SHELL:HOWTOUSETHEIEEETRANLAT
E
XCLASS
11
TABLE II
AS
IMPLE
E
XAMPLE
T
ABLE
First
Next
1.0
2.0
designedtobemorecustomizablethantheformer)maybeof
helpinproducingalgorithm-likestructures(althoughauthors
areofcoursefreetousewhateverL
A
T
E
Xcommandstheyare
most comfortable withinthis regard). . However, donotuse
thefloatingalgorithmenvironment ofalgorithm.sty(alsoby
WilliamsandBrito)oralgorithm2e.sty(byChristopheFiorio)
astheonlyfloatingstructuresIEEEusesarefiguresandtables.
Furthermore,IEEEtranwillnotbeincontrolofthe(non-IEEE)
captionstyleproducedbythealgorithm.styoralgorithm2e.sty
floatenvironments.
C. Tables
Tables are handled in n a a similar fashion, , but with h a a few
notabledifferences.Forexample,thecode
\begin{table}[!t]
\renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.3}
\caption{A Simple e Example Table}
\label{table_example}
\centering
\begin{tabular}{c||c}
\hline
\bfseries First t & & \bfseries Next\\
\hline\hline
1.0 & 2.0\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
resultsinTable II.Note thatthe IEEE placestable captions
beforethe tablesand, giventhattheyservemuchliketitles,
areusuallycapitalizedexceptforwordssuchasa,an,and,as,
at, but, by, for, in,nor,of, on, or, the, toandup, whichare
usuallynotcapitalizedunlesstheyarethefirstorlastwordof
thecaption.
Beawarethat, topreventachangeofmeaningthatwould
resultfromcasechanges,theIEEEgenerallyusesthestandard
textfont,notthesmallcapsfont,whenrenderingunitsaswell
aslettersinmathintablecaptions.Thiscanbeachievedvia
theuseof
\upshape
:
\caption{Diagnosis of f Rotor Faults in a a DRFOC C Drive U
sing the e VCT(Flux Loop Bandwidth (FLB) = 10 {\upshap
e Hz}; 75% % Load; ; 1450 {\upshape e r/min})}
Thanks to o Zhaowen n Hou for providing information on this
topicaswellastheaboveexample.
Withinthetableenvironment,thedefaulttextsizeisfoot-
notesizewhichiswhatIEEEtypicallyusesfortables.When
usingthetabularenvironmenttoconstructtables,itisusually
agoodideatoincreasethevalueof
\arraystretch
above
unity to“openup” the table rows s a tad. . Also, IEEE often
uses tables with “open sides,” ” (without vertical lines s along
eachside)althoughthe“closed side”form m (e.g., Table I)is
morecommonlyusedforthetableswithinthisdocument.
Unfortunately, the standard LAT
E
X2
"
tabular environment
hasanumberofshortcomings.Twonotableproblemsare(1)
TABLE III
T
HE
S
KEWING
A
NGLES
()
FOR
Mu(H)+X
2
AND
Mu(H)+HX
a
H(Mu)+F
2
H(Mu)+Cl
2
(H)
80:9b
83:2
(Mu)
86:7
87:7
a
for the abstraction n reaction, , Mu u +HX X !
MuH+X.
b
1degree==180radians.
thecornerswherelinesmeetareimproperlyformed;and(2)it
isnotveryflexibleintermsofusercontrol.Forthesereasons,
authors are urged d to look into some of the other packages
formakingtables.Agoodonethatprovidesrevised“drop-in
replacements”forboththetabularandarrayenvironmentsis
Frank Mittelbach’s s andDavidCarlisle’s arraypackage[28].
Even more powerful(andcomplex)isthetabular andarray
environments providedbythemdwtab.stypackage which h is
partofMarkWooding’sMDWTools[17].
As an n alternative, , IEEEtran n offers s the e IEEEeqnarraybox
commandwhichcanalsobeusedtoproducetables
9
ofhigh
quality.SeeAppendixFformoredetails.
1) FootnotesWithinTables: Footnotesnormallycannotbe
placeddirectlywithinsomecommandsandenvironmentssuch
as
\parbox
,
tabular
, etc.,because theybecome“trapped”
inside.Onewayaroundthisistosplittheplacethefootnote
marker(
\footnotemark
)islocated(withinthetable)from
wherethefootnotetextitselfisdeclared(outsideofthetable
using
\footnotetext
).
Anotherapproachistousethefootnote.stypackage(which
is partofMarkWooding’sMDW W Tools s [17])whichallows
environmentstobeconfiguredsoasnottotrapfootnotes:
\usepackage{footnote}
\makesavenoteenv{tabular}
Note thatisprobablynota goodideatousefootnotesin
floatingstructures (like
table
)becausethepositionofeach
canmoverelativetooneanother. Toputthefootnote atthe
end of f a table e instead d of f at the bottom m of f the page, just
enclose
tabular
,etc.,insideaminipage(nofootnotepackage
needed).Averygoodapproachforhandlingfootnoteswithin
tables(includingthosethatfloat)istouseDonaldArseneau’s
threeparttablepackage[29]whichwasusedtogenerateTable
III(thecodeofwhichisanexampleinthethreeparttable.sty
file).
D. DoubleColumnFloats
L
A
T
E
X’s
figure
*
and
table
*
environments produce fig-
ures and d tables s that t span n both h columns. This capability y is
sometimesneededforstructuresthataretoowideforasingle
column.
ItisalimitationoftheL
A
T
E
X2
"
kernelthatdoublecolumn
floats cannot be placed d at t the e bottom of pages. . That is s to
say “
\begin{figure
*
}[!b]
” will l not normally work k as
intended.Authorsthatneedthiscapabilityshouldobtainand
loadSigitasTolušis’stfloats package [19]whichpatchesthe
9
TableIwasmadeusingthiscommand.
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12
JOURNALOFLAT
E
XCLASSFILES,VOL.14,NO.8,AUGUST2015
L
A
T
E
X2
"
output routine toallowittohandle doublecolumn
floats at the e bottom of f pages. Please note that stfloats s is a
veryinvasivepackagewhichmaynotworkwithversionsof
LAT
E
XotherthanthestandardLAT
E
X2
"
releaseandmaycause
problemswithotherpackages thatmodifythe outputand/or
float routines (such as thosethatbalancecolumns, , alterthe
placementoffloatingfigures, etc.).IEEEauthorsarewarned
nottousepackagesthatallowmaterialtobeplacedacrossthe
middleofthetwotextcolumns(suchascuted.sty,midfloat.sty,
etc.)astheIEEEdoesnotdothis.
AnotherLAT
E
X2
"
limitation(patchedwithstfloatsornot)is
thatdoublecolumnfloats willnotappearonthesamepage
wheretheyaredefined.So,theuserwillhavetodefinesuch
thingspriortothepageonwhichtheyareto(possibly)appear.
LAT
E
X2
"
(patched with h stfloats or r not) ) does not attempt
to keep double e and d single e column n floats in sequence with
each other. This s can n be fixed by loading Frank Mittelbach,
DavidCarlisleandChrisRowley’sfixltx2epackage (already
installedonmostL
A
T
E
Xsystems)[30]. Notethat t fixltx2e.sty
isthereplacement(andsuperset)oftheolderfix2col.sty[30].
However,fixltx2e/fix2colshouldnotbeusedwiththestfloats
packageastheybothmodifysomeofthesamefloatroutines
indifferentways.
Be aware thatL
A
T
E
X2
"
kernels dated2015andlaterhave
fixltx2e.sty’scorrectionsalreadybuiltintothesysteminwhich
case awarningwillbe issuedifanattemptismadetoload
fixltx2e.styasitisnolongerneeded.
