gnuplot4.6
211
Examples
set terminal png medium size 640,480 background ’#ffffff’
Usethemediumsizebuilt-innon-scaleable,non-rotatablefont. Usewhite(24-bitRGBinhexadecimal)for
thenon-transparentbackground.
set terminal png font arial 14 size 800,600
Searchesforascalablefontwithfacename’arial’andsetsthefontsizeto14pt. Pleaseseefonts (p. 31)
fordetailsofhowthefontsearchisdone.
set terminal png transparent truecolor enhanced
Use24bitsofcolorinformationperpixel,withatransparentbackground. Usetheenhancedtextmode
tocontrolthelayoutofstringstobeprinted.
Pngcairo
Thepngcairoterminaldevicegeneratesoutputinpng. Theactualdrawingisdoneviacairo,a2Dgraphics
library,andpango,alibraryforlayingoutandrenderingtext.
Syntax:
set term pngcairo
{{no}enhanced} {mono|color} {solid|dashed}
{{no}transparent} {{no}crop} {background <rgbcolor>
{font <font>} {fontscale <scale>}
{linewidth <lw>} {rounded|butt} {dashlength <dl>}
{size <XX>{unit},<YY>{unit}}
Thisterminal supports s anenhancedtext mode,whichallows fontandother formattingcommands (sub-
scripts,superscripts,etc.) tobeembeddedinlabelsandothertextstrings. Theenhancedtextmodesyntax
issharedwithothergnuplotterminaltypes. Seeenhanced(p.23)formoredetails.
Thewidthofalllinesintheplotcanbemodiedbythefactor<lw>.
roundedsetslinecapsandlinejoinstoberounded;buttisthedefault,buttcapsandmiteredjoins.
The default size for the output is 640 x 480 pixels. . The e size option n changes s this s towhatever r the user
requests. BydefaulttheXandYsizesaretakentobeinpixels,butotherunitsarepossible(currentlycm
andinch). Asizegivenincentimetersorincheswillbeconvertedintopixelsassumingaresolutionof72dpi.
Screencoordinatesalwaysrunfrom0.0to1.0alongthefulllengthoftheplotedgesasspeciedbythesize
option.
<font>isintheformat"FontFace,FontSize",i.e. thefaceandthesizecomma-separatedinasinglestring.
FontFaceisausualfontfacename,suchas’Arial’. IfyoudonotprovideFontFace,thepngcairoterminal
willuse’Sans’.FontSizeisthefontsize,inpoints.Ifyoudonotprovideit,thepngcairoterminalwillusea
sizeof12points.
For example :
set term pngcairo font "Arial,12"
set term pngcairo font "Arial" # to change the font face only
set term pngcairo font ",12" # to change the font size only
set term pngcairo font "" # to reset the font name and size
Thefontsareretrievedfromtheusualfontssubsystems. UnderWindows,thosefontsaretobefoundand
conguredintheentry"Fonts"ofthecontrolpanel.UnderUNIX,theyarehandledby"fontcong".
Pango,thelibraryusedtolayoutthe text,isbasedonutf-8. . Thus,thepngcairoterminalhas s toconvert
fromyourencodingtoutf-8. Thedefaultinputencodingisbasedonyour’locale’.Ifyouwanttouseanother
encoding,makesuregnuplotknowswhichoneyouareusing. Seeencoding(p. 112)formoredetails.
Pangomaygiveunexpectedresultswithfontsthatdonotrespecttheunicodemapping. WiththeSymbol
font,forexample,thepngcairoterminalwillusethemapprovidedbyhttp://www.unicode.org/totrans-
late character codes tounicode. . Notethat"theSymbolfont"is s tobeunderstoodas the Adobe Symbol
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gnuplot4.6
font,distributedwithAcrobatReaderas"SY
.PFB". Alternatively,theOpenSymbolfont,distributed
withOpenOce.orgas"opens
.ttf",oers thesamecharacters. . MicrosofthasdistributedaSymbolfont
("symbol.ttf"),butithasadierentcharactersetwithseveralmissingormovedmathematiccharacters. If
youexperienceproblemswithyourdefaultsetup(ifthedemoenhancedtext.demisnotdisplayedproperly
forexample),youprobablyhavetoinstalloneoftheAdobeor OpenOceSymbolfonts,andremovethe
Microsoftone. Othernon-conformfonts,suchas"wingdings"havebeenobservedworking.
Therenderingoftheplotcannotbealteredyet. Toobtainthebestoutputpossible,therenderinginvolvestwo
mechanisms:antialiasingandoversampling. Antialiasingallowstodisplaynon-horizontalandnon-vertical
linessmoother. Oversamplingcombinedwithantialiasingprovides s subpixelaccuracy,sothatgnuplotcan
drawalinefromnon-integercoordinates.Thisavoidswobblingeectsondiagonallines(’plotx’forexample).
