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If there are two authors:
Example: In the much acclaimed work on the subject by Martin and Frost (2001), it is clear …
For three authors or more, it is usual to use the Latin et al (meaning “and others”) after the name of the first
author. You must put it in italics.
Example: … Anderson et al (2003) concluded that …
Multiple references to the same author
If you cite different documents by the same author which were published in the same year, to distinguish
between them add the letters a, b, c, etc. in lower case after the year. Repeat in the reference list.
Example: … (Williamson, 2001a), (Williamson, 2001b) etc. …
Quotations in the Text
If you quote the exact words directly from a text you must use quotation marks to indicate this. The author(s)
and date must be stated, and if possible the page number (or at least the chapter heading e.g. Chapter 6) from
which the quote is taken. [NB Page numbers for books are not included in the Reference List]
Example: … Jackson (2004, p.575) declared that “This is the finest example of postmodernism …”
If page numbers are in separate sequences and therefore duplicated e.g. different issues of a journal
throughout the year, or sections of a book, you must include the issue or section number or name.
Try to vary the way you introduce a quote into your text. Also, if the quote is long it is clearer to indent the text –
quotation marks are not required in this example.
Example: Bender defines a marinade as:
a mixture of oil with wine, lemon juice, or vinegar and herbs in which meat or fish is soaked before
cooking, both to give flavour and to make it more tender (Bender, 1999, p.250).
Do not use quotations too often or their impact will be reduced, and try to indicate the relevance of each within
the text. They should not be a substitute for your own opinion.
If you do not need to quote the complete original quotation, you can leave out any section as long as you make
this clear by inserting three dots.
Example: Flinders (2001, p.71) comments that, “When MPs had an operational grievance they were
encouraged to direct their question … directly to the agency”.
This is if you put the original text into your own words, but you must still cite the source in full.
Listing Your References at the End of Your Work
Your list should have both printed and electronic sources in one single alphabetical sequence.
It should only
contain the details of documents / sources of the quotes you have referred to within the text of your
You may also be asked to compile a bibliography, which should contain all the sources you used in your
research even if you did not refer to them, or quote from them, within your final work.
Terminology varies between departments so if necessary, clarify what you are being asked to provide, with your
lecturers, before you submit your work.
For each reference you need to record various pieces of information, which will vary between types of material,
but should always include the author‟s name, the date of publication and the title of the work. For electronic
sources, you must also include extra details - make it clear that the information came from an electronic source
and when you accessed it. See below for more details.
Tip – It is good practice to take the full details of each source of information as soon as you have read it, in
case it is not available later and your reference is incomplete. Any book you borrowed from the library will be in
your Reading History in your Library Account.
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Bibliographic Details: Author
Date, Title etc.
The list of your citations quoted in your text, must be in alphabetical order, normally of the author/ corporate
author’s name, but if you have cited, using the brief title, this must be alphabetised as well.
The list is not put in numerical order as that is not how Harvard works. Other systems do use numbers.
Authors with the same surname
If two authors have identical surnames and first initials, a second initial or title will determine the order
Where there is no obvious author: List by full title, but use the short, main title (before any colon) in your text.
The date and edition must correspond. If the date of publication is not clear look for the latest copyright date: ©,
usually on the reverse of the title page. Do not
use a reprint date.
Electronic information often has two dates, one for the information and one for the webpage itself. If there is one
for the information, use that.
If you cannot find a date at all, make it clear that this is the case, by adding this information in square brackets.
NB Any date(s) without brackets after an author‟s name is/are intended to distinguish between authors of the
same name. This is nothing to do with the publication date, but is the date of the author‟s birth and, maybe,
Burke, James, 1965 -
The title (book or journal)
Use italics (if typed), or underlining
(if written in long hand), to emphasise the title.
For a book title, capitalise the first letter only, then use lower case for all other title words, unless there is a proper
name. A journal title, though, has capital first letters for all the major words e.g. Journal of Advanced Nursing
Hint: use the library catalogue if in doubt.
The title (chapter or article)
These are neither underlined nor italicised, but like the book title, only the first letter of the first word is in upper
Place of publication
This is city or town, not
just the country. Only include the first
Adding information, not present in the publication details
. If you add information which does not actually appear in the original, this must be in square brackets.
Example: [no date], [n.d.] or [undated] Example: [no page numbers] Example: [editorial] Example: [Online].