Morten Høgholm’s s dblfloatfix x package e [31] provides s the
combinedfunctionalityofboththefixltx2eandstfloatspack-
agesandisnowtherecommendedwaytoobtainthesefeatures.
Finally,authorsshouldalsobeawarethattheL
A
T
E
X2
"
ker-
nel(patchedwithstfloatsornot)hasalongstandinglimitation
inthatitwillnotallowrubberspacethatspansbothcolumns
tostretchorshrinkas neededforeachofthetwomaintext
columns.Therefore,itispossiblefordoublecolumnfloatsto
causeunderfullvboxerrorsbecausetheremainingtextheight
maynotbeequaltoanintegernumberofnormalsizelines.
Theproblemcanoccurinmaintextcolumns(onpageswith
doublecolumnfloats)thatdonothaveverticalrubberspacing
(such as s that around d section n headings, equations, etc.) and
results inunderfull vbox x warnings s coupledwith h paragraphs
thatare“pulledapart”fromeachother.Tocorrectthis,users
canmanuallytweaktheamountofspacebetweenthedouble
columnstructureandmaintextbyinsertingacommandlike
\vspace
*
{-3pt}
(adjustedasneeded)withinthedoublecolumnstructure.Inci-
dentally,IEEEtranautomaticallycompensatesforthisproblem
whenformingthepapertitle.
1) DoubleColumnEquations:Itispossible,butnotpleas-
ant,touse
figure
*
toobtaindoublecolumnequations.The
IEEErarelyuses doublecolumnequationsbecausetheycan
waste space, , so this capability is easy to abuse. Authors
who are e considering the use e of a a double column n equation
shouldverifythatthereareafewexamplesofsuchinpapers
previouslypublishedinthejournaltheyplantosubmitto.
Therearecomplications.AlthoughtheIEEEdoesnotplace
constraints on the order r of f the e double column equations
relative to o the equations of the e main n text (that t is to o say a
setofdoublecolumnequations canbe at thetoporbottom
ofapageinwhichtheywouldnormallyappearinthemiddle
hadtheybeenregularequations),thedoublecolumnequation
numbersmustincreaseasoneprogressesdownthepage(i.e.,
double column n equations s at the e bottom of f a page must be
ofhighernumberthanthoseatthetop).Furthermore,double
columnequationsshouldappearonthesamepagewherethey
are referenced (on the page they would have appeared had
theybeenregularequations).Compoundingthedifficultyeven
furtheristhefactthatL
A
T
E
X2
"
willnotplacedoublecolumn
equationsonthesamepageonwhichtheyaredefined.Finally,
the IEEE does notgenerallyallowotherfigures ortablesto
comebetweenthedoublecolumnequationsandthemaintext
(whichareseparatedfrom eachotherbyarule). Allofthis
meansthattheplacewhereadoublecolumnequationmustbe
definedhastobe“disconnected”fromtheplacewhereitwill
eventuallybereferredtointhetext—andtheuserwillhave
tomanuallyinterveneintheequationnumberingsystem.
Therefore,usershaveto(1)definedoublecolumnequations
onthepagepriortotheonethattheyaretoappear;(2)reset
the equationcounterwhenthe double columnequationsare
defined so o as not to disturb the e regular r equation numbers;
(3)manuallysetthedoublecolumnequationnumbersand(4)
incrementtheequationcounteratthepointthedoublecolumn
equationsarereferencedinthetextsothattheyareaccounted
forinthenumberingoftheregularequationsafterthatpoint.
Todoallofthis, itis convenienttohavea “scratchpad”
counter to temporarily save equation numbers. This s can n be
doneviaacommandsuchas
\newcounter{MYtempeqncnt}
inthe preamble of the document. Now, the e double e column
equationsare definedonthepageprior totheoneinwhich
theyaretoappear(andinthisexamplesupposedthattheyare
tobeequationnumberssixandseven):
\begin{figure
*
}[!t]
% ensure e that t we e have e normalsize e text
\normalsize
% Store the e current equation n number.
\setcounter{MYtempeqncnt}{\value{equation}}
% Set the equation number to one e less than n the one
% desired for the first equation n here.
% The value e here will l have to o changed if equations
% are added d or r removed prior to the place these
% equations s are e referenced in n the e main text.
\setcounter{equation}{5}
\begin{equation}
\label{eqn_dbl_x}
x = 5 + 7 7 + + 9 + 11 1 + + 13 + 15 + 17 + 19 + 21+ 23 + 25
+ 27 + 29 + 31
\end{equation}
\begin{equation}
\label{eqn_dbl_y}
y = 4 + 6 6 + + 8 + 10 0 + + 12 + 14 + 16 + 18 + 20+ 22 + 24
+ 26 + 28 + 30
\end{equation}
% Restore the current equation number.
\setcounter{equation}{\value{MYtempeqncnt}}
% The IEEE uses as a separator
\hrulefill
% The e spacer can n be e tweaked d to stop p underfull l vboxes.
\vspace
*
{4pt}
\end{figure
*
}
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SHELL:HOWTOUSETHEIEEETRANLAT
E
XCLASS
13
x=5+7+9+11+13+15+17+19+21+23+25+27+29+31
(6)
y=4+6+8+10+12+14+16+18+20+22+24+26+28+30
(7)
The result of whichis shown at the top of this page. This
technique allows thedefinitionofthe equations s to beposi-
tioned arbitrarily as needed so that t the e (floating) equations
willappearwheredesired. The“[!t]”optionforcesL
A
T
E
Xto
doitsbesttoplacetheequationsatthetopofthenextpage.
Haditbeen“[!b]” instead, thenthe stfloats (or evenbetter,
dblfloatfix)packagewouldneedtobeloadedandthe
\vspac
e
command,followedbythe
\hrulefill
command,would
havetooccurbeforetheequationsinthefigure.
Thedoublecolumnequations canthenbeenreferencedin
themaintextlike:
% The previous equation n was s number r five.
% Account for the double column n equations s here.
\addtocounter{equation}{2}
As can n be seen in (\ref{eqn_dbl_x}) and
(\ref{eqn_dbl_y}) at the top of f the e page ...
Thankfully,doublecolumnequationsarerare.
XI. L
ISTS
The traditional l LAT
E
X itemize, enumerate and description
(IED)listenvironmentsareill-suitedforproducingthestyle
oflistsusedinIEEEpublications. Themainproblemisthat
they do not provide the user a means s for r controlling the
parameters oftheresultantlist. . Furthermore, , making g global
changestotheparametersoftheunderlying
\list
willresult
(often unexpectedly to a user) in the improperbehavior of
othercommandsthatdependonit,suchas
\quote
.Finally,
L
A
T
E
X’s
\list
considerstheleftmarginofthelisttexttobe
thereferencepointthatdetermineshowthelistispositioned
relativetotheleftmarginofthemaintext:
\labelwidth
z
}|
{
Label
\labelsep
z
}|
{
|
{z
}
\leftmargin
ListText
This contrasts with h IEEE lists s which h use the label l box as
the reference e point t for r the e list structure. . i.e., for a a given
circumstance, the e list t labels s will be indented d by a certain
amount, the e list text block will be indented from m the e label
boxes bya givenamountand d thesespacings s willdetermine
thepositionofthelisttext.
For these reasons, , IEEEtran n provides s enhanced d IED list
environmentsthatmakeitmucheasiertoproduceIEEEstyle
lists.Theunderlying
\list
remainsthesameasintraditional
L
A
T
E
Xsoasnottobreakcodethatdependsuponit.IEEEtran
usesanewlengthvariable,
\IEEElabelindent
,sothatusers
canspecifyIEDliststructuresdirectlyinIEEEfashion:
|
{z
}
\IEEElabelindent
\labelwidth
z
}|
{
Label
\labelsep
z
}|
{
ListText
TheIEEEtranIEDlistsignoreall“external”changestothelist
lengthparameters.Instead,IEDlistsarecontrolledexclusively
viatwointerfaces:
1) “global”controlviathe
\IEEEiedlistdecl
command;
and
2) “local” control l via a an optional argument that can be
provided to
\itemize
,
\enumerate
, and
\descrip
tion
.