Postscript
Severaloptionsmaybesetinthepostscriptdriver.
Syntax:
set terminal postscript {default}
set terminal postscript {landscape | portrait | eps}
{enhanced | noenhanced}
{defaultplex | simplex | duplex}
{fontfile [add | delete] "<filename>"
| nofontfiles} {{no}adobeglyphnames}
{level1 | leveldefault}
{color | colour | monochrome}
{background <rgbcolor> | nobackground}
{solid | dashed}
{dashlength | dl <DL>}
{linewidth | lw <LW>}
{rounded | butt}
{clip | noclip}
{palfuncparam <samples>{,<maxdeviation>}}
{size <XX>{unit},<YY>{unit}}
{blacktext | colortext | colourtext}
{{font} "fontname{,fontsize}" " {<fontsize>}}
{fontscale <scale>}
Ifyouseetheerrormessage
"Can’t find PostScript prologue file ... "
Pleaseseeandfollowtheinstructionsinpostscriptprologue(p.215).
landscapeandportraitchoosetheplotorientation. epsmodegeneratesEPS(EncapsulatedPostScript)
output,whichisjustregularPostScriptwithsomeadditionallinesthatallowtheletobeimportedintoa
varietyofotherapplications. (TheaddedlinesarePostScriptcommentlines,sothelemaystillbeprinted
byitself.) TogetEPSoutput,usetheepsmodeandmakeonlyoneplotperle. . Inepsmodethewhole
plot,includingthefonts,isreducedtohalfofthedefaultsize.
enhancedenablesenhancedtextmodefeatures(subscripts,superscriptsandmixedfonts). Seeenhanced
(p. 23)formoreinformation. . blacktextforcesalltexttobewritteninblackevenincolormode;
DuplexinginPostScriptistheabilityoftheprintertoprintonbothsidesofthesamesheetofpaper.With
defaultplex,thedefaultsettingoftheprinterisused;withsimplexonlyonesideisprinted;duplexprints
onbothsides(ignoredifyourprintercan’tdoit).
"<fontname>"isthenameofavalidPostScriptfont;and<fontsize>isthesizeofthefontinPostScript
points. In n addition to the e standardpostscript fonts, , anoblique e versionof f the e Symbol font, useful l for
mathematics,isdened.Itiscalled"Symbol-Oblique".
defaultsetsalloptionstotheirdefaults:landscape,monochrome,dashed,dl1.0,lw1.0,defaultplex,
noenhanced,"Helvetica"and14pt. DefaultsizeofaPostScriptplotis10incheswideand7incheshigh.
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gnuplot4.6
213
Theoptioncolorenables color,while monochromeprefers blackandwhitedrawingelements. . Further,
monochromeusesgraypalettebutitdoesnotchangecolorofobjectsspeciedwithanexplicitcolorspec.
soliddrawsallplotswithsolidlines,overridinganydashedpatterns. dashlengthordlscalesthelengthof
thedashed-linesegmentsby<DL>,whichisa oating-pointnumbergreaterthanzero. linewidthorlw
scalesalllinewidthsby<LW>.
BydefaultthegeneratedPostScriptcodeuseslanguagefeaturesthatwereintroducedinPostScriptLevel2,
notablyltersandpattern-llofirregularobjectssuchaslledcurves. PostScriptLevel2featuresarecondi-
tionallyprotectedsothatPostScriptLevel1interpretersdonotissueerrorsbut,rather,displayamessage
oraPostScript Level1approximation. . Thelevel1optionsubstitutes s PostScript Level1approximations
ofthesefeaturesandusesnoPostScript Level2code. . Thismayberequiredbysomeoldprintersandold
versionsofAdobeIllustrator. The aglevel1canbetoggledlaterbyeditingasinglelineinthePostScript
outputletoforcePostScriptLevel1interpretation. Inthecaseoflescontaininglevel2code,theabove
featureswillnotappearorwillbereplacedbyanotewhenthis agissetorwhentheinterpretingprogram
doesnotindicatethatitunderstandslevel2PostScriptorhigher.
roundedsetslinecapsandlinejoinstoberounded;buttisthedefault,buttcapsandmiteredjoins.
cliptellsPostScripttoclipalloutputtotheboundingbox;noclipisthedefault.
palfuncparam controls how set t palette functions s are encodedas s gradients in the e output. . Analytic
color component functions (set viaset t palette functions) ) areencodedas linear interpolatedgradients
inthepostscriptoutput: Thecolorcomponentfunctionsaresampledat t <samples>pointsandallpoints
areremovedfromthisgradientwhichcanberemovedwithoutchangingtheresultingcolorsbymorethan
<maxdeviation>.Foralmosteveryusefulpaletteyoumaysafelyleavethedefaultsof<samples>=2000and
<maxdeviation>=0.003untouched.
