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gnuplot4.6
201
Luatikz
TheTikZdriverisoneoutputmodeofthegenericLuaterminal.
Syntax:
set terminal lua a tikz
{latex | tex | context}
{color | monochrome}
{dashed | solid}
{nooriginreset | | originreset}
{nogparrows | gparrows}
{nogppoints | gppoints}
{picenvironment | | nopicenvironment}
{noclip | clip}
{notightboundingbox | tightboundingbox}
{background "<colorpec>"}
{size <x>{unit},<y>{unit}}
{scale <x>,<y>}
{plotsize <x>{unit},<y>{unit}}
{charsize <x>{unit},<y>{unit}}
{font "<fontdesc>"}
{{fontscale | textscale} <scale>}
{nofulldoc | nostandalone | fulldoc | standalone}
{{preamble | header} "<preamble_string>"}
{tikzplot <ltn>,...}
{notikzarrows | | tikzarrows}
{rgbimages | cmykimages}
{noexternalimages|externalimages}
{bitmap | nobitmap}
{providevars <var name>,...}
{createstyle}
{help}
Foralloptionsthatexpectlengthsastheirargumentstheywilldefaultto’cm’ifnounitisspecied. Forall
lengthsthefollowingunitsmaybeused:’cm’,’mm’,’in’or’inch’,’pt’,’pc’,’bp’,’dd’,’cc’. Blanksbetween
numbersandunitsarenotallowed.
’monochrome’disableslinecoloringandswitchestograyscaledlls.
’solid’useonlysolidlines.
’originreset’movestheoriginoftheTikZpicturetothelowerleftcorneroftheplot. Itmaybeusedtoalign
severalplotswithinonetikzpictureenvironment. Thisisnottestedwithmultiplotsandpm3dplots!
’gparrows’usegnuplot’sinternalarrowdrawingfunctioninsteadoftheonesprovidedbyTikZ.
’gppoints’usegnuplot’sinternalplotmarkdrawingfunctioninsteadoftheonesprovidedbyTikZ.
’nopicenvironment’omitsthedeclarationofthe’tikzpicture’environmentinordertosetitmanually. This
permitsputtingsomePGF/TikZcodedirectlybeforeoraftertheplot.
’clip’cropstheplotatthedenedcanvassize.Defaultis’noclip’bywhichonlyaminimumboundingboxof
thecanvassizeisset. Neitheraxedboundingboxnoracropboxissetifthe’plotsize’or’tightboundingbox’
optionisused.
If’tightboundingbox’issetthe’clip’optionisignoredandthenalboundingboxisthenaturalbounding
boxcalculatedbytikz.
’background’sets the backgroundcolor tothevalue speciedinthe <colorpec> argument. . <colorspec>
mustbeavalidcolornameora3byteRGBcodeasahexadecimalnumberwithaprecedingnumbersign
(’#’).E.g.’#0000’speciespurered.Ifomittedthebackgroundistransparent.
The’size’optionexpects twolenghts <x> and<y>as thecanvassize. . Thedefaultsizeofthecanvas s is
12.5cmx8.75cm.
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gnuplot4.6
The’scale’optionworkssimilar tothe’size’optionbut expectsscalingfactors s <x> > and<y>insteadof
lengths.
The’plotsize’optionpermitssettingthesizeoftheplotareainsteadofthecanvassize,whichistheusual
gnuplotbehaviour. Usingthis s optionmayleadtoslightlyasymmetric ticlengths. . Like’originreset’this
optionmaynotleadtoconvenientresultsifusedwithmultiplotsorpm3dplots. Analternativeapproachis
tosetallmarginstozeroandtousethe’noclip’option. Theplotareahasthenthedimensionsofthegiven
canvassizes.
The’charsize’optionexpectstheaveragehorizontalandverticalsizeoftheusedfont. Lookatthegenerated
styleleforanexampleofhowtouseitfromwithinyourTeXdocument.
’fontscale’or’textscale’expectsascalingfactorasaparameter.Alltextsintheplotarescaledbythisfactor
then.
Theoptions’tex’,’latex’and’context’choosetheTeX output format. . LaTeXisthedefault. . Toloadthe
styleleputtheaccordinglineatthebeginningofyourdocument:
\input gnuplot-lua-tikz.tex
% (for plain TeX)
\usepackage{gnuplot-lua-tikz} % % (for LaTeX)
\usemodule[gnuplot-lua-tikz]
% (for ConTeXt)
’createstyle’derives the TeX/LaTeX/ConTeXt styles from the script andwrites them totheappropriate
les.
’fulldoc’or’standalone’producesafullLaTeXdocumentfordirectcompilation.
’preamble’ or r ’header’ may y be used d to put t any y additional l LaTeX code e into o the e document preamble e in
standalonemode.