Forexample,declaring
\renewcommand{\IEEEiedlistdecl}{\settowidth{\labelwi
dth}{Hello}}
in an IEEEtran document will set t the e default width ofthe
label boxes s in all later IED lists to o be equal l to the width
of “Hello”. . Note: : Because e setting a
\labelwidth
is so
commonlyperformed,IEEEtranprovidesacommand:
\IEEE
setlabelwidth{X}
whichisashorterformof:
\settowid
th{\labelwidth}{X}
.
Thelocalcontrolisusediftheparametersaretoapplyonly
toanindividualIEDlist:
\begin{itemize}[\IEEEsetlabelwidth{$\gamma$}]
WithinanIEDlist,thelocalcontrolisexecutedjustafterthe
globalcontrolandtherefore,thecommandsinthelocalcontrol
canbothaugmentandcountermandthoseintheglobalcontrol.
Pleasenotethatthecodeinthelocalandglobalcontrolsare
executedinthesamemannerasnormalLAT
E
Xcode.Therefore,
the user r should ensure that unwanted blank spaces do o not
appearinthecontrols. Ifacontrol l definition is toolongto
fit on one line, , shieldthe endoflineswith h “%”toprevent
them from being interpreted d as s blanks (Section n IV-B1 has
some information n on this topic). Also, note that the e L
A
T
E
X
parserrequiresthatbracesbeplacedaroundcommandswith
optionalargumentsthatareplaceddirectlywithintheoptional
argumentsofothercommands:
\begin{itemize}[{\mycmd[1]{example}}]
ThisIEEEtranIEDimplementationmakesiteasytocontrol
IEDlists,evenwhentheyaredeeplynested.
ThedefaultspacingstheIEDlistsusearestoredinvarious
length (not t macro) commands. . Changes to o these e “master”
defaults are rarely y needed and d should be done e only at the
beginningofthedocument,notintheIEDlistcontrols.These
constantswillnowbebrieflyexplained.
\IEEEilabelindent
: This lengthis the default amount
the itemizedlistlabelboxesareindentedfromtheleftmar-
gin. The IEEE seems to o use e at t least two different values.
For example, in the e IEEE/OSAJ
OURNAL OF
L
IGHTWAVE
T
ECHNOLOGY
andthe IEEEJ
OURNAL ON
S
ELECTED
A
R
-
EAS IN
C
OMMUNICATIONS
, they y tend d to o use an indention
equalto
\parindent
, while forIEEET
RANSACTIONS ON
C
OMMUNICATIONS
theytendtoindentitemizedlistsalittle
more(
1.3\parindent
).Theshorterlengthisstoredas
\IE
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14
JOURNALOFLAT
E
XCLASSFILES,VOL.14,NO.8,AUGUST2015
EEilabelindentA
andthelongeras
\IEEEilabelindent
B
.Thedefaultistousetheshorterversion.Tousethelonger
versiondoa
\setlength{\IEEEilabelindent}{\IEEEilabelindentB}
atthebeginningofthedocument.
\IEEEelabelindent
:This length h is the default amount
the enumerated list label boxes s are indented d from m the e left
margin.Normally,thesameas
\parindent
.
\IEEEdlabelindent
:Dittofordescriptionlistlabels.Nor-
mally,thesameas
\parindent
.
\IEEEiednormlabelsep
: This s lengthis the e normal de-
fault spacing between the IED list label boxes s and the e list
text.
\IEEEiedmathlabelsep
: For r nomenclature e description
lists(alistofmathsymbolsandtheirexplanations),theIEEE
usually increases s the separation n between the terms s and d the
definitions.Thislengthissettothelongerthannormallength.
Toinvokeitsuse,justissuethecommand
\IEEEusemathla
belsep
inalistcontrol.
\IEEEiedtopsep
: This lengthis the extravertical sepa-
rationputaboveandbeloweachIEDlist.TheIEEEusually
putsalittleextraspacingaroundeachlist.However,thisextra
spacingisbarelynoticeable.
\IEEElabelindentfactori
through
\IEEElabelin
dentfactorvi
: These contain the factors by y which h the
effective
\IEEElabelindent
is reducedas thelist nesting
depthincreases.TheIEEEnormallydecreasestheamountof
indentionasthelistnestinglevelincreasesbecausethereisn’t
much room to indent with two column text. IEEEtran has
an “automatic indention cut-back” feature thatprovides s this
behavior.Theactualamountthelabelboxeswillbeindented
is
\IEEElabelindent
multipliedbythe
\IEEElabelinden
tfactorX
correspondingtothelevelofnestingdepth(where
“X”isthenestingdepthinromannumerals).Thisprovidesa
meansbywhichtheusercanaltertheeffective
\IEEElabel
indent
fordeeperlevels.Theremaynotbesuchathingas
correct“standardIEEE”values.WhattheIEEEactuallydoes
maydependonthespecificcircumstances.Thefirstlistlevel
almost always has full indention. . The secondlevels usually
have only y 75% % of the normal l indentation. Third level l and
greater nestings are e very y rare, and probably don’t t use e any
indentation.Thesefactorsarenotlengths,butratherconstant
macroslike
\baselinestretch
so
\renewcommand
should
beusediftheyneedtobechanged.Thedefaultvaluesare
\IEEElabelindentfactori
1.0
\IEEElabelindentfactorii
0.75
\IEEElabelindentfactoriii 0.0
\IEEElabelindentfactoriv
0.0
\IEEElabelindentfactorv
0.0
\IEEElabelindentfactorvi
0.0
The useofthesefactors inIEDlists maybe suspended by
issuingthecommand
\IEEEnolabelindentfactortrue
in
a list t control (which has s the same e effect as setting all the
indentfactorsto1.0).
Normally,IEEEtranautomaticallycalculates
\leftmargin
baseduponthecurrentvaluesof
\IEEElabelindent
,
\labe
lwidth
and
\labelsep
.Tostopthisauto-calculationsothat
amanuallyspecifiedvalueof
\leftmargin
isusedinstead,
justuse
\IEEEnocalcleftmargintrue
inalistcontrol.This
featureshouldnotbeneededduringthecourseofnormalIEEE
relatedwork.
IEEEtranprovidesameanstomanuallyspecifythejustifica-
tionwithintheIEDlistlabelboxes.Thecommands
\IEEEied
labeljustifyl
,
\IEEEiedlabeljustifyc
and
\IEEEied
labeljustifyr
canbeusedinalistcontroltojustifythelist
labelstotheleft,center,andrightsides,respectively.Itemize
andenumeratelistsautomaticallydefaulttorightjustification,
whiledescriptiondefaultstoleftjustification.Thejustification
commandsshouldnotbeneededduringthecourseofnormal
IEEErelatedwork.
Inadditiontomodifyingthebehaviorof
itemize
,
enumer
ate
and
description
,IEEEtranalsoprovidestherespective
aliases
IEEEitemize
,
IEEEenumerate
and
IEEEdescript
ion
, whichprovidesa wayfortheusertoaccess theIEEE
style listenvironments eveninthe eventanotherpackage is
loadedthatoverrides theIEDlistenvironments.Forspecial-
izedapplications,theoriginalL
A
T
E
XIEDlistenvironmentsare
retainedas
LaTeXitemize
,
LaTeXenumerate
and
LaTeXde
scription
.