Thedefaultsizeforpostscriptoutputis10inchesx7inches. Thedefaultforepsoutputis5x3.5inches.
Thesizeoptionchangesthistowhatevertheuserrequests. BydefaulttheXandYsizesaretakentobein
inches,butotherunitsarepossibly(currentlyonlycm). TheBoundingBoxoftheplotiscorrectlyadjusted
tocontain the e resized d image. . Screencoordinates s always runfrom 0.0 0 to1.0 alongthefulllengthof the
plotedgesas speciedbythesizeoption. . NB:this s is achange from the previously recommended
methodofusingthe set size command d prior r to o setting the terminal l type. . Theoldmethodleft
theBoundingBoxunchangedandscreencoordinatesdidnotcorrespondtotheactuallimitsoftheplot.
Fontslistedbyfontleorfontleaddencapsulatethefontdenitionsofthelistedfontfromapostscript
Type1or TrueTypefont ledirectlyintothegnuplotoutputpostscript le. . Thus,theenclosedfontcan
beusedinlabels,titles,etc. Seethesectionpostscriptfontle(p.214)formoredetails. Withfontle
delete,afontleisdeletedfromthelistofembeddedles. nofontlescleansthelistofembeddedfonts.
Examples:
set terminal postscript default
# old postscript
set terminal postscript enhanced
# old enhpost
set terminal postscript landscape 22 2 # # old psbig
set terminal postscript eps 14
# old epsf1
set terminal postscript eps 22
# old epsf2
set size 0.7,1.4; set term post portrait color "Times-Roman" 14
set term post "VAGRoundedBT_Regular" 14 fontfile "bvrr8a.pfa"
Linewidthsandpointsizesmaybechangedwithsetstyleline.
Thepostscriptdriversupportsabout70distinctpointtypes,selectablethroughthepointtypeoptionon
plotandsetstyle line.
Severalpossiblyusefullesaboutgnuplot’sPostScriptareincludedinthe/docs/psdocsubdirectoryofthe
gnuplotdistributionandatthedistributionsites. Theseare e "ps
symbols.gpi"(agnuplotcommandle
that, whenexecuted,creates s thele "ps
symbols.ps" whichshows all the symbols available throughthe
postscriptterminal),"ps
guide.ps"(aPostScriptlethatcontainsasummaryoftheenhancedsyntaxand
apageshowingwhattheoctalcodes produce withtext andsymbolfonts), , "ps
le.doc"(atext le that
containsadiscussionoftheorganizationofaPostScriptlewrittenbygnuplot),and"ps
fontle
doc.tex"
(aLaTeXlewhichcontains ashort documentationconcerningthe encapsulationofLaTeXfonts witha
glyphtableofthemathfonts).
A PostScript leis editable, so once gnuplothas createdone, youarefree tomodify it toyour heart’s
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gnuplot4.6
desire. Seetheeditingpostscript(p. 214)sectionforsomehints.
Editingpostscript
ThePostScriptlanguage is avery complex language| fartoocomplex todescribe inanydetailinthis
document.NeverthelesstherearesomethingsinaPostScriptlewrittenbygnuplotthatcanbechanged
withoutriskofintroducingfatalerrorsintothele.
Forexample,thePostScriptstatement"/Colortruedef"(writtenintotheleinresponsetothecommand
setterminalpostscriptcolor),maybealteredinanobviouswaytogenerateablack-and-whiteversionof
aplot. Similarlylinecolors,textcolors,lineweightsandsymbolsizescanalsobealteredinstraight-forward
ways. Text(titles s andlabels)canbe editedtocorrect misspellings or tochangefonts. . Anythingcanbe
repositioned,andofcourseanythingcanbeaddedordeleted,butmodicationssuchasthesemayrequire
deeperknowledgeofthePostScriptlanguage.
Theorganizationof aPostScript lewrittenby gnuplot is discussedinthe textle "ps
le.doc" inthe
docs/pssubdirectoryofthegnuplotsourcedistribution.
Postscriptfontle
The fontleor fontle e add optiontakes s onele name as argument andencapsulates this le intothe
postscriptoutputinordertomakethisfontavailablefortextelements(labels,ticmarks,titles,etc.). The
fontle delete e optionalso takes s one e le name as argument. . It t deletes s this le e name from the list t of
encapsulatedles.
Thepostscript terminalunderstands somefontleformats: : Type1fonts s inASCIIleformat(extension
".pfa"),Type1fonts inbinaryleformat(extension".pfb"),andTrueTypefonts (extension".ttf"). . Pfa
les areunderstooddirectly, , pfbandttf les s areconvertedonthe  y if appropriate conversiontools are
installed(seebelow). Youhavetospecifythefulllenameincludingtheextension. Eachfontleoption
takes exactonefontlename. . Thisoptioncanbeusedmultipletimes s inordertoincludemorethanone
fontle.