Withthe’tikzplot’optionthe’npathplot’commandwillbeusedinsteadofonly’npath’. Thefollowinglist
ofnumbersoflinetypes(<ltn>,...) denestheaectedplotlines. Thereexistsaplotstyleforeverylinetype.
Thedefaultplotstyleis’smooth’foreverylinetype>=1.
Byusingthe’tikzarrows’optionthegnuplotarrowstylesdenedbytheuserwillbemappedtoTikZarrow
styles.Thisisdoneby’misusing’theanglevalueofthearrowdenition. E.g.anarrowstylewiththeangle
’7’willbemappedtotheTikZstyle’gparrow7’ignoringalltheothergivenvalues. BydefaulttheTikZ
terminalusesthestealth’arrowtipsforallarrows. Toobtainthedefaultgnuplotbehaviourpleaseusethe
’gparrows’option.
With’cmykimages’theCMYK colormodelwillbeusedfor inlineimagedatainsteadoftheRGBmodel.
Allothercolors(likelinecolorsetc.) arenotaectedbythisoption,sincetheyarehandlede.g.byLaTeX’s
xcolorpackage. Thisoptionisignoredifimagesareexternalized.
Byusingthe’externalimages’optionallbitmapimageswillbewrittenasexternalPNGimagesandincluded
atcompiletimeofthedocument. GeneratingDVIandlaterpostscriptles s requirestoconvertthePNGs
intoEPSles inaseperate stepe.g. . by y usingImageMagick’s s convert. . Transparent t bitmapimages are
alwaysgeneratedasanexternalPNGs.
The’nobitmap’optionletimagesberenderedaslledrectanglesinsteadofthenativPSorPDFinlineimage
format.Thisoptionisignoredifimagesareexternalized.
The’providevars’optionsmakesgnuplot’sinternalanduservariablesavailablebyusingthe’ngpgetvarf<var
name>g’commmandwithintheTeXscript. Usegnuplot’s’showvariablesall’commandtoseethelistof
validvariables.
The<fontdesc>stringmaycontainanyvalidTeX/LaTeX/ConTeXtfontcommands likee.g. . ’nsmall’. It
is passed d directly y as s anode e parameter inform of "font=f<fontdesc>g". . This s can be e ’misused’ toadd
further code to o anode, e.g. . ’nsmall,yshift=1ex’ ’ or r ’,yshift=1ex’ ’ are alsovalidwhile thelatter r does not
changethecurrent font settings. . One e exception n is s thesecondargument of thelist. . If f it is anumber of
theform<number>funitgitwillbeinterpretedasafontsizelikeinotherterminalsandwillbeappended
to the rst t argument. . If f the unit is s omitted the e value is s interpretedas s ’pt’. . As s anexample the string
’nsamily,12,ll=red’setsthefonttoLaTeX’ssansseriffontatasizeof12ptandredbackgroundcolor. The
sameappliestoConTeXt, e.g. . ’nswitchtobodyfont[iwona],10’changesthefonttoIwonaatasizeof10pt.
PlainTeXusershavetochangethefontsizeexplicitlywithintherstargument. Thesecondshouldbeset
tothesamevaluetogetproperscalingoftextboxes.
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gnuplot4.6
203
Stringshavetobeputinsingleordoublequotes. Doublequotedstringsmaycontainspecialcharacterslike
newlines’nn’etc.
Macintosh
Syntax:
set terminal macintosh {singlewin | multiwin} {vertical | novertical}
{size <width>, <height> | default}
’singlewin’limits the output toasinglewindowandis usefulfor animations. . ’multiwin’allows s multiple
windows. ’vertical’isonlyvalidunderthegxoption. Withthisoption,rotatedtextwillbedrawnvertically.
noverticalturns this optiono. . size e <width>, <height> overrides the graphsize set in n the e preferences
dialoguntilitisclearedwitheither’settermmacsizedefault’or’settermmacdefault’.
’settermmacsizedefault’setsthewindowsizesettingstothosesetinthepreferencesdialog.
’settermmacdefault’setsalloptionstotheirdefaultvalues. Defaultvalues: nogx,multiwin,novertical.
Ifyougenerategraphsunderthemultiwinoptionandthenswitchtosinglewin,thenextplotcommandwill
causeonemorewindowtobecreated.Thisnewwindowwillbereusedaslongassinglewinisineect.Ifyou
switchbacktomultiwin,generatesomegraphs,andthenswitchtosinglewinagain,theorginal’singlewin’
windowwillberesusedifitisstillopen.Otherwiseanew’singlewin’windowwillbecreated.The’singlewin’
windowisnotnumbered.
Mf
Themfterminaldrivercreatesaninput letotheMETAFONTprogram. . Thusaguremaybeusedin
theTeXdocumentinthesamewayasisacharacter.