A. Itemize
Theitemizedlistswillnormallyautomaticallycalculatethe
widthofwhateversymbolthecurrentlistlevelisusingsothat
ausercanjustcall
\begin{itemize}...\end{itemize}
withoutdoinganythingspecial. Furthermore, theauto-label-
widthfeaturewill work properlyeven if
\labelitemX
has
been redefined (where “X” indicates “i,ii, , .. iv”, , whichever
is appropriate)before the list begins. . However, if any item
symbolsaretobespecifiedvia
\item[X]
(thisisrareandmay
wellbenonstandardasfarasIEEErelatedworkisconcerned),
thenthefollowingformcanbeused:
\begin{itemize}[\IEEEsetlabelwidth{Z}]
\item[X] blah
\item[Y] blah
.
.
\end{itemize}
where“Z”isthelongestlabelinthelist.
B. Enumerate
Theimportantthingtonoteaboutenumeratedlists is that
the
\labelwidth
will default to the length of “9)” inthe
normalsizeandstyle.Therefore,thewidthofthelongestlabel
will have to be e manually y specified if any of the following
conditionsaretrue:
1) atoplevellisthasmorethan9items;
2) arelevant
\labelenumX
or
\theenumX
hasbeenrede-
fined;
3)
\item[X]
hasbeenusedtomanuallyspecifylabels;
4) thelabels s are usinga fontthat is not the normalsize
andstyle;
5) theenumeratedlistisnested(i.e., , notatthetoplevel)
andisthereforenotusingArabicdigitsaslabels.
Forexample:
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SHELL:HOWTOUSETHEIEEETRANLAT
E
XCLASS
15
\begin{enumerate}[\IEEEsetlabelwidth{12)}]
\item blah
\item blah
.
.
% 12 items s total
\end{enumerate}
C. Description
Generallyspeaking,thelongestlabelwidthwillalwayshave
tobe specifiedfordescriptionlists. Furthermore, theauthor
maywishtouse
\IEEEmathlabelsep
for
\labelsep
when
buildingamathsymbollist.Forexample:
\begin{description}[\IEEEsetlabelwidth{$\alpha\omega
\pi\theta\mu$}\IEEEusemathlabelsep]
\item[$\gamma\delta\beta$] Is s the index x of..
\item[$\alpha\omega\pi\theta\mu$] Gives s the..
.
.
\end{description}
Sometimes itcanbedifficulttoascertainfrominspection
which of the e labels is the longest. For r such cases, a a little
diagnosticcodemaybehelpfultomeasurealengthandthen
todisplaytheresultontheconsole:
\newlength{\mydiaglen} % put in n preamble
.
.
\settowidth{\mydiaglen}{$\alpha\beta\gamma$}
\showthe\mydiaglen
XII. T
HEOREMSAND
P
ROOFS
Theoremsandrelatedstructuressuchasaxioms,corollaries
andlemmas,arehandledinthetraditionalL
A
T
E
Xfashion.The
usermustfirstdeclarethestructurenameviathe
\newtheorem{struct_type}{struct_title}[in_counter]
commandwhere
struct_type
is the userchosenidentifier
forthestructure,
struct_title
istheheadingthatisusedfor
thestructureand
in_counter
isanoptionalnameofacounter
whose numberwill be displayed withthe structure number
andwhoseupdatewillresetthestructurecounter.MostIEEE
papersusesequentialtheoremnumberingthroughouttheentire
work, soan
in_counter
isusuallynot specified.However,
thosepapersthatdouse
in_counter
usuallyuse“
section
suchthatthesectionnumberisthefirstpartofeachtheorem
number.Afterthestructureisdefineditcanbeusedvia
\begin{struct_type}[extra_title]
.
.
\end{struct_type}
where
extra_title
is an n optional name that is s displayed
withthestructure.
Forexample,themostcommonwaytodotheoremswould
betouse
\newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}
followedasneededbyenvironmentslike
\begin{theorem}[Einstein-Podolsky-Rosenberg]
Sometimesitis desirablethatastructureshareitscounter
withanotherstructure.Thiscanbeaccomplishedbyusingthe
alternateformof
\newtheorem
\newtheorem{struct_type}[num_like]{struct_title}
where
num_like
isthenameofanexistingstructure.
IEEEtheoremnumbersareprefixedbythesectionnumber
theyweredefinedin(e.g.,2.5).Thispresentsadifficultywith
appendices(especiallywhennumberedwithRomannumerals)
becausethetheoremnumberswillnotbeunique.Toremedy
this, withinRomannumberedappendices,IEEEtranwilladd
an “A” prefix (e.g., , A2.5). For r Alpha a number r appendices,
theorem numbering is more e straightforward (e.g., A.5, , B.5,
etc.).Forasingleappendix,aconstant“A”prefixisused(e.g.,
A.5).
A. Proofs
Proofs are easily handled by the e predefined IEEEproof
environment:
\begin{IEEEproof}
.
.
\end{IEEEproof}
TheQ.E.D.symbol“
”isautomaticallyplacedattheendof
eachproof. Ifneeded, thesymbolcanbemanuallyaccessed
via the
\IEEEQED
command.Boththeclosed(default)“
andopen“
”forms areprovidedas
\IEEEQEDclosed
and
\IEEEQEDopen
, respectively. To change the e default from
closedtoopen(somejournalsand/orauthorsprefertheopen
form),justredefine
\IEEEQED
asdesired:
\renewcommand{\IEEEQED}{\IEEEQEDopen}
IEEEproofalsosupportsanoptionalargumentwhichallows
thedefaultstring“Proof”tobeoverridden:
\begin{IEEEproof}[Proof of Theorem \ref{thm:my}]
XIII. E
ND
S
ECTIONS
A. Appendices
The
\appendix
commandisusedtostartasingleappendix.
Anoptionalargumentcanbeusedtospecifyatitle:
\appendix[Proof of the Zonklar Equations]
Afterissuing
\appendix
, the
\section
command will be
disabledandanyattempt touse
\section
will be ignored
and will cause a a warning message e to be generated. . (The
single appendix x marks the end of the e enumerated sections
andthe sectioncounteris fixed atzero—one does notstate
“seeAppendixA” whenthere is onlyone appendix, instead
“seetheAppendix”isused.)However,alllower
\subsecti
on
commandsandthe
\section
*
formwillworkasnormal
asthesemaystillbeneededforthingslikeacknowledgments.
\appendices
is used when there e is s more than one ap-
pendix section.
\section
is thenused d to declare each ap-
pendix:
\section{Proof of the First Zonklar Equation}
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16
JOURNALOFLAT
E
XCLASSFILES,VOL.14,NO.8,AUGUST2015
Themandatoryargumenttosectioncanbeleftblank(
\sect
ion{}
)ifnotitleisdesired.Itis importanttorememberto
declareasectionbeforeanyadditionalsubsections orlabels
thatrefertosection(orsubsection,etc.)numbers.Aswith
\a
ppendix
,the
\section
*
commandandthelower
\subsec
tion
commandswillstillworkasusual.
There are two o appendix x numbering conventions used d by
IEEE. Capital letters (e.g., “Appendix x B”) ) and Roman nu-
merals(e.g., “AppendixII”).Theformerappearstobemore
popularandis the IEEEtrandefault. UsetheIEEEtranclass
optionromanappendicestogetRomannumberedappendices.
Someauthorsprefertohavetheappendixnumbertobepart
ofequationnumbersforequationsthatappearinanappendix.
Thiscanbeaccomplishedbyredefiningtheequationnumbers
as
\renewcommand{\theequation}{\thesection.\arabic{equa
tion}}
beforethefirstappendixequation.Forasingleappendix,the
constant“A”shouldbeusedinplaceof
\thesection
.