The font t le e is s searched in the working directory y and d in all directories listed in the fontpathwhichis
determinedby set fontpath. . Inaddition,thefontpathcanbeset t usingtheenvironmentvariableGNU-
PLOT
FONTPATH.Ifthis is not set asystem dependent default searchlist is used. . See e set fontpath
(p. 113)formoredetails.
Forusingtheencapsulatedfontleyouhavetospecifythefontname(whichnormallyisnotthesameas
thelename). Whenembeddingafontlebyusingthefontleoptionininteractivemode,thefontname
isprintedonthescreen. E.g.
Font file ’p052004l.pfb’ contains the font ’URWPalladioL-Bold’. Location:
/usr/lib/X11/fonts/URW/p052004l.pfb
Whenusingpfaorpfbfonts,youcanalsonditout bylookingintothefontle. . Thereis s alinesimilar
to "/FontName /URWPalladioL-Bold def". . The e middle string without the slash h is the e fontname, here
"URWPalladioL-Bold". For r TrueTypefonts,this is notsoeasy sincethe font nameisstoredinabinary
format. Inaddition,theyoftenhavespacesinthefontnameswhichis s notsupportedbyType1fonts(in
whichaTrueTypeisconvertedonthe y). Thefontnamesarechangedinordertoeliminatethespacesin
thefontnames.Theeasiestwaytondoutwhichfontnameisgeneratedforusewithgnuplot,startgnuplot
ininteractivemodeandtypein"setterminalpostscriptfontle’<lename.ttf>’".
Forconvertingfontles(eitherttforpfb)topfaformat,theconversiontoolhastoreadthefontfromale
andwriteittostandardoutput. Iftheoutputcannotbewrittentostandardoutput,on-the- yconversion
isnotpossible.
For pfbles s "pfbtops" " is a toolwhichcando this. . If f this s program is installedonyour r system the on
the y conversionshouldwork. . Just t try toencapsulatea a pfble. . If f the compiledinprogramcalldoes
notworkcorrectlyyoucanspecifyhowthisprogramiscalledbydeningtheenvironmentvariableGNU-
PLOT
PFBTOPFAe.g. to"pfbtops%s". . The%swillbereplacedbythefont t lenameandthus hasto
existinthestring.
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gnuplot4.6
215
Ifyoudon’twanttodotheconversiononthe ybutgetapfaleofthefontyoucanusethetool"pfb2pfa"
whichiswritteninsimplecandshouldcompilewithanyccompiler. Itisavailablefrommanyftpservers,
e.g.
ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/fonts/utilities/ps2mf/
Infact,"pfbtopfa"and"pfb2ps"dothesamejob."pfbtopfa"putstheresultingpfacodeintoale,whereas
"pfbtops"writesittostandardoutput.
TrueTypefonts are convertedintoType 1pfaformat,e.g. . by y usingthetool"ttf2pt1" whichis available
from
http://ttf2pt1.sourceforge.net/
Ifthebuiltinconversiondoesnotwork,theconversioncommandcanbechangedbytheenvironmentvariable
GNUPLOT
TTFTOPFA.Forusagewithttf2pt1itmaybesetto"ttf2pt1-a-e-W0%s-". Hereagain,
%sstandsforthelename.
For specialpurposesyoualsocanuseapipe(if availableforyouroperatingsystem). . Thereforeyoustart
thelenamedenitionwiththecharacter"<"andappendaprogramcall. Thisprogramhastowritepfa
datatostandardoutput. Thus,apfalemaybeaccessedbysetfontle"<catgaramond.pfa".
Forexample,includingType1fontlescanbeusedforincludingthepostscriptoutputinLaTeXdocuments.
The"europeancomputermodern"font(whichisavariantofthe"computermodern"font)isavailablein
pfbformatfromanyCTANserver,e.g.
ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/fonts/ps-type1/cm-super/
Forexample,thele"sfrm1000.pfb"containsthenormaluprightfontswithserifsinthedesignsize10pt(font
name"SFRM1000"). Thecomputermodernfonts,whicharestillnecessaryformathematics,areavailable
from
ftp://ftp.dante.de/tex-archive/fonts/cm/ps-type1/bluesky
WiththeseyoucanuseanycharacteravailableinTeX.However,thecomputermodernfontshaveastrange
encoding. (Thisiswhyyoushouldnotusecmr10.pfbfortext,butsfrm1000.pfbinstead.) TheusageofTeX
fonts is showninoneofthedemos. . Thele e "ps
fontle
doc.tex"inthe/docs/psdocsubdirectoryofthe
gnuplotsourcedistributioncontainsatablewithglyphsoftheTeXmathfonts.
If the font "CMEX10" " is s embedded d (le "cmex10.pfb") gnuplot denes the e additional font t "CMEX10-
Baseline". Itisshiftedverticallyinordertotbettertotheotherglyphs(CMEX10hasitsbaselineatthe
topofthesymbols).