Touseapictureinadocument,theMETAFONTprogrammustberunwiththeoutputlefromgnuplot
asinput.Thus,theuserneedsabasicknowledgeofthefontcreatingprocessandtheprocedureforincluding
anewfontinadocument. However, , if theMETAFONTprogram is s setupproperlyatthelocalsite,an
unexperiencedusercouldperformtheoperationwithoutmuchtrouble.
Thetextsupportis basedonaMETAFONTcharacterset. . CurrentlytheComputerModernRomanfont
setisinput,buttheuser is inprincipalfreetochoosewhateverfontsheor sheneeds. . TheMETAFONT
sourcelesforthechosenfontmustbeavailable. Eachcharacterisstoredinaseparatepicturevariablein
METAFONT.Thesevariablesmaybemanipulated(rotated,scaledetc.) whencharactersareneeded. The
drawbackistheinterpretationtimeintheMETAFONTprogram. Onsomemachines(i.e. PC)thelimited
amountofmemoryavailablemayalsocauseproblemsiftoomanypicturesarestored.
Themfterminalhasnooptions.
METAFONTInstructions
-SetyourterminaltoMETAFONT:
set terminal mf
-Selectanoutput-le,e.g.:
set output "myfigures.mf"
-Createyourpictures. Eachpicturewillgenerateaseparatecharacter. Itsdefaultsizewillbe5*3inches.
Youcanchangethesizebysayingsetsize0.5,0.5orwhateverfractionofthedefaultsizeyouwanttohave.
-Quitgnuplot.
-GenerateaTFMandGFlebyrunningMETAFONTontheoutputofgnuplot.Sincethepictureisquite
large(5*3in),youwillhavetouseaversionofMETAFONTthathasavalueofatleast150000formemmax.
OnUnixsystemstheseareconventionallyinstalledunder thenamebigmf. . Forthefollowingassumethat
thecommandvirmfstandsforabigversionofMETAFONT.Forexample:
-InvokeMETAFONT:
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gnuplot4.6
virmf ’&plain’
-Selecttheoutputdevice: AttheMETAFONTprompt(’*’)type:
\mode:=CanonCX;
% or whatever printer you use
-Optionallyselectamagnication:
mag:=1;
% or whatever you wish
-Inputthegnuplot-le:
input myfigures.mf
OnatypicalUnixmachinetherewillusuallybeascriptcalled"mf"thatexecutes virmf’&plain’,soyou
probablycansubstitutemfforvirmf&plain.Thiswillgeneratetwoles:mfput.tfmandmfput.$$$gf(where
$$$indicatestheresolutionofyourdevice). Theabovecanbeconvenientlyachievedbytypingeverything
onthecommandline,e.g.:virmf’&plain’’nmode:=CanonCX;mag:=1;inputmygures.mf’Inthiscasethe
outputleswillbenamedmygures.tfmandmygures.300gf.
-GenerateaPKlefromtheGFleusinggftopk:
gftopk myfigures.300gf myfigures.300pk
ThenameoftheoutputleforgftopkdependsontheDVIdriveryouuse.AskyourlocalTeXadministrator
aboutthenamingconventions. Next,eitherinstalltheTFMandPKlesintheappropriatedirectories,or
setyour environment variablesproperly. . Usually y thisinvolves settingTEXFONTStoincludethecurrent
directoryanddoingthesamethingfortheenvironment variablethatyourDVIdriver uses (nostandard
namehere...).ThisstepisnecessarysothatTeXwillndthefontmetricleandyourDVIdriverwillnd
thePKle.
-ToincludeyourpicturesinyourdocumentyouhavetotellTeXthefont:
\font\gnufigs=myfigures
Eachpictureyoumadeisstoredinasinglecharacter. Therstpictureischaracter0,thesecondischaracter
1,andsoon... Afterdoingtheabovestep,youcanusethepicturesjustlikeanyothercharacters.Therefore,
toplacepictures1and2centeredinyourdocument,allyouhavetodois:
\centerline{\gnufigs\char0}
\centerline{\gnufigs\char1}
inplainTeX.ForLaTeXyoucan,ofcourse,usethepictureenvironmentandplacethepicturewhereveryou
wishbyusingthenmakeboxandnputmacros.
This conversionsaves s you alot t of time once youhave generated d the e font; ; TeX X handles the pictures s as
charactersandusesminimaltimetoplacethem,andthedocumentsyoumakechangemoreoftenthanthe
picturesdo. ItalsosavesalotofTeXmemory. OnelastadvantageofusingtheMETAFONTdriveristhat
theDVIlereallyremainsdeviceindependent,becausenonspecialcommandsareusedasintheeepicand
tpicdrivers.