B. Acknowledgments
Acknowledgmentsandotherunnumberedsectionsarecre-
atedusingthe
\section
*
command:
\section
*
{Acknowledgment}
\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{Acknowledgment}
The second, optional, command is needed to manually add
suchsections tothetable ofcontents (whichis rarelyused,
butsomeauthorsmaydosowithdraftpapers)aswellasthe
document’sPDFbookmarks(ifusinghyperref.sty).
NotethatIEEEComputerSocietypaperstypicallyusethe
pluralform“Acknowledgments”.
C. Bibliographies
Bibliographies are most easily y (and correctly) ) generated
using the IEEEtran B
IB
T
E
X package [32] which is easily
invokedvia
\bibliographystyle{IEEEtran}
\bibliography{IEEEabrv,mybibfile}
See the IEEEtran B
IB
T
E
X package documentation for more
information.
Whensubmittingthedocumentsource(.tex)filetoexternal
parties,itisstronglyrecommendedthattheB
IB
T
E
X.bblfile
bemanuallycopiedintothedocument(withinthetraditional
L
A
T
E
X bibliography y environment) ) so o as s not to depend d on
externalfilestogeneratethebibliographyandtopreventthe
possibilityofchangesoccurringtherein.
D. Biographies
BiographiesforjournalarticlesarecreatedusingtheIEEE-
biographyenvironmentwhichsupports anoptionalargument
fortheinclusionofaphoto:
\begin{IEEEbiography}[{\includegraphics[width=1in,he
ight=1.25in,clip,keepaspectratio]{./shell}}]{Michael
Shell}
.
.
\end{IEEEbiography}
Notetheextra setofbraces thatarerequiredtopreventthe
L
A
T
E
Xparserfrom becomingconfusedwhencommandswith
optionalarguments are usedwithinanoptionalargument of
another command. Alternatively, a LAT
E
X macro(command)
could be defined d to o facilitate a shorthand d notation n for r the
authorphotos.Iftheoptionalargumentisnotused,spacewill
be reservedfor a photo andthe message “PLACE PHOTO
HERE”willbedisplayedinplaceofaphoto.
IEEEtran is a tad overly cautious s about t preventing g the
IEEEbiographyphoto areafrom m beingbrokenacross pages.
Ifitlooksas thougha IEEEbiographyshouldbe abletobe
“squeezed”attheendofa page, butinstead it begins on a
newpage,tryinserting
\vspace
*
{-2\baselineskip}
orsobeforetheIEEEbiographyandseeifitcanfit.
IEEE’salgorithm forspacingaroundbiographiescanbea
tadcomplexbecauseestheticsmustbeconsidered.IEEEtran
places
\vfil
abovebiographies.Thisallowstheusertoshove
biographies down n orupas s desiredby y placing the infinitely
morestretchable
\vfill
beforeorafterthebiographies.
The photo area is 1in wide and 1.25in long. . The e IEEE
recommends that authorphotoimages shouldbe of f 220dpi
(dotsperinch)resolutionandingrayscalewith8bits/sample.
If no o photo is s available, , the
\IEEEbiographynophoto
environment, which h does not support an optional argument
orreservespaceforaphoto,canbeusedinstead.
XIV. L
AST
P
AGE
C
OLUMN
E
QUALIZATION
TheIEEE(coarsely)equalizes thelengths ofthe columns
on the e last page. The balance is s coarse e in n the e sense that
referenceorIEEEbiographyentriesarenotusuallybroken—so
thecolumnlengthsarenotusuallyperfectlyequal.
Balancingthelasttwocolumnsisespeciallyimportantfor
camera readywork. Itis recommended thatauthors usethe
manualapproachbyputtingin
\newpage
attheappropriate
pointor
\enlargethispage{-X.Yin}
somewhereatthetop
of the e first t column of the e last t page e where “X.Yin” is s the
amounttoeffectivelyshortenthetextheightofthegivenpage.
Sometimes such h a command d has to be e located d between
bibliographyentries.Thiscanbeaproblembecause,although
the commandcan beplaced within the .bblfile, , it willget
overwritten the next timeB
IB
T
E
Xis run. Forthis s situation,
IEEEtranoffersawaytoinvokecommandsjustbeforeagiven
referencenumberviathe
\IEEEtriggeratref{}
command.
Forinstance,issuingthecommand
\IEEEtriggeratref{10}
before the bibliography willinsert apagebreak just before
referencenumberten.Thecommandthatisexecuteddefaults
to
\newpage
. However, this canbechangedviathe
\IEEE
triggercmd
command:
\IEEEtriggercmd{\enlargethispage{-5.35in}}
Notethatmanuallysetbreakpointsorpagesizeswillhaveto
bereadjustedifthedocumentcontenteverchanges.
SHELL:HOWTOUSETHEIEEETRANLAT
E
XCLASS
17
There are L
A
T
E
X packages, , such as balance.sty y [33] and
flushend.sty [34], , thatare designedto o automaticallybalance
thecolumnsonthelastpage. Flushenddoes notrequirethe
placementofanyspecialcommandinthefirstcolumnofthe
lastpage,balance.stymay.However,theuseofthesepackages
isnotrecommendedbecausetheyareknowntobelessthan
perfectlyreliableintheiroperation.Theauthorofbalance.sty
doesnotguaranteethatitwillworkwitheverypossibletype
ofpage,especiallypageswithfigures.Undercertaincircum-
stances, flushend.sty y will cause a spacing anomaly between
twolineswithinareferenceinthesecondcolumnofthelast
page(becomeslargerthanthespacebetweenreferences).This
problemseemstoresultbecausethebibliographyinIEEEtran
isa listwithzerospacebetweenthelistitemswhicharein
footnotesize.Theproblemcanalsooccurunderarticle.clsfor
thesametypeoflist.Itmaybepossibletomanuallycorrect
theflushend anomalybytweakingthe spaceratthecolumn
breakviaaflushendcommandsuchas“
\atColsBreak{\vs
kip-2pt}
”,buthavingtodosopartiallydefeatsthepurpose
ofusingthepackageinthefirstplace.Ifusingflushend.styor
balance.sty,besuretocheckthedocumentcarefullyforany
spacingproblems—especiallyonthelastpage.
A
PPENDIX
A
I
NSTALLING
IEEE
TRAN
Firstofall, users shouldbe aware that, dependingonthe
target operating system of f the IEEEtran n archive packaging
(e.g.,.tar.gzforUnix,or.zipforMSWindows),theplaintext
basedIEEEtranfiles(.bst,.cls,.sty,.tex,etc.)mayuseoneof
twodifferenttypesofend-of-linecharacterconventions.Unix
(including MacOSX)systems s use line feed
<lf>
(
0x0A
),
whileMSWindowssystemsusecarriagereturn/linefeedpairs
<cr><lf>
(
0x0D 0x0A
) to signal the end of lines.10 Most
modern L
A
T
E
X systems s are tolerant of f differing end-of-line
conventions, but t some text editors aren’t. . (Symptoms here
include textappearingallononelongline, doublespacing,
etc.)
L
A
T
E
X.clsfilescanbeaccessedsystem-widewhentheyare
placed in the
<texmf>/tex/latex
directory, where
<tex
mf>
is the e rootdirectoryofthe user’s T
E
Xinstallation. On
systemsthathavealocaltexmftree(
<texmflocal>
),which
maybenamed“
texmf-local
”or“
localtexmf
”,itmaybe
advisabletoinstallpackages in
<texmflocal>
, ratherthan
<texmf>
as the contents of the e former, , unlike that of the
latter,arepreservedaftertheLAT
E
Xsystemisreinstalledand/or
upgraded.