Postscriptprologue
EachPostScriptoutputleincludesa%%Prologsectionandpossiblysomeadditionaluser-denedsections
containing,forexample,characterencodings. Thesesections s arecopiedfrom aset of PostScriptprologue
lesthatareeithercompiledintothegnuplotexecutableorstoredelsewhereonyourcomputer. Adefault
directorywhere these lesliveis setatthetimegnuplotis built. . However, , youcanoverridethisdefault
eitherbyusingthegnuplotcommandsetpsdirorbydeninganenvironmentvariableGNUPLOT
PS
DIR.
Seesetpsdir(p.145).
Postscriptadobeglyphnames
This setting g is s only relevant to o PostScript t output withUTF-8encoding. . It t controls the names used d to
describecharacters withUnicode entry points higher than0x00FF.Thatis, , allcharacters s outside of the
Latin1set.Ingeneralunicodecharactersdonothaveauniquename;theyhaveonlyaunicodeidentication
code. However, , Adobe have arecommendedscheme for r assigning g names s to o certainranges s of characters
(extendedLatin, Greek, , etc). . Some e fonts use this scheme, others s do not. . By y default, gnuplot will use
the Adobe e glyph names. . E.g. the e lower case Greek k letter alpha a will be called/alpha. . If f you specic
noadobeglyphnames theninsteadgnuplot willuse /uni03B1todescribethis character. . Ifyougetthis
settingwrong,thecharactermaynotbefoundevenifitispresentinthefont.Itisprobablyalwayscorrect
tousethedefaultforAdobefonts,butforotherfontsyoumayhavetotrybothsettings. Seealsofontle
(p. 214).
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gnuplot4.6
Pslatexandpstex
The pslatex driver generates output for further processingby LaTeX,while the pstex driver generates
outputfor furtherprocessingby TeX.pslatex uses nspecialsunderstandableby dvips andxdvi. . Figures
generatedbypstexcanbeincludedinanyplain-basedformat(includingLaTeX).
Syntax:
set terminal [pslatex | pstex] {default}
set terminal [pslatex | pstex]
{rotate | norotate}
{oldstyle | newstyle}
{auxfile | noauxfile}
{level1 | leveldefault}
{color | colour | monochrome}
{background <rgbcolor> | nobackground}
{solid | dashed}
{dashlength | dl <DL>}
{linewidth | lw <LW>}
{rounded | butt}
{clip | noclip}
{palfuncparam <samples>{,<maxdeviation>}}
{size <XX>{unit},<YY>{unit}}
{<font_size>}
Ifyouseetheerrormessage
"Can’t find PostScript prologue file ... "
Pleaseseeandfollowtheinstructionsinpostscriptprologue(p.215).
Theoptioncolorenables color,while monochromeprefers blackandwhitedrawingelements. . Further,
monochromeusesgraypalettebutitdoesnotchangecolorofobjectsspeciedwithanexplicitcolorspec.
soliddrawsallplotswithsolidlines,overridinganydashedpatterns. dashlengthordlscalesthelengthof
thedashed-linesegmentsby<DL>,whichisa oating-pointnumbergreaterthanzero. linewidthorlw
scalesalllinewidthsby<LW>.
BydefaultthegeneratedPostScriptcodeuseslanguagefeaturesthatwereintroducedinPostScriptLevel2,
notablyltersandpattern-llofirregularobjectssuchaslledcurves. PostScriptLevel2featuresarecondi-
tionallyprotectedsothatPostScriptLevel1interpretersdonotissueerrorsbut,rather,displayamessage
oraPostScript Level1approximation. . Thelevel1optionsubstitutes s PostScript Level1approximations
ofthesefeaturesandusesnoPostScript Level2code. . Thismayberequiredbysomeoldprintersandold
versionsofAdobeIllustrator. The aglevel1canbetoggledlaterbyeditingasinglelineinthePostScript
outputletoforcePostScriptLevel1interpretation. Inthecaseoflescontaininglevel2code,theabove
featureswillnotappearorwillbereplacedbyanotewhenthis agissetorwhentheinterpretingprogram
doesnotindicatethatitunderstandslevel2PostScriptorhigher.
roundedsetslinecapsandlinejoinstoberounded;buttisthedefault,buttcapsandmiteredjoins.
cliptellsPostScripttoclipalloutputtotheboundingbox;noclipisthedefault.
palfuncparam controls how set t palette functions s are encodedas s gradients in the e output. . Analytic
color component functions (set viaset t palette functions) ) areencodedas linear interpolatedgradients
inthepostscriptoutput: Thecolorcomponentfunctionsaresampledat t <samples>pointsandallpoints
areremovedfromthisgradientwhichcanberemovedwithoutchangingtheresultingcolorsbymorethan
<maxdeviation>.Foralmosteveryusefulpaletteyoumaysafelyleavethedefaultsof<samples>=2000and
<maxdeviation>=0.003untouched.