Mif
ThemifterminaldriverproducesFrameMakerMIFformatversion3.00. ItplotsinMIFFrameswiththe
size15*10cm,andplotprimitiveswiththesamepenwillbegroupedinthesameMIFgroup.Plotprimitives
inagnuplotpagewillbeplottedinaMIFFrame,andseveralMIFFramesarecollectedinonelargeMIF
Frame. TheMIFfontusedfortextis"Times".
SeveraloptionsmaybesetintheMIF3.00driver.
Syntax:
set terminal mif {color | colour | monochrome} {polyline | vectors}
{help | ?}
colourplots lines withlinetypes>=0incolour(MIFsep. . 2{7) ) andmonochromeplots alllinetypes
inblack(MIFsep. 0). polylineplotscurvesascontinuouscurvesandvectorsplotscurvesascollections
ofvectors. helpand? ? printonlinehelponstandarderroroutput|bothprintashortdescriptionofthe
usage;helpalsoliststheoptions.
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gnuplot4.6
205
set term mif colour polylines
# defaults
set term mif
# defaults
set term mif vectors
set term mif help
Mp
ThempdriverproducesoutputintendedtobeinputtotheMetapostprogram. RunningMetapostonthe
lecreatesEPSlescontainingtheplots. Bydefault,MetapostpassesalltextthroughTeX.Thishasthe
advantageofallowingessentiallyanyTeXsymbolsintitlesandlabels.
Syntax:
set term mp {color r | | colour | monochrome}
{solid | | dashed}
{notex | | tex | latex}
{magnification <magsize>}
{psnfss | psnfss-version7 | nopsnfss}
{prologues <value>}
{a4paper}
{amstex}
{"<fontname> {,<fontsize>}"}
Theoptioncolorcauseslinestobedrawnincolor(onaprinterordisplaythatsupportsit),monochrome
(ornothing)selectsblacklines. Theoptionsoliddrawssolidlines,whiledashed(ornothing)selectslines
withdierentpatternsofdashes. Ifsolidisselectedbutcolorisnot,nearlyalllineswillbeidentical. This
mayoccasionallybeuseful,soitisallowed.
TheoptionnotexbypassesTeXentirely, thereforenoTeX codecanbeusedinlabels s underthis option.
Thisisintendedforuseonoldplotlesorlesthatmakefrequentuseofcommoncharacterslike$and%
thatrequirespecialhandlinginTeX.
TheoptiontexsetstheterminaltooutputitstextforTeXtoprocess.
The optionlatex sets s the e terminal tooutput t its text t for processing g by LaTeX. This allows s things s like
nfracforfractionswhichLaTeXknowsaboutbutTeXdoes not. . Notethatyoumustsettheenvironment
variableTEXtothenameofyourLaTeXexecutable(normallylatex)ifyouusethisoptionorusempost
{tex=<name ofLaTeXexecutable>.... OtherwisemetapostwilltryanduseTeXtoprocessthetext
anditwon’twork.
ChangingfontsizesinTeXhasnoeectonthesizeofmathematics,andthereisnofoolproofwaytomake
suchachange,exceptbygloballysettingamagnicationfactor.Thisisthepurposeofthemagnication
option.Itmustbefollowedbyascalingfactor. Alltext(NOTthegraphs)willbescaledbythisfactor.Use
thisifyouhavemaththatyouwantatsomesizeotherthanthedefault10pt. Unfortunately,allmathwill
bethesamesize,butseethediscussionbelowoneditingtheMPoutput. magwillalsoworkundernotex
butthereseemsnopointinusingitasthefontsizeoption(below)worksaswell.
TheoptionpsnfssusespostscriptfontsincombinationwithLaTeX.Sincethisoptiononlymakessense,if
LaTeXisbeingused,thelatexoptionisselectedautomatically.Thisoptionincludesthefollowingpackages
forLaTeX:inputenc(latin1),fontenc(T1),mathptmx,helvet(scaled=09.2),courier,latexsymandtextcomp.
Theoptionpsnfss-version7usesalsopostscriptfontsinLaTeX(optionlatexisalsoautomaticallyselected),
butusesthefollowingpackages withLaTeX: : inputenc(latin1), fontenc(T1),times, mathptmx,helvet and
courier.
Theoptionnopsnfssisthedefaultandusesthestandardfont(cmr10ifnototherwisespecied).
Theoptionprologuestakes avalueas anadditionalargumentandadds thelineprologues:=<value>
tothemetapostle. Ifavalueof2isspeciedmetapostusespostscriptfonts s togeneratetheeps-le,so
thattheresultcanbeviewedusinge.g. ghostscript. NormallytheoutputofmetapostusesTeXfontsand
thereforehastobeincludedina(La)TeXlebeforeyoucanlookatit.