The following examples show you what should be included for the most common sources. However, it is not
possible to cover all types of resource, so please ask for advice from staff if necessary.
Beware! If a book is edited it may be treated more like a periodical. When you first find a quote in a book, check
to see if it has an editor. For 2 examples of edited books see next page.
Always take the details of the author, title, etc. from the title page of a book (not
the front cover). The date,
edition, publisher, etc. may be on the back of the title page. Do not confuse an edition with a reprint. Do not use
the reprint date. Place a colon (:) after the short title, before a sub-title.
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The preferred order of presentation within your reference list is:
Surname of author(s), comma, initial(s), full stop
Year of publication (in brackets)
The title (in italics with only the first letter of first word capitalised), colon between short and
secondary/sub title, full stop.
The edition (if other than the first), full stop
Place of publication (the first city or town) followed by a colon
Publisher‟s name, full stop
A book by two
Macionis, J. J. and Plummer, J. (2008) Sociology: a global introduction. 4
Harlow: Pearson, Prentice Hall.
If there is only one
Bradbury, A.J. (2006) Successful presentation skills. 3
ed. London: Kogan Page.
If there are three
authors or more, it is becoming more usual for the “et al” rule to be used here, as in the text
entry. However, some LSBU departments prefer you to list ALL authors in full. You must therefore check with
your lecturer first.
Hatcher, S. et al (2005) Evidence-based mental health care. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Hatcher, S., Butler, R. and Oakley-Browne, M. (2005) Evidence-based mental health care. Edinburgh:
Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
If the book is edited, use the name of the editor(s) followed by (ed.) or (eds.) in place of the author.
Ezra, E. (ed.) (2004) European Cinema. Oxford: OUP.
A chapter from an edited book
If you refer to a chapter in a book edited by someone other than the author of the chapter, you need to make this
clear by using “in” (followed by a colon). It is the author of the chapter you cite. The book title is in italics, not
title of the chapter.
Gaskell, G. (2003) Attitudes, social representations and beyond, in: Deaux, K. and Philogene, G. (eds.)
Representations of the social. Oxford: Blackwell.
When something is published by an organization or a company there may be no individual author to identify.
British Broadcasting Corporation (2004) Building public value: renewing the BBC for a digital world.
Authors‟ surnames and initial(s)
Date of Publication
Title of book in italics
Place of publication (town or city)
NB Page numbers are not normally
required as you will have them in-text, but if
you do, the full stop will change to a comma
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E-books (Electronic Books)
As above examples, except for certain additions. You need to include:
Author (or editor) surname and initials
Year (in brackets). Always use the publication date of the version being used.
Title of book (and any subtitle) - italics or underlined
. Only initial letter capitalised.
Edition (other than the first)
Place of publication (of printed original - if available) followed by a colon(:)
[Online]. in square brackets. See example for e-reader below.
Available from: (i.e. the e-book service you used), URL (web address)
White, R. and Downs, T. E. (2005) How computers work, 8
ed. Indianapolis: Que. [Online]. Available
from: Safari Tech Books Online. http://0-proquest.safaribooksonline.com
[Accessed: 16 August 2007].
Example 2 – from an e-reader:
Aristotle (2005) Ethics. Kindle version. [e-book reader]. Available from: http://www.amazon.co.uk
[Accessed: 5 May 2011].
For journals, details are normally on the contents page and usually at the top or bottom of every page of each
article. You need to include:
Surname of the author(s), comma, initial(s), full stop
Year of publication in brackets
Title of the ARTICLE ( only first word with capitalised initial letter, unless proper name), comma
Title of the JOURNAL (in italics), comma
Volume number, issue or part number (in brackets), comma
First and last pages of the article separated by a hyphen and indicated by the abbreviation “pp.”
Smith, A. and Jack, K.
(2005) Reflective practice: a meaningful task for students, Nursing Standard, 19 (26), pp. 33-37.
Joint Formulary Committee (2010) Antihistamines, British National Formulary, (59), pp. 184-188.
Electronic Journal Articles
Make it clear how you accessed each article as online journals sometimes omit sections found in the printed
version, or add extra features. If you access the journal from a full-text collection e.g. through the LSBU
Catalogue, you need to cite the resource provider‟s (e.g. Business Source Premier) URL for the full text.
Sometimes the online published date for an article will be different to the printed version.
E-Journal article obtained using a full-text database or journal collection.