Thedefaultsizeforpostscriptoutputis10inchesx7inches. Thedefaultforepsoutputis5x3.5inches.
Thesizeoptionchangesthistowhatevertheuserrequests. BydefaulttheXandYsizesaretakentobein
inches,butotherunitsarepossibly(currentlyonlycm). TheBoundingBoxoftheplotiscorrectlyadjusted
tocontain the e resized d image. . Screencoordinates s always runfrom 0.0 0 to1.0 alongthefulllengthof the
plotedgesas speciedbythesizeoption. . NB:this s is achange from the previously recommended
methodofusingthe set size command d prior r to o setting the terminal l type. . Theoldmethodleft
theBoundingBoxunchangedandscreencoordinatesdidnotcorrespondtotheactuallimitsoftheplot.
gnuplot4.6
217
ifrotateisspecied,they-axislabelisrotated. <font
size>isthesize(inpts)ofthedesiredfont.
Ifauxleisspecied,itdirectsthedrivertoputthePostScriptcommandsintoanauxiliaryleinsteadof
directlyintotheLaTeXle. Thisisusefulifyourpicturesarelargeenoughthatdvipscannothandlethem.
ThenameoftheauxiliaryPostScriptleisderivedfromthenameoftheTeXlegivenonthesetoutput
command;itisdeterminedbyreplacingthetrailing.tex(actuallyjustthenalextentinthelename)with
.psintheoutputlename,or,iftheTeXlehasnoextension,.psisappended. The.psisincludedinto
the.texlebyanspecialfpsle=...gcommand.Remembertoclosetheoutputlebeforenextplotunless
inmultiplotmode.
Gnuplot versionspriortoversion4.2generatedplotsofthesize 5x3inches usingtheps(la)tex terminal
while the current version n generates 5x x 3.5 inches to beconsistent withthe postscript eps terminal. . In
addition,thecharacterwidthis nowestimatedtobe 60%ofthefont sizewhiletheoldepslatexterminal
used50%.Toreachtheoldformatspecifytheoptionoldstyle.
Thepslatexdriveroersaspecialwayofcontrollingtextpositioning:(a)Ifanytextstringbeginswith’f’,
youalsoneedtoincludea’g’attheendofthetext,andthewholetextwillbecenteredbothhorizontally
andvertically byLaTeX.(b) Ifthe text string begins with’[’, youneed d tocontinue e it with: : aposition
specication(uptotwooutoft,b,l,r),’]f’,thetextitself,andnally,’g’. Thetextitselfmaybeanything
LaTeXcantypesetasanLR-box. nrulefgfg’smayhelpforbestpositioning.
TheoptionsnotdescribedhereareidenticaltothePostscriptterminal. Lookthereifyouwanttoknow
whattheydo.
Examples:
set term pslatex monochrome dashed rotate
# set t to o defaults
TowritethePostScriptcommandsintothele"foo.ps":
set term pslatex auxfile
set output "foo.tex"; plot ...; set output
Aboutlabelpositioning: Usegnuplotdefaults(mostlysensible,butsometimesnotreallybest):
set title ’\LaTeX\ -- $ \gamma $’
Forcecenteringbothhorizontallyandvertically:
set label ’{\LaTeX\ -- $ \gamma $}’ at 0,0
Specifyownpositioning(tophere):
set xlabel ’[t]{\LaTeX\ -- $ \gamma $}’
Theotherlabel{accountforlongticlabels:
set ylabel ’[r]{\LaTeX\ -- $ \gamma $\rule{7mm}{0pt}}’
Linewidthsandpointsizesmaybechangedwithsetstyleline.
Pstricks
Thepstricksdriverisintendedforusewiththe"pstricks.sty"macropackageforLaTeX.Itisanalterna-
tive totheeepicandlatexdrivers. . Youneed"pstricks.sty", , and, of course,a printer r that understands
PostScript,oraconvertersuchasGhostscript.
PSTricks isavailable viaanonymous ftpfromthe /pubdirectoryatPrinceton.edu. . This s driver denitely
doesnotcomeclosetousingthefullcapabilityofthePSTrickspackage.
Syntax:
set terminal pstricks {hacktext | nohacktext} {unit | | nounit}
Therstoptioninvokesanuglyhackthatgivesnicernumbers;thesecondhastodowithplotscaling. The
defaultsarehacktextandnounit.
218
gnuplot4.6
Qms
Theqmsterminaldriver supports the QMS/QUICLaser printer, , theTalaris1200andothers. . It t hasno
options.
Qt
TheqtterminaldevicegeneratesoutputinaseparatewindowwiththeQtlibrary.Syntax:
set term qt {<n>}
{size <width>,<height>}
{{no}enhanced}
{font <font>}
{title "title"}
{{no}persist}
{{no}raise}
{{no}ctrl}
{close}
{widget <id>}
Multipleplotwindowsaresupported: setterminal l qt<n>directstheoutputtoplotwindownumbern.