Theoptionnoprologuesisthedefault. Noadditionallinespecifyingtheprologuewillbeadded.
206
gnuplot4.6
Theoptiona4paperaddsa[a4paper]tothedocumentclass. Normallyletterpaperisused(default).Since
thisoptionisonlyusedincaseofLaTeX,thelatexoptionisselectedautomatically.
The optionamstex x automatically y selects the latex optionand d includes the e following LaTeX packages:
amsfonts,amsmath(intlimits). Bydefaultthesepackagesarenotincluded.
A nameinquotes selects thefont that will be usedwhennoexplicit font is givenina set label or set
title. AnamerecognizedbyTeX(aTFMleexists)mustbeused. Thedefaultis"cmr10"unlessnotex
isselected,thenit is "pcrr8r"(Courier). . Evenunder r notex,aTFMleis neededbyMetapost. . Thele
pcrr8r.tfmisthenamegiventoCourierinLaTeX’spsnfsspackage.Ifyouchangethefontfromthenotex
default,chooseafontthatmatchestheASCIIencodingatleastintherange32-126. cmtt10almostworks,
butithasanonblankcharacterinposition32(space).
Thesize canbeanynumber between5.0and99.99. . If f it isomitted, 10.0is used. . Itis s advisable touse
magstepsizes: 10timesanintegerorhalf-integerpowerof1.2,roundedtotwodecimals,becausethoseare
themostavailablesizesoffontsinTeXsystems.
Alltheoptionsareoptional. Iffontinformationisgiven,itmustbeattheend,withsize(ifpresent)last.
Thesizeisneededtoselectasizeforthefont,evenifthefontnameincludessizeinformation. Forexample,
settermmp"cmtt12"selectscmtt12shrunktothedefaultsize10. Thisisprobablynotwhatyouwant
oryouwouldhaveusedcmtt10.
ThefollowingcommonasciicharactersneedspecialtreatmentinTeX:
$, &, #, %, _; ; |, , <, , >; ; ^, , ~, , \, , {, and }
Thevecharacters$,#,&,
,and%cansimplybeescaped,e.g.,n$. Thethreecharacters<,>,andjcan
bewrappedinmathmode,e.g.,$<$. TheremainderrequiresomeTeXwork-arounds. Anygoodbookon
TeXwillgivesomeguidance.
Ifyoutypeyourlabelsinsidedoublequotes,backslashesinTeXcodeneedtobeescaped(doubled). Using
singlequoteswillavoidhavingtodothis,butthenyoucannotusennforlinebreaks.Asofthiswriting,ver-
sion3.7ofgnuplotprocessestitlesgiveninaplotcommanddierentlythaninotherplaces,andbackslashes
inTeXcommandsneedtobedoubledregardlessofthestyleofquotes.
MetapostpicturesaretypicallyusedinTeXdocuments. Metapostdealswithfontsprettymuchthesameway
TeXdoes,whichisdierentfrommostotherdocumentpreparationprograms. Ifthepictureisincludedin
aLaTeXdocumentusingthegraphicspackage,orinaplainTeXdocumentviaepsf.tex,andthenconverted
toPostScriptwithdvips(orotherdvi-to-psconverter),thetextintheplotwillusuallybehandledcorrectly.
However,thetextmaynotappearifyousendtheMetapostoutputas-istoaPostScriptinterpreter.
MetapostInstructions
-SetyourterminaltoMetapost,e.g.:
set terminal mp mono "cmtt12" 12
-Selectanoutput-le,e.g.:
set output "figure.mp"
-Createyourpictures. Eachplot t (or multiplotgroup)willgenerate aseparate Metapostbeging...endg
group. Itsdefaultsizewillbe5by3inches. Youcanchangethesizebysayingsetsize0.5,0.5orwhatever
fractionofthedefaultsizeyouwanttohave.
-Quitgnuplot.
-GenerateEPSlesbyrunningMetapostontheoutputofgnuplot:
mpost figure.mp p OR mp p figure.mp
ThenameoftheMetapostprogramdependsonthesystem,typically mpostforaUnixmachineandmp
onmanyothers. MetapostwillgenerateoneEPSleforeachpicture.