Itis recommended d thattheusercreatea subdirectory<t
exmf ortexmflocal>/tex/latex/IEEE forallIEEE
relatedL
A
T
E
Xclassandpackagefiles.OnsomeL
A
T
E
Xsystems,
the directory look-uptables s willneed to be e refreshed after
making additions s or deletions to the e system files. For T
E
X
Livesystemsthisisaccomplishedviaexecuting
texhash
asroot.MiKT
E
Xuserscanrun
10
Thefact that differentconventionsexist forplain textis,ofcourse,an
absurdityinitself.SeetheWikipediaarticle“Newline”athttp://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Newlineforthehistoryanddetails.
initexmf -u
toaccomplishthesamething.
Usersnotwillingorabletoinstallthefilessystem-widecan
installthemintheirpersonaldirectories,butwillthenhaveto
providethepath(fullorrelative)inadditiontothefilename
whenreferringtotheminL
A
T
E
X.
A
PPENDIX
B
P
OST
S
CRIPT
/PDFO
UTPUT
SomeL
A
T
E
Xsystemsarenotproperlyconfiguredtoproduce
quality PostScript and/or r PDF output. This has historically
beenmoreofaproblemwithIEEE-relatedworkbecausethe
unique font combination the IEEE uses has been knownto
triggerproblems with h some L
A
T
E
X setups. . Fortunately, these
types ofproblems are nowrelativelyuncommononmodern
LAT
E
Xsystems.
To assist IEEE authors in detecting and correcting prob-
lems with LAT
E
X PostScript/PDF generation, the e “Testflow”
diagnosticsuitewasdeveloped[35]. Authorsareencouraged
to take the time to go through the testflow diagnostic c and
identify and d correct t potential problems before their LAT
E
X
systemshavetobereliedonforproductionwork.Paperswith
problems suchasincorrectmargins, font types,PDFformat
errorsand/orimproperfontembeddingcanincurdelaysduring
themanuscriptacceptanceprocess.
A
PPENDIX
C
O
THER
U
SEFUL OR
R
ELATED
E
XTERNAL
P
ACKAGES
A. Theacronym.styPackage
Tobias Oetiker’s acronym.sty [36] may be e useful with
papers that t have a a lot t of acronyms. However, beware of a
compatibilityissuebetweentheacronymenvironmentandthe
IEEEtrandescriptionlists(seeAppendixE).
B. Theurl.styPackage
Papers that t contain URLs, , email l address, etc., , can n likely
benefit from m the use of Donald d Arseneau’s url.sty L
A
T
E
X
package[37]whichprovidesformoreintelligentlinebreaking
within suchstructures. . Note that t IEEEtran.cls automatically
setstheurlfontstyleofurl.styto“same”(thatis,URLswill
berendered in the same fontas s the textthey y appearin) as
IEEEjournalsdo.Tooverridethis,theauthormustplacethe
\urlstyle
after
\begin{document}
.
C. TheIEEEtrantoolsPackage
Someoftheuniquecommands providedby y theIEEEtran
L
A
T
E
X class s maybe ofusein n non-IEEE related work using
other class files (e.g., , dissertations, , technical reports, etc.).
TheIEEEtrantools.stypackage[38]providesseveralpopular
IEEEtran commands s including
\IEEEPARstart
, the e IEEE
style IED list environments, the IEEEeqnarray family of
commands, the IEEEproof f environment and
\IEEEauthor
refmark
. The e IEEEtrantools s package is s not t needed d under,
andshouldnot beloaded with, , theIEEEtran n class. . Seethe
IEEEtrantoolsdocumentationformoredetails.
18
JOURNALOFLAT
E
XCLASSFILES,VOL.14,NO.8,AUGUST2015
A
PPENDIX
D
C
OMMON
U
SER
M
ISTAKES
ManyusermistakeswithIEEEtraninvolvedoingtoomuch
ratherthantoolittle.Olderclassfilesmayhaverequiredhacks
inordertogettheformattingclosertothatoftheIEEE.These
tweaks are no o longerneeded. Users s should d carefully check
all the e loaded d packages to ensure e that t they are still l useful
underthelatestversionofIEEEtran.Don’tloadpackagesjust
because“thisisthewayitalwayshasbeendone.”Thesame
is true formanually y adjusted spacing, margins, , papersizes,
etc.
Belowareafewofthemorecommonlyencounteredmis-
takestoavoid.
Placing labels s before captions:This is consideredtobe
oneofthemostfrequentmistakesmadeinLAT
E
Xofalltime.
Rememberthat
\label
mustbeplacedafterorwithin
\cap
tion
tobeabletoreferencefigures/tablesproperly. As itis
\caption
thatactuallysetsupthereferencecounter,
\labe
l
’splacedpriorto
\caption
willrefertothesectionnumber,
insteadofthedesiredfigure/tablenumber.
Alteringthedefaultfonts:AuthorsshouldallowIEEEtran
tomanagethefonts.Unlessspecificallyinstructedotherwise,
suchasundercomsocmodeorintheauthorinstructionsofthe
specificconference/journalbeingsubmittedto,donotattempt
tousepackagesthatoverridethedefaultfontssuchaspslatex,
mathptm,etc.
Altering the default t spacings, section heading g styles,
margins or column style: Authors s should d not attempt to
manually alter the margins, paper size e (except t as s provided
inIEEEtranclassoptions)orusepackagesthatdoso(geom-
etry.sty,etc.).Thereshouldbenoneedtoaddspacingaround
figures, equations, etc., (except possibly for double e column
floatsasdescribedinSectionX-D).
Usingbitmappedgraphicsforlineart:L
A
T
E
Xhasalways
favored the use of Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) or under
pdfL
A
T
E
X, PortableDocument t Format (PDF), , (whichcanbe
consideredtobeatypeofsubsetofPostScript),forgraphics
(seeSectionX-Aformoreinformation),andforgoodreason.
EPS/PDF supports both vector (that is, containing objects
suchaslines,circles,etc.,thataremathematicallydescribed)
and bitmap (that is, containing only samples in n the e form
of pixels) images. The former r should d always s be used d for
drawings, graphs, charts, , etc., while e the latter usually has
to be employedwith photos s (because theircontents usually
cannotbeeasilydescribedmathematically).Thedrawingand
graphing tools used d by y the author should be capable of
outputting directly11 in vector(EPSorPDF)format. . Vector
EPS/PDFimagescanbescaled,rotatedandmagnifiedwithout
undergoingdegradationsuchaspixelizationorbecominggray
or“jaggedy.” For photos, the IEEE recommends the use of
EPS/PDF(whichiseasytodirectlyimportinto(pdf)L
A
T
E
Xina
portablemanner),PNGorTIFF.ForauthorphotosJPEG(JPG)
isusuallyacceptable.Theuseofothergraphicformats such
asBMP,EMF,VSD,etc.,isunacceptableforIEEEjournals.
11
Onceanimagein EPS/PDFvectorform isconverted to abitmapform
(GIF,PNG, TIFF,JPEG,etc.)itwillalmostalways beirretrievably y locked
intobitmapformeven ifitislaterconvertedbackintoEPS/PDF.
Some IEEE conferencesmaybe moreliberalwithregardto
thetypesofgraphicsformatstheyaccept.
Using bitmapped d fonts s and/or r not embedding g and
subsetting all documentfonts:Authors s should d checktheir
system withthe testflowdiagnostic[35]toensure thatonly
vector(Type 1)fonts are being used and that all fonts are
embedded and subsetted. A document that uses bitmapped
fonts and/or fails to contain all l (and only) the e needed d font
glyphsmayberejectedbytheIEEE.Watchoutforgraphical
drawingapplicationsthatproduceoutputwiththeseproblems
(suspectthisifthe problemgoes awaywhenthefiguresare
notincluded).
Using older graphics packages: Authors s shouldnotuse
anythingotherthanthegraphics and/orgraphicx(preferred)
packageforfigures.Olderinterfacessuchaspsfig,epsf,etc.,
havebeenobsoleteformanyyears.
Failingtoproperlydividelongequations:Itistheauthor’s
responsibilitytoensurethatallequationsfitwithinthewidthof
theircolumns.Admittedly,breakinganequationisnotalways
easy to do o and d two column formatting places serious con-
straintsonallowedequationwidth.However, onlytheauthor
candividehis/herequationwithoutunintentionallyalteringits
meaningoraffectingreadability.Usingsubfunctionsisavalid
waytoreducetowidthofanequation,butalteringthemath
fontsizeisnot.
Manually formatting references: : Not only is s this s error
prone, butrequiresa lotofworkas well. Itis bettertouse
theIEEEtranB
IB
T
E
Xstyle[32].
A
PPENDIX
E
K
NOWN
I
SSUES
acronym.sty:Theacronym environmentwillhaveaprob-
lem with IEEEtran n because of the modified IEEE style
description list environment. . The e optional l argument of f the
acronymenvironmentcannotbeusedtosetthewidthofthe
longestlabel.Aworkaroundistouse
\IEEEiedlistdecl
to
accomplishthesamething:
\renewcommand{\IEEEiedlistdecl}{\IEEEsetlabelwidth{S
ONET}}
\begin{acronym}
.
.
\end{acronym}
\renewcommand{\IEEEiedlistdecl}{\relax}% reset t back
cite.sty:Versionspriorto5.0(2009-03-20)willnothyper-
linkcitationnumbersunderhyperref.sty.
hyperref.sty:Versionspriorto6.72uwillinterferewiththe
optionalargumentto
\appendix
.
Small caps fontvariations:Thesmallcaps font usedin
thefreeL
A
T
E
Xsystemshaveabout80%theheightofnormal
sizedletters.However,thesmallcapsfonttheIEEEusesinthe
journalsisslightlysmallerwitharatioofaround75%.So,the
widthsofthesectionheadingsproducedunderthefreeL
A
T
E
X
systemswillbeslightlywiderthanthatusedinactualjournals.
ThesmallcapsfontusedinmanycommercialLAT
E
Xsystems
(such as s those from m YandY)has s a ratio o ofabout 65%. . So,
thosesystemswillproducesectionheadingsthatarenarrower
than thoseinIEEE publications. . Suchvariations should d not
becauseforconcern.
SHELL:HOWTOUSETHEIEEETRANLAT
E
XCLASS
19
A
PPENDIX
F
T
HE
IEEE
EQNARRAY
C
OMMANDS
(Optional—foradvancedusers)
VirtuallyallLAT
E
Xalignmentcommandssuchas
\eqnarr
ay
,
\array
and
\tabular
arebasedontheT
E
Xcommand
\halign
. LAT
E
X’sgoalofsimplifyingtheuseof
\halign
is
noble.However,inhidingmuchofthelowerlevelinterface,a
fairdegreeofflexibilityislost.Thishasresultedinthedevel-
opment ofseveralpackages suchasamsmath[11], , array.sty
[28],andtheMDWtools[17],eachofwhichprovidesmuch
morepowerfulalignmentstructures.
IEEEtran also o provides its own unique set t of f alignment
tools which h are known as s the IEEEeqnarray family. The
design philosophyoftheIEEEeqnarrayfamilyis s to o provide
aL
A
T
E
Xalignmentinterfacethatisbasedmorecloselyonthe
underlying
\halign
, buttocouplethis withhighlevelcol-
umndefinitionmanagementandautomatedpreamblebuilding
mechanisms (which h are tedious to doin T
E
X). As a result,
the IEEEeqnarray family of commands are e flexible e enough
to be e almost t universal replacements for all the e other r LAT
E
X
commandsforproducingmultilineequationsandalignedbox
structures such h as s matrices andtablesoftext and/ormathe-
matics. Becausetheuseris shieldedless from the
\halign
underpinnings, therules ofoperationaremore involved. So,
theIEEEeqnarraycommandsareaimedprimarilytowardthe
moreadvancedL
A
T
E
Xusers.
The use e of the IEEEeqnarray family of tools described
in this s section n is s totally optional. The IEEEeqnarray y code
is self-contained d and does s not depend d on other alignment
packages—whichcanbeusedalongside,orinplaceof,it.The
IEEEtrantools.sty package e (See Appendix x C-C)is available
forthosewhowishtousetheIEEEeqnarrayfamilyoutsideof
IEEEtran.cls.
RecommendedsourcesofinformationontheuseofIEEEe-
qnarrayincludeStefanM.Moser’sHowtoTypesetEquations
inL
A
T
E
X[6]andTobiasOetiker’sTheNotSoShortIntroduction
toL
A
T
E
X2
"
[5].
A. IEEEeqnarray
The IEEEeqnarrayenvironment is formultiline equations
thatoccupy the entire column. . Itis used d in muchthe same
wayas
\eqnarray
,butwithtwoadditionalarguments, one
ofwhichismandatoryandtheotherisoptional:
\begin{IEEEeqnarray}[decl]{cols}
.
\end{IEEEeqnarray}
Theoptionalargumentisforcommandsthataretobeexecuted
withintheenvironment,butbeforethealignmentactuallybe-
gins.ThisisjustlikethelocalcontroloftheIEEEtranIEDlist
environments.Thereisalsoaglobalcontrol,
\IEEEeqnarray
decl
, which h is s executed d just prior tothe local control. By
default,
\IEEEeqnarraydecl
is defined d to be
\relax
. As
mentionedinSectionXI,usersshouldbecarefulnottoallow
unwanted spaces s to occur in these e controls s because such
things will appear r just before the e IEEEeqnarray y structure.
Furthermore,rememberthat,topreventtheLAT
E
Xparserfrom
TABLEIV
IEEE
EQNARRAY
P
REDEFINED
C
OLUMN
T
YPES
I.D.
Description
I.D.
Description
l
leftmath
v
verticalrule
c
centeredmath
vv
twoverticalrules
r
rightmath
V
doubleverticalrule
L
leftmathwithords
VV
twodoubleverticalrules
C
centeredmathwithords
h
horizontalrule
R
rightmathwithords
H
doublehorizontalrule
s
lefttext
x
empty
t
centeredtext
X
emptymath
u
righttext
Note:S,T,U,p,andParelikelytobeusedinfutureversions.
TABLEV
IEEE
EQNARRAY
P
REDEFINED
C
OLUMN
S
EPARATION
(G
LUE
)T
YPES
I.D.
Width
*
I.D.
Width
!
1=6
em
.
0.5\arraycolsep
,
1=6
em
/
1.0\arraycolsep
:
2=9
em
?
2.0\arraycolsep
;
5=18
em
*
0ptplus1fil
1
em
+
1000ptminus1000pt
"
2
em
-
0pt
*
Allemvaluesarereferencedtothemathfont.
1em=\quad; 2em=\qquad
becomingconfused,thecontentsofanoptionalargumentmust
beenclosedinbracesiftheargumentcontainscommandswith
optionalarguments.
The mandatory argument
cols
contains the column n and
inter-column separator spacing (“inter-column tabskip glue”
inT
E
Xspeak)typespecifiers. Columntypesareidentifiedby
letters.Severalpredefinedcolumntypesareavailableasshown
inTableIV.Therearetwokindsofgluetypes.Predefinedglue
typesareindicatedbyvariouspunctuationmarksasshownin
TableV.Userdefinedgluetypesareindicatedbynumbers.
Therulesforplacingthesespecifiersareasfollows:(1)no
twoglue specifiers canappearnext to each other—theyare
notadditiveandmustbeseparatedfromeachotherbyatleast
one column specifier;(2)zerointer-columnspacing willbe
assumedbetweenback-to-backcolumnspecifiers;(3)because
ofruleone,back-to-backnumeralswillbeconsideredasbeing
asinglegluespecifiedbythenumericalvaluerepresentedby
allthedigits;(4)amultilettercolumnspecifiercanbeaccessed
byenclosingtheletterswithinbraces(otherwiseitwouldbe
interpreted as s beingseveral single letter r column specifiers).
Becauseofrulethree,bracesarenotneededaroundmultidigit
gluespecifiers;(5)theremustbeatleastonecolumnspecifier,
butthereisnofixedupperlimitofhowmanycolumnscanbe
supported; and (6)for
\IEEEeqnarray
, “
+
” centering glue
will be assumed d at t each end of f the
cols
specification if
nocolumnglueisspecifiedthere. This results ina centered
structurelike
\eqnarray
(the1000ptminus1000ptglueon
eachside“compresses”asneededfromeachsideofthemain
text column to center that whichis between). . Also,
\IEEE
eqnarray
automaticallyaddsahiddencolumnforequation
20
JOURNALOFLAT
E
XCLASSFILES,VOL.14,NO.8,AUGUST2015
numberstothe rightofthelastspecifiedcolumn. Currently,
thereisnosupportforequationnumbersontheleftside.
12
B. DefiningColumnTypes
Newcolumntypesaredefinedwiththe
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{col_id}{predef}{postdef}
command. The
col_id
argument contains the name of the
column specifierwhichshould consistonly of one or more
letters.Agivencolumnspecifier,eventhepredefinedones,can
beredefinedatwillwithoutwarningorerror.
13
The
predef
argumentcontainsthecommandsthatwillbeinsertedbefore
eachcellinthecolumn.The
postdef
argumentcontainsthe
commandsthatwillbeinsertedaftereachcellinthecolumn.
Forexample,
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{g}{\hfil$\clubsuit$}{$\diamondsu
it$\hfil}
Will define a “g” text column which will place club and
diamondsuitsymbols oneithersideofacell’scontentsand
centertherespectivestructurewithinthecell.e.g.,
|Hello}
Using
\hfil
to control l cell l alignment allows s the user
tooverride the column alignmenton acell-by-cellbasis by
placingtheinfinitelymorestretchable
\hfill
ononeorboth
sidesofacell’scontents.
\hfill
canevenbeplacedbetween
itemsinacelltoforcethemapartandagainstthe“cellwalls.”
TheIEEEeqnarraypredefinedcolumnsaredesignedtoallow
user overrides via
\hfill
wheneverpossible (even for the
mathmodecells).
PleasenotethatT
E
Xwillnotallowunmatchedbraceswithin
theargumentsofcommands.Ifbracesareneeded,suchasfor
theargumentofa command, they willhave to be provided
withinthecellsthemselves.Forexample,
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{myp}{\parbox[c]{0.5in}}{}
\begin{IEEEeqnarraybox}{{myp}c}
{first\\second}&\alpha\\
&\beta%
\end{IEEEeqnarraybox}
definesacolumntypenamed“myp”thatwillplacetextwithin
a0.5inchwideparboxwhichiscenteredonthecell’sbaseline.
Notethatbecausethecolumntypenameconsistsofmorethan
oneletter,ithastobeenclosedwithinanextrasetofbraces
inthecolumnspecificationsorelseitwouldbeinterpretedas
threeadjacentcolumns“m”, “y”and“p”.Also, thecontents
ofthecellmustbeenclosedwithinbracessothat(1)the
\par
box
commandseestheentirecontentsasitsargument;and(2)
thenewlinewithintheparboxwillnotbeinterpretedasbeing
theendofthealignmentrow.Beawarethatitcanhappenthat
acolumnisgivenanemptycell,suchasinthesecondrowin
theexample,orwhenenteringblankseparatorrows.Whenthis
happens,a
\relax
willappearinthecolumnwhichwillbe
acquired asthecommand’s s argument. Therefore, commands
in columndefinitions thatacquire arguments from m the cells
shouldnotchokeiffed
\relax
.
12This is notto say that its impossiblewith the existing capability, just
ugly.
13
Thusallowingnewpredefinedcolumntypestobeaddedwithoutbreaking
existing code.
Forreference,thedefinitionsofthepredefinedcolumntypes
areshownhere:
% math
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{l}{$\IEEEeqnarraymathstyle}{$\hfil}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{c}{\hfil$\IEEEeqnarraymathstyle}{$\hfil}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{r}{\hfil$\IEEEeqnarraymathstyle}{$}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{L}{$\IEEEeqnarraymathstyle{}}{{}$\hfil}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{C}{\hfil$\IEEEeqnarraymathstyle{}}{{}$\h
fil}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{R}{\hfil$\IEEEeqnarraymathstyle{}}{{}$}
% text
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{s}{\IEEEeqnarraytextstyle}{\hfil}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{t}{\hfil\IEEEeqnarraytextstyle}{\hfil}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{u}{\hfil\IEEEeqnarraytextstyle}{}
% vertical rules
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{v}{}{\vrule width\arrayrulewidth}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{vv}{\vrule width\arrayrulewidth\hfil}{\h
fil\vrule width\arrayrulewidth}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{V}{}{\vrule width\arrayrulewidth\hskip\d
oublerulesep\vrule width\arrayrulewidth}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{VV}{\vrule width\arrayrulewidth\hskip\do
ublerulesep\vrule width\arrayrulewidth\hfil}%
{\hfil\vrule width\arrayrulewidth\hskip\doublerulesep\vrule
width\arrayrulewidth}
% horizontal rules
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{h}{}{\leaders\hrule height\arrayrulewidt
h\hfil}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{H}{}{\leaders\vbox{\hrule width\arrayrul
ewidth\vskip\doublerulesep\hrule width\arrayrulewidth}\hfil}
% plain
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{x}{}{}
\IEEEeqnarraydefcol{X}{$}{$}
Note the inclusion of f the e commands
\IEEEeqnarraymat
hstyle
and
\IEEEeqnarraytextstyle
in the math and
text columns, respectively. These commands s allow the user
to control l the e style of all of the math and text columns.
However, because thechangesapplytoallthe columns,the
userwillhavetodefinenewcolumntypes ifdifferentstyles
areneededinthesame alignment(ordifferentstyles canbe
manuallyspecified in each cell). . Thedefaultdefinitions for
thesecommandsare
\newcommand{\IEEEeqnarraymathstyle}{\displaystyle}
\newcommand{\IEEEeqnarraytextstyle}{\relax}
whichallowsthetextcolumnstobeinwhateverstylewasin
effect whenthealignmentwas started and the defaultmath
style will be indisplay style, but can be easilychanged as
needed.e.g.,
\begin{IEEEeqnarray}[\renewcommand{\IEEEeqnarraymath
style}{\scriptstyle}]{rCl}
willresultinscriptstylemathcolumns.
The columns relating toverticalandhorizontallines will
bediscussedinAppendixF-Kastheyaretypicallyusedonly
whenproducingtables.
The“x”and“X” columnsarebasic emptytext andmath
modecolumnswithoutanyformattingorstylecontrols.
C. DefiningGlueTypes
Newcolumnseparationgluetypesaredefinedwiththe
\IEEEeqnarraydefcolsep{colsep_id}{def}
command.The
colsep_id
argumentcontainsthenumberof
thecolumnseparationgluespecifierwhichshouldconsistonly
ofnumerals. Differentglue type names must t have different
numerical values. . (Don’tget t toocute—“007” is identicalto
“7”.) User defined column glue specifiers can be redefined
atwillwithoutwarningorerror.The
def
argumentcontains
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