Thedefaultwindowtitleisbasedonthewindownumber. Thistitlecanalsobespeciedwiththekeyword
"title".
Plotwindowsremainopenevenwhenthegnuplotdriverischangedtoadierentdevice. Aplotwindow
canbeclosedbypressingtheletter’q’whilethatwindowhasinputfocus,bychoosingclosefromawindow
managermenu,orwithsettermqt<n>close.
Thesizeoftheplotareais giveninpixels,itdefaults to640x480. . Inadditiontothat,theactualsizeof
thewindowalsoincludesthespacereservedforthetoolbarandthestatusbar. Whenyouresizeawindow,
theplotisimmediatelyscaledtotinthenewsizeofthewindow. Theqtterminalscalesthewholeplot,
including fonts s andlinewidths, , andkeeps s its globalaspect ratio o constant. . If f youtype replot, click the
reploticonintheterminaltoolbarortypeanewplotcommand,thenewplotwillcompletelytinthe
windowandthefontsizeandthelinewidthswillberesettotheirdefaults.
Theactiveplotwindow(theoneselectedbysettermqt<n>)isinteractive. Itsbehaviourissharedwith
otherterminaltypes.Seemouse(p.128)fordetails.Italsohassomeextraicons,whicharesupposedto
beself-explanatory.
Thisterminal supports s anenhancedtext mode,whichallows fontandother formattingcommands (sub-
scripts,superscripts,etc.) tobeembeddedinlabelsandothertextstrings. Theenhancedtextmodesyntax
issharedwithothergnuplotterminaltypes. Seeenhanced(p.23)formoredetails.
<font>isintheformat"FontFace,FontSize",i.e. thefaceandthesizecomma-separatedinasinglestring.
FontFaceisausualfontfacename,suchas’Arial’.IfyoudonotprovideFontFace,theqtterminalwilluse
’Sans’.FontSizeisthefontsize,inpoints.Ifyoudonotprovideit,theqtterminalwilluseasizeof9points.
For example :
set term qt font "Arial,12"
set term qt font "Arial" # to change the font face only
set term qt font ",12" # to change the font size only
set term qt font "" # to reset the font name and size
TheQtrenderingspeedisaectedstronglybytherenderingmodeused.InQtversion4.7ornewerthiscan
becontrolledbytheenvironmentalvariableQT
GRAPHICSSYSTEM.Theoptionsare"native","raster",or
"opengl"inorderofincreasingrenderingspeed. ForearlierversionsofQttheterminaldefaultsto"raster".
To obtainthebestoutput t possible, the renderinginvolves three mechanisms: : antialiasing, , oversampling
andhinting. Oversamplingcombinedwithantialiasingprovidessubpixelaccuracy,sothatgnuplotcandraw
alinefromnon-integercoordinates. This s avoids wobblingeects ondiagonallines(’plotx’forexample).
Hintingavoidsthebluronhorizontalandverticallinescausedbyoversampling. Theterminalwillsnapthese
linestointegercoordinatessothataone-pixel-widelinewillactuallybedrawnononeandonlyonepixel.
gnuplot4.6
219
Bydefault,thewindowis raisedtothetopofyourdesktopwhenaplotisdrawn. . Thiscanbecontrolled
withthe keyword"raise". . Thekeyword"persist" " willprevent gnuplot fromexitingbeforeyouexplicitely
closealltheplotwindows. Finally,bydefaultthekey<space>raisesthegnuplotconsolewindow,and’q’
closestheplotwindow. Thekeyword"ctrl"allowsyoutoreplacethosebindingsby<ctrl>+<space>and
<ctrl>+’q’,respectively.
Thegnuplotoutboarddriver,gnuplot
qt,issearchedinadefaultplacechosenwhentheprogramiscompiled.
YoucanoverridethatbydeningtheenvironmentvariableGNUPLOT
DRIVER
DIRtopointtoadierent
location.
Regis
TheregisterminaldevicegeneratesoutputintheREGISgraphicslanguage. Ithastheoptionofusing4
(thedefault)or16colors.
Syntax:
set terminal regis {4 | 16}
Sun
ThesunterminaldriversupportstheSunViewwindowsystem. Ithasnooptions.
Svg
ThisterminalproduceslesintheW3CScalableVectorGraphicsformat.
Syntax:
set terminal svg {size <x>,<y> {|fixed|dynamic}}
{{no}enhanced}
{fname "<font>"} {fsize <fontsize>}
{mouse} {standalone | jsdir <dirname>}
{name <plotname>}
{font "<fontname>{,<fontsize>}"}
{fontfile <filename>}
{rounded|butt} {solid|dashed} {linewidth <lw>}
{background <rgb_color>}
where<x>and<y>arethesizeoftheSVGplottogenerate,dynamicallowsasvg-viewertoresizeplot,
whereasthedefaultsetting,xed,willrequestanabsolutesize.
linewidth<w>increasesthewidthofalllinesusedinthegurebyafactorof<w>.