-To include your r pictures inyour document t youcanuse e the graphics s package e in n LaTeX X or epsf.tex in
plainTeX:
\usepackage{graphics} % LaTeX
\input epsf.tex
% plainTeX
gnuplot4.6
207
IfyouuseadriverotherthandvipsforconvertingTeXDVIoutputtoPS,youmayneedtoaddthefollowing
lineinyourLaTeXdocument:
\DeclareGraphicsRule{*}{eps}{*}{}
Eachpictureyoumadeisinaseparatele. Therstpictureisin,e.g.,gure.0,thesecondingure.1,and
soon.... Toplacethethirdpictureinyourdocument,forexample,allyouhavetodois:
\includegraphics{figure.2} % LaTeX
\epsfbox{figure.2}
% plainTeX
Theadvantage,ifany,ofthempterminaloverapostscriptterminaliseditableoutput. Considerableeort
wentintomakingthisoutputascleanaspossible. ForthoseknowledgeableintheMetapostlanguage,the
defaultlinetypesandcolorscanbechangedbyeditingthearrayslt[]andcol[].Thechoiceofsolidvsdashed
lines,andcolorvsblacklinescanbechangebychangingthevaluesassignedtothebooleansdashedlines
andcolorlines. Ifthedefaulttexoptionwasineect,globalchangestothetextoflabelscanbeachieved
byeditingthevebatimtex...etexblock.Inparticular,aLaTeXpreamblecanbeaddedifdesired,andthen
LaTeX’sbuilt-insizechangingcommandscanbeusedformaximum exibility. Besuretosettheappropriate
MPcongurationvariabletoforceMetaposttorunLaTeXinsteadofplainTeX.
Next
Severaloptionsmaybesetinthenextdriver.
Syntax:
set terminal next {<mode>} {<type> } {<color>} {<dashed>}
{"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>} title {"<newtitle>"}
where<mode> isdefault,whichsetsalloptionstotheir defaults; ; <type> > is either new or old,where
oldinvokes the oldsinglewindow; ; <color> > is either color or monochrome; ; <dashed> > is either solid
or dashed; ; "<fontname>"is s the name of a a validPostScript t font; ; <fontsize> > is thesize of the font in
PostScript points; and<title> is the title forthe GnuTerm window. . Defaults s are new, , monochrome,
dashed,"Helvetica",14pt.
Examples:
set term next default
set term next 22
set term next color "Times-Roman" 14
set term next color "Helvetica" 12 title "MyPlot"
set term next old
Pointsizesmaybechangedwithsetlinestyle.
Openstep(next)
Severaloptionsmaybesetintheopenstep(next)driver.
Syntax:
set terminal openstep {<mode>} {<type> } {<color>} {<dashed>}
{"<fontname>"} {<fontsize>} title {"<newtitle>"}
where<mode> isdefault,whichsetsalloptionstotheir defaults; ; <type> > is either new or old,where
oldinvokes the oldsinglewindow; ; <color> > is either color or monochrome; ; <dashed> > is either solid
or dashed; ; "<fontname>"is s the name of a a validPostScript t font; ; <fontsize> > is thesize of the font in
PostScript points; and<title> is the title forthe GnuTerm window. . Defaults s are new, , monochrome,
dashed,"Helvetica",14pt.
Examples:
set term openstep default
set term openstep 22
set term openstep color "Times-Roman" 14
set term openstep color "Helvetica" 12 title "MyPlot"
set term openstep old
208
gnuplot4.6
Pointsizesmaybechangedwithsetlinestyle.
Pbm
Syntax:
set terminal pbm {<fontsize>} {<mode>} {size <x>,<y>}
where<fontsize>issmall,medium,orlargeand<mode>ismonochrome,grayorcolor. Thedefault
plotsizeis640pixelswideand480pixelshigh.Theoutputsizeiswhite-spacepaddedtothenearestmultiple
of8pixelsonbothxandy. Thisemptyspacemaybecroppedlaterifneeded.
Theoutputofthepbmdriverdependsupon<mode>:monochromeproducesaportablebitmap(onebit
perpixel),grayaportablegraymap(threebitsperpixel)andcoloraportablepixmap(color,fourbitsper
pixel).
Theoutputofthisdrivercanbeusedwithvariousimageconversionandmanipulationutilitiesprovidedby
NETPBM.BasedonJefPoskanzer’sPBMPLUSpackage,NETPBMprovidesprogramstoconverttheabove
PBM formats toGIF,TIFF,MacPaint,MacintoshPICT,PCX,X11bitmapandmanyothers. . Complete
informationisavailableathttp://netpbm.sourceforge.net/.
Examples:
set terminal pbm small monochrome
# defaults
set terminal pbm color medium size 800,600
set output ’| pnmrotate 45 | pnmtopng > tilted.png’ ’ # # uses NETPBM
Pdf
ThisterminalproduceslesintheAdobePortableDocumentFormat(PDF),useableforprintingordisplay
withtoolslikeAcrobatReader
Syntax:
set terminal pdf {monochrome|color|colour}
{{no}enhanced}
{fname "<font>"} {fsize <fontsize>}
{font "<fontname>{,<fontsize>}"} {fontscale <scale>}
{linewidth <lw>} {rounded|butt}
{solid|dashed} {dl <dashlength>}}
{size <XX>{unit},<YY>{unit}}
The default t is to use e a dierent t color for r each h line type. . Selecting g monochome e will l use black k for all
linetypes, inwhichcase youprobably wanttoselect dashedtodistinguishline types. . Evenininmono
modeyoucanstilluseexplicitcolorsforlledareasorlinestyles.
where <font> is the name ofthe default font touse(default Helvetica) and<fontsize> > is s the font size
(inpoints, default 12). . For r helponwhich h fonts s are available or howtoinstallnew w ones, pleasesee the
documentationforyourlocalinstallationofpd ib.
Theenhancedoptionenablesenhancedtextprocessingfeatures(subscripts,superscriptsandmixedfonts).
Seeenhanced(p. 23).
The widthof alllines inthe plot canbe increasedby the factor <n> speciedinlinewidth. . Similarly
dashlengthisamultiplierforthedefaultdashspacing.
roundedsetslinecapsandlinejoinstoberounded;buttisthedefault,buttcapsandmiteredjoins.
ThedefaultsizeforPDFoutputis5inchesby3inches. Thesizeoptionchangesthistowhatevertheuser
requests.BydefaulttheXandYsizesaretakentobeininches,butotherunitsarepossible(currentlyonly
cm).
gnuplot4.6
209
Pdfcairo
Thepdfcairoterminaldevicegeneratesoutputinpdf.Theactualdrawingisdoneviacairo,a2Dgraphics
library,andpango,alibraryforlayingoutandrenderingtext.
Syntax:
set term pdfcairo
{{no}enhanced} {mono|color} {solid|dashed}
{font <font>} {fontscale <scale>}
{linewidth <lw>} {rounded|butt} {dashlength <dl>}
{size <XX>{unit},<YY>{unit}}
Thisterminal supports s anenhancedtext mode,whichallows fontandother formattingcommands (sub-
scripts,superscripts,etc.) tobeembeddedinlabelsandothertextstrings. Theenhancedtextmodesyntax
issharedwithothergnuplotterminaltypes. Seeenhanced(p.23)formoredetails.
Thewidthofalllinesintheplotcanbemodiedbythefactor<lw>speciedinlinewidth. Thedefault
linewidthis0.25points. (1"PostScript"point=1/72inch=0.353mm)
roundedsetslinecapsandlinejoinstoberounded;buttisthedefault,buttcapsandmiteredjoins.
Thedefaultsizefortheoutputis5inches x3inches. . Thesizeoptionchangesthis s towhatevertheuser
requests.BydefaulttheXandYsizesaretakentobeininches,butotherunitsarepossible(currentlyonly
cm). Screencoordinatesalwaysrunfrom0.0to1.0alongthefulllengthoftheplotedgesasspeciedbythe
sizeoption.
<font>isintheformat"FontFace,FontSize",i.e. thefaceandthesizecomma-separatedinasinglestring.
FontFaceisausualfontfacename,suchas’Arial’. IfyoudonotprovideFontFace,thepdfcairoterminal
willuse’Sans’. FontSizeisthefontsize,inpoints. Ifyoudonotprovideit,thepdfcairoterminalwilluse
anominalfont sizeof12points. . However,thedefaultfontscaleparameterforthis s terminalis 0.5,sothe
apparentfontsizeissmallerthanthisifthepdfoutputisviewedatfullsize.
For example :
set term pdfcairo font "Arial,12"
set term pdfcairo font "Arial" # to change the font face only
set term pdfcairo font ",12" # to change the font size only
set term pdfcairo font "" # to reset the font name and size
Thefontsareretrievedfromtheusualfontssubsystems. UnderWindows,thosefontsaretobefoundand
conguredintheentry"Fonts"ofthecontrolpanel.UnderUNIX,theyarehandledby"fontcong".
Pango,thelibraryusedtolayoutthetext,isbasedonutf-8.Thus,thepdfcairoterminalhastoconvertfrom
yourencodingtoutf-8. Thedefault t inputencodingis basedonyour ’locale’. . Ifyouwanttouseanother
encoding,makesuregnuplotknowswhichoneyouareusing. Seeencoding(p. 112)formoredetails.
Pangomaygiveunexpectedresultswithfontsthatdonotrespecttheunicodemapping. WiththeSymbol
font,forexample,thepdfcairoterminal willusethemapprovidedbyhttp://www.unicode.org/totrans-
late character codes tounicode. . Notethat"theSymbolfont"is s tobeunderstoodas the Adobe Symbol
font,distributedwithAcrobatReaderas"SY
.PFB". Alternatively,theOpenSymbolfont,distributed
withOpenOce.orgas"opens
.ttf",oers thesamecharacters. . MicrosofthasdistributedaSymbolfont
("symbol.ttf"),butithasadierentcharactersetwithseveralmissingormovedmathematiccharacters. If
youexperienceproblemswithyourdefaultsetup(ifthedemoenhancedtext.demisnotdisplayedproperly
forexample),youprobablyhavetoinstalloneoftheAdobeor OpenOceSymbolfonts,andremovethe
Microsoftone. Othernon-conformfonts,suchas"wingdings"havebeenobservedworking.
