecursorontopofP1andpressingR.Moveitbyplacingthecursorontopofitand
pressingM.ThenalplacementisshowninFig.6.15b.
Letusnowlaythetracks. Letusrstchangethetrackwidth. ClickonDesignrules
fromthetopmenubar.ClickonDesignrules. ThisisshowninFig.6.16. TheDesign
RulesEditorwindowopensup.Hereonecaneditthevariousdesignrules.Doubleclick
onthetrackwidtheldtoeditit. Type0.8andpressEnter. ClickonOK.Fig.6.17
35
Figure6.13:Zoomedinversionoftheimportednetlist
Figure 6.14: : Movingandplacingmodules s to thecenter oflayouteditor. . 1. Clickon
Modefootprint: Manual/automaticmoveandplace,2. . Placecursoratcenteroflayout
editorandrightclickonit3. ChooseGlobMoveandPlace e andthenchooseMoveAll
Modules.
showsthesequenceofoperations.
Click onBack k from the e Layer options as showninFig.6.18. . Let t us now start
layingthetracks. PlacethecursorabovetheleftterminalofR1inthelayouteditor
window. Pressthekeyx. . Movethecursordownanddoubleclickontheleftterminal
ofC1. Atrackisformed. ThisisshowninFig.6.19a. Similarlylaythetrackbetween
36
(a)Zoomedinversionofthecurrentplace-
mentaftermovingmodulestothecenterof
thelayouteditor
(b) Finalplacement offootprints after ro-
tatingandmovingP1
Figure6.15:DierentstagesofplacementofmodulesonPCB
Figure6.16: ChooseDesignRulesfromthetopmenubarandDesignRulesagain
capacitorC1andconnectorP1asshowninFig.6.19b. Thelasttrackneedstobelaid
at anangle. . Todo o so,place the cursor above the secondterminalofR1. . Press s the
keyxandmovethecursordiagonallydown. Doubleclickontheotherterminalofthe
connector. ThetrackwillbelaidasshowninFig.6.19c. Alltracksarenowlaid. The
nextstepistocreatePCBedges.
ChoosePCB
edgesfromtheLayeroptionstoaddedges.ClickonAddgraphicline
or polygon fromthe toolbar r ontheleft. . Fig.6.20shows s thesequence ofoperations.
37
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