You will need to provide the following:
Author (or editor) surname and initials
Year of publication (original print version or online version) (in brackets)
Title of article (only first letter of first word capitalised; if an editorial, indicate this in square brackets after
the title e.g. [editorial])
Title of the journal in italics or underlined
Date (month or season)
Volume number (if any), part or issue number (in brackets), page numbers (pp. plus page range).
Available from: (the database provider, in italics), e.g. Business Source Premier. URL
Title of journal in italics or underlined
All main words have capital first letter.
Title of article in plain text, not
Only first word with a capital first letter.
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[Date accessed xx xxxxxxxx xxxx]. – the actual date you viewed the article.
Morrison, C. and Jutting, J. (2005) Women‟s discrimination in developing countries: a new data set for
better policies, World Development. July, 33 (7), pp. 1065-1081. [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 31 July 2005].
E-Journal article directly from a web site
You will need exactly the same information as for the example above, except that in the
„Available from‟ statement you should give the precise URL or DOI (digital object identifier) for the article.
Sometimes page numbers will be given, sometimes a running number within the “volume”. Whatever the
practice, reference the article precisely as given on the screen.
Example with DOI for a prepublication article:
Rouhe, H. et al (2011) Mental health problems common in women with fear of childbirth. To
be published in BJOG, [preprint] 13 Apr 2011 [Online]. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-
0528.2011.02967.x. [Accessed: 9 May 2011].
By giving the date of access, your reader will be clear which version you are identifying if there have been
An Article from a Newspaper
The same rules apply as for a journal reference, but the article title should be in quotation marks. Details of
volume and issue numbers are not required as you must have the specific date. You do, need to indicate if your
reference is from any particular section or edition of the paper.
Tobin, L. (2010) “The crush starts here”, The Guardian (Education Supplement), 8 June 2010, p. 1.
Article in an Electronic Newspaper
You need to give similar information as for a journal article from a database, e.g. the URL of the ProQuest
Newspapers or LexisNexis services, or the specific URL of the individual newspaper, e.g. the Guardian if you
used a direct link. However, please note in addition:
Editorials rarely have an attributable author
The section of the newspaper is helpful if relevant (in brackets)
Specific editions of many newspapers are indexed
Atkins, R. and Schieritz, M. (2004) ECB warns finance ministers it will retain sole control of euro,
Financial Times, 27 September 2004. [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 25 January 2005].
(Reports, Consultation Papers)
There are a variety of these and below are some examples The publisher is usually The Stationery Office (TSO)
Legal material – case reports
This referencing is often different from Harvard, please see: How to do your Referencing: the OSCOLA
System (Law Resources) (HS 29)
For individual legal reports, include them with the Harvard citations in the
Reference List, as usual, alphabetically, but follow the OSCOLA form e.g. square brackets for date.
Acts of Parliament (Statutes)
Housing Act 1996 (c.52). London: HMSO.
Each act is given a running number or “chapter” during the year, e.g. c.52.
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Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords (2009) Consumer emissions (climate change) Bill London:
TSO (Bills 2009-10, (13)).
Command Papers incl. Green (consultation papers) and White (policy statements) Papers
Great Britain. Department for Education and Skills. (2005) Higher standards, better schools for all, more
choice for parents and pupil. Cm. 6677. London: TSO.
Great Britain. Department of Health (2004) Choosing health: making healthy choices easier. London:
The Stationery Office.
Major reports are known by the name of the chair of the committee which produced them, e.g. the Hutton
Report; they must be referenced from the exact information on the title page, even if lengthy e.g.
House of Commons Papers
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (2003) Return to an address of the Honourable the House
of Commons dated 28th January 2004 for the report of the inquiry into the circumstances surrounding
the death of Dr David Kelly C.M.G. by Lord Hutton. London: TSO. (HC 247)
NB Your in-text citation would be: (Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 2003)
House of Lords Papers
Great Britain. Parliament. House Of Lords. Science And Technology Committee (2009)
Nanotechnologies and food: v. 1, Session 2009-10. London: TSO. (HL 2009-2010 (1)).
NB The session number for the House of Lords is in brackets, unlike that for the House of Commons
Electronic Government Documents
Many government publications are now only available electronically and their updating is often problematic.
Check dates and “versions” carefully, especially when departments merge or change name. What you must
Name of Department or Committee
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title of the document in italics or underlined
Series information - if any.
Available from: URL
Great Britain. Home Office (2005) Sentencing Statistics 2004. Home Office.