Therenderingoftheplotcannotbealteredyet. Toobtainthebestoutputpossible,therenderinginvolvestwo
mechanisms:antialiasingandoversampling. Antialiasingallowstodisplaynon-horizontalandnon-vertical
linessmoother. Oversamplingcombinedwithantialiasingprovides s subpixelaccuracy,sothatgnuplotcan
drawalinefromnon-integercoordinates.Thisavoidswobblingeectsondiagonallines(’plotx’forexample).
Pm
ThepmterminaldriverprovidesanOS/2PresentationManagerwindowinwhichthegraphisplotted. The
windowisopenedwhentherstgraphisplotted. Thiswindowhasitsownonlinehelpaswellasfacilities
210
gnuplot4.6
forprinting,copyingtotheclipboardandsomelinetypeandcoloradjustments. Themultiplotoptionis
supported.
Syntax:
set terminal pm m {server r {n}} {persist} {widelines} {enhanced} {"title"}
Ifpersistisspecied,eachgraphappearsinitsownwindowandallwindowsremainopenafter gnuplot
exits.Ifserverisspecied,allgraphsappearinthesamewindow,whichremainsopenwhengnuplotexits.
Thisoptiontakes anoptionalnumericalargumentwhichspeciesaninstanceoftheserverprocess. . Thus
multipleserverwindowscanbeinuseatthesametime.
If widelines s is s specied, , all plots will be drawn with wide lines. . If f enhanced is s specied, , sub- and
superscriptsandmultiplefontsareenabled(see enhanced text(p. 23)fordetails). . Fontnames s forthe
corePostScriptfontsmaybeabbreviatedtoasingleletter(T/H/C/SforTimes/Helvetica/Courier/Symbol).
Iftitleisspecied,itwillbeusedasthetitleoftheplotwindow. Itwillalsobeusedasthenameofthe
serverinstance,andwilloverridetheoptionalnumericalargument.
Linewidthsmaybechangedwithsetlinestyle.
Png
Syntax:
set terminal png
{{no}enhanced}
{{no}transparent} {{no}interlace}
{{no}truecolor} {rounded|butt}
{linewidth <lw>} {dashlength <dl>}
{tiny | | small l | medium | large | giant}
{font "<face> {,<pointsize>}"} {fontscale <scale>}
{size <x>,<y>} {{no}crop}
{background <rgb_color>}
PNG, JPEG G and GIF F images s are e created using g the e external l library libgd. . PNG G plots s may be viewed
interactivelybypipingtheoutputtothe’display’programfromtheImageMagickpackageasfollows:
set term png
set output ’| display png:-’
Youcanviewthe output fromsuccessive plotcommands interactively bytyping <space> inthedisplay
window.Tosavethecurrentplottoale,leftclickinthedisplaywindowandchoosesave.
transparentinstructsthedrivertomakethebackgroundcolortransparent. Defaultisnotransparent.
interlaceinstructsthedrivertogenerateinterlacedPNGs. Defaultisnointerlace.
Thelinewidthanddashlengthoptionsarescalingfactorsthataectalllinesdrawn,i.e.theyaremultiplied
byvaluesrequestedinvariousdrawingcommands.
By default output png images use 256 indexed d colors. . The e truecolor optioninsteadcreates TrueColor
imageswith24bitsofcolorinformationperpixel.Transparentllstylesrequirethetruecoloroption. See
llstyle(p. 150).AtransparentbackgroundispossibleineitherindexedorTrueColorimages.
buttinstructsthedrivertousealinedrawingmethodthatdoesnot overshootthedesiredendpointofa
line.Thissettingisonlyapplicableforlinewidthsgreaterthan1. Thissettingismostusefulwhendrawing
horizontalorverticallines.Defaultisrounded.
Thedetailsoffontselectionarecomplicated. Twoequivalentsimpleexamplesaregivenbelow:
set term png font arial 11
set term png font "arial,11"
Formoreinformationpleaseseetheseparatesectionunderfonts (p.31).
Theoutputplotsize<x,y>isgiveninpixels|itdefaults to640x480. . Pleaseseeadditionalinformation
undercanvas(p.21)andsetsize(p.146).Blankspaceattheedgesofthenishedplotmaybetrimmed
usingthecropoption,resultinginasmallernalimagesize.Defaultisnocrop.
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