<font> is the name of the default fontto o use (default t Arial) and<fontsize> is the fontsize (inpoints,
default12). SVGviewingprogramsmaysubstituteotherfontswhentheleisdisplayed.
Thesvgterminalsupportsanenhancedtextmode,whichallows fontandotherformattingcommands to
beembeddedinlabelsandothertextstrings. Theenhancedtextmodesyntaxissharedwithothergnuplot
terminaltypes.Seeenhanced(p.23)formoredetails.
Themouseoptiontellsgnuplottoaddsupportformousetrackingandfortogglingindividualplotson/o
byclickingonthecorrespondingkeyentry.Bydefaultthisisdonebyincludingalinkthatpointstoascript
inalocaldirectory,usually/usr/local/share/gnuplot/<version>/js. Youcanchangethisbyusingthejsdir
optiontospecifyeitheradierentlocaldirectoryorageneralURL.Thelatterisusuallyappropriateifyou
areembeddingthesvgintoawebpage. Alternatively,thestandaloneoptionembedsthemousingcodein
thesvgdocumentitselfratherthanlinkingtoanexternalresource.
WhenanSVGlewill be usedinconjunction withexternalles, e.g. . if f it embeds a PNGimage or r is
referencedby javascriptcodeinawebpage or embedding document, thena uniquename is requiredto
avoidpotentialcon ictingreferencestootherSVGplots. Usethenameoptiontoensureuniqueness.
220
gnuplot4.6
SVGallowsyoutoembedfontsdirectlyintoanSVGdocument,ortoprovideahypertextlinktothedesired
font. Thefontleoptionspeciesalocallewhichiscopiedintothe<defs>sectionoftheresultingSVG
output le. . This s lemay either itself containa a font, or r may contain n the e records s necessary y to create a
hypertextreferencetothedesiredfont. Gnuplotwilllookfortherequestedleusingthedirectorylistin
theGNUPLOT
FONTPATHenvironmentalvariable.NB:Youmustembedansvgfont,notaTrueTypeor
PostScriptfont.
Svga
Thesvgaterminaldriver supports PCs withSVGA graphics. . Itcanonly y beusedif it is compiledwith
DJGPP.Itsonlyoptionisthefont.
Syntax:
set terminal svga {"<fontname>"}
Tek40
ThisfamilyofterminaldriverssupportsavarietyofVT-liketerminals. tek40xxsupportsTektronix4010
andothersaswellasmostTEKemulators. vtteksupportsVT-liketek40xxterminalemulators. Thefol-
lowingarepresentonly ifselectedwhengnuplotisbuilt: : kc-tek40xxsupports s MS-DOSKermitTek4010
terminalemulatorsincolor;km-tek40xxsupportstheminmonochrome. selanarsupportsSelanargraph-
ics.bitgraphsupportsBBNBitgraphterminals. Nonehaveanyoptions.
Tek410x
Thetek410xterminaldriversupportsthe410xand420xfamilyofTektronixterminals. Ithasnooptions.
Texdraw
ThetexdrawterminaldriversupportstheLaTeXtexdrawenvironment. Itisintendedforusewith"tex-
draw.sty"and"texdraw.tex"inthetexdrawpackage.
Points,amongotherthings,aredrawnusingtheLaTeXcommands"nDiamond"and"nBox". Thesecom-
mands nolongerbelongtotheLaTeX2ecore;theyareincludedinthelatexsympackage,whichispartof
thebasedistributionandthuspartofanyLaTeXimplementation.Pleasedonotforgettousethispackage.
Ithasnooptions.
Tgif
TgifisanX11-baseddrawingtool|ithasnothingtodowithGIF.
Thetgifdriversupportsdierentpointsizes(withsetpointsize),dierentlabelfontsandfontsizes(e.g.
setlabel "Hallo"atx,yfont"Helvetica,34")andmultiplegraphsonthepage.Theproportionsofthe
axesarenotchanged.
Syntax:
set terminal tgif {portrait | landscape | default} {<[x,y]>}
{monochrome | color}
{{linewidth | lw} <LW>}
{solid | dashed}
{font "<fontname>{,<fontsize>}"}
where<[x,y]>species thenumberofgraphsinthexandydirections onthepage, , color r enablescolor,
linewidth scales all linewidths s by y <LW>, "<fontname>" is the name e of a valid d PostScript font, and
<fontsize>species thesizeofthe PostScriptfont. . defaultssetsalloptions s totheirdefaults: : portrait,
[1,1],color,linwidth1.0,dashed,"Helvetica,18".
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