(Home Office Statistical Bulletin 15/05). [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 25 November 2005].
Reports from Online Databases
Example (Market Research reports):
Mintel (2011) „BMW unveils electric car‟, Mintel oxygen reports platform [Online]. Available at:
. [Accessed: 10 May 2011].
Example (Financial reports):
Bureau van Dijk (2011) „Kobalt Computers Ltd. annual return‟, FAME [Online]. Available at:
[Accessed: 10 May 2011].
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The title, date, and location of the conference need to be identified, give the editor‟s name if available,
plus the name and author of the actual paper, the precise pages within the proceedings in which the
paper appears, and the publisher and place of publication.
Cereti, C.F. et al. (2004) An Italian survey of pitches for soccer, in: Proceedings of the 1
International Conference on Turfgrass Management and Science for Sports Fields, Athens, Greece,
June 2003. Leuven, Belgium: ISHS, pp. 117-122.
Electronic Conference Papers
This illustrates the referencing of a single paper from a conference. It should include:
Author surname and initial
Date (of publication)
Title of the paper in italics or underlined
Where and when it was presented.
Available from: URL of the source of the
full text or DOI
Leshem, A. (2000) On the finite sample behavior of the constant modules cost. Paper presented at
the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Istanbul, Turkey.
[Online]. Available from: http://0-ieeexplore.ieee.org
. [Accessed 17 September 2003].
Thesis / Dissertation
You should indicate whether the research is published or not, the date approved, what level award it was,
and the name and location of the awarding institution. Include the location of the institution if it is not
clear from the name alone
Edwards, R. (1991) Degrees of differences: family and education in the lives of mature mother-
students. Ph.D thesis, London: Polytechnic of the South Bank.
Digitised Thesis / Dissertation
You need to provide the following:
Author surname and initial
Date (in brackets)
Title – in italics or underlined
Level of thesis, awarding University.
Available from: the URL of the online
Gosal, S. (2003) The future of women surveyors. MSc Estate Management. South Bank
University. [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 5 August 2005].
You should cite the standard number plus, any specific part indicated, the year, title, and publisher.
British Standards Institution (2005) BS 7000-6: 2005: Guide to managing inclusive design.
For electronic references remember to add: [Online]. Available from: URL. [Accessed: date].
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DVD / Video
- Recorded (broadcast) material
This is unlikely to have an “author” so put the title first. If part of a series, state this first, then the
programme title (in italics). Give the year of the original broadcast in round brackets, then the format, in
square brackets, the name of the broadcasting company, and finally the actual date of the recording.
The 50 years war: Israel and the Arabs Part 2 (2005) [DVD] London: BBC 4.
Recorded off-air 27/09/2005.
Title in italics. Year in brackets. Format / medium in square brackets […].Provide the name of the director
or producer, the location and name of the production company responsible. Where titles are available on
DVD or video, add details of the specific version you used, giving the date and distributor, if known.
To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) [Film drama] directed by Robert Mulligan. Hollywood: Universal
(theatre, ballet, etc.)
You need to identify the playwright or choreographer, the date of the premiere performance, the title of
the work and details of where and when it was seen.
Miller, A. (1955) A View from the Bridge [performance viewed 12 February 1987, National
Make it clear whether you viewed the original in location or from a reproduction in a book, catalogue or
webpage. Illustrations in books/journals etc. are referenced as you would a normal book/journal etc. (see
examples on previous pages). It does not matter whether the author is the illustrator or not, it is the
author you reference not the artist. The type of illustration should be noted in the text citation.
In text: … Barker‟s illustration (1998, p176 fig. 10.5) shows a young girl leaving the village …
If you viewed an illustration/artwork, part or whole, you reference the artist.
Fragonard, Jean-Honore (1766) The swing. [Oil on canvas] The Wallace Collection, London.
If you view online include: [Online. Available at: URL
NB If you reproduce any part of an illustration you need permission.
Keep notes and transcripts ready to produce on demand, or list them as appendices. Cite the surname
and initials of the person interviewed using the title “Personal Interview”. Indicate the subject matter (in
brackets) and the interview date(s).
Patterson, I. (2003) Personal Interview (memories of Southwark during the Second
World War), 14 May.
Warning! Some lecturers do not wish to have their notes regurgitated back to them – ask first.
If they do not mind you must include:
Author surname and initial
Year of handout (in brackets) if given, if
not year of lecture
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested