CallingConventions
CallingConventions
ThissectiondescribesthecallingconventionsforMATLABBuilderforExcel
components,includingmappingsfromtheoriginalM-functionstoVBA.A
functioncalloriginatingfromanExcelworksheetisroutedfromaVBA
functionintoacompiledM-function.
ProducingaCOMClass
ProducingaCOMclassrequiresthegenerationofaclassdefinitionfilein
InterfaceDescriptionLanguage(IDL)aswellastheassociatedC++class
definition/implementationfiles.(SeetheMicrosoftCOMdocumentationfora
completediscussionofIDLandC++codingrulesforbuildingCOMobjects.)
ThebuilderautomaticallyproducesthenecessaryIDLandC/C++codeto
buildeachCOMclassinthecomponent.Thisprocessisgenerallytransparent
totheuser.
Asafinalstep,ExcelBuilderproducesaVBAfunctionwrapperforeach
method,usedtoimplementanExcelformulafunction.Formulafunctionsare
usefulwhencallingamethodthatreturnsasinglescalarvaluewithone
ormoreinputs. UseageneralVBAsubroutinewhencallingamethodthat
returnsarraydataormultipleoutputs.
IDL Mapping
ThemostgenericMATLABM-functionis
function [Y1, Y2, , ..., varargout] ] = = foo(X1, X2, , ..., varargin)
ThisfunctionmapsdirectlytothefollowingIDLsignature:
HRESULT foo([in] long nargout,
[in,out] VARIANT* Y1,
[in,out] VARIANT* Y2,
.
.
.
[in,out] VARIANT* varargout,
[in] VARIANT X1,
[in] VARIANT X2,
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A
ProducingaCOMObjectfromMATLAB
.
.
.
[in] VARIANT varargin);
ThisIDLfunctiondefinitionisgeneratedbyproducingafunctionwiththe
samenameastheoriginalM-functionandanargumentlistcontainingall
inputsandoutputsoftheoriginalplusoneadditionalparameter,
nargout
.
(
nargout
isnotproducedifyoucompileanM-functioncontainingnooutputs.)
Whenpresent,the
nargout
parameterisan
[in]
parameteroftype
long
.
Itisalwaysthefirstargumentinthelist. Thisparameterallowscorrect
passageoftheMATLAB
nargout
parametertothecompiledM-code.
Followingthe
nargout
parameter,theoutputsarelistedintheorderthey
appearontheleftsideoftheMATLABfunction,andaretaggedas
[in,out]
,
meaningthattheyarepassedinbothdirections. Thefunctioninputsare
listednext,appearinginthesameorderastheydoontherightsideofthe
originalfunction. Allinputsaretaggedas
[in]
parameters. Whenpresent,
theoptional
varargin
/
varargout
parametersarealwayslistedasthelast
inputparametersandthelastoutputparameters.Allparametersotherthan
nargout
arepassedasCOM
VARIANT
types. “DataConversionRules”on
pageB-2liststherulesforconversionbetweenMATLABarraysandCOM
VARIANT
s.
VisualBasicMapping
TheVisualBasicmappingtotheIDLsignatureshownin“IDLMapping”
onpageA-11is
Sub foo(nargout As Long, _
Y1 As Variant, , _
Y2 As Variant, , _
.
.
.
varargout As s Variant, _
X1 As Variant, , _
X2 As Varaint, , _
.
.
.
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CallingConventions
varargin As Variant)
(See“ProgrammingwithCOMComponentsCreatedbyMATLABBuilder
for.NET”intheMATLABBuilderfor.NETdocumentationformappings
tootherlanguages,suchasC++.) VisualBasicprovidesnativesupportfor
COM
VARIANT
swiththe
Variant
type,aswellasimplicitconversionsforall
VisualBasicbasictypestoandfrom
Variant
s.Ingeneral,arrays/scalarsof
anyVisualBasicbasictype,aswellasarrays/scalarsof
Variant
types,canbe
passedasarguments.
ExcelBuildercomponentsalsoprovidedirectsupportfortheExcel
Range
object,usedbyVBAtorepresentarangeofcellsinanExcelworksheet.See
theVBAdocumentationincludedwithMicrosoftExcelformoreinformation
onVBAdatatypesandExcel
Range
manipulation.
MATLABCompilerOutput
ExcelBuildergeneratesadefaultVisualBasicfunctionwrapperforeachclass
methodwiththefollowingformat:
Function foo(Optional X1 As s Variant, , _
Optional X2 As s Variant, , _
.
.
.
Optional varargin1 As Variant, , _
Optional varargin2 As Variant, , _
.
.
.
Optional vararginN As Variant) ) _
As Variant
Dim Y1, Y2, ..., varargout As Variant
Dim varargin n As s Variant
.
.
.
(other declarations)
.
.
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A
ProducingaCOMObjectfromMATLAB
(function body)
.
.
.
foo = Y1
.
.
.
(error handling code)
.
.
.
End Function
Bydefault,thegeneratedformulafunctioncontainsanargumentlistwithall
theinputstothemethodcallandareturnvaluecorrespondingtothefirst
outputparameter.Theargumentlistincludeseachexplicitinputparameter.
Iftheoptional
varargin
parameterispresentintheoriginalMATLAB
function,additionalarguments
varargin1
,
varargin2
,
...,vararginn
are
generated,where
n
isanumberchosenbythebuilder.Thenumber
n
ischosen
sothatthetotalnumberofinputsislessthanorequalto32.Thisfunction
generallyincludesadeclarationforeachoutputparameterastype
Variant
.If
theoriginalMATLABfunctioncontainsa
varargin
,avariableisdeclaredof
type
Variant
topasscollectivelythe
varargin1,...,vararginn
parameters
intheformofa
Variant
array.Themainfunctionbodycontainscodefor
• Packing
varargin
parametersifavailable
• Creatingthenecessaryclassinstance
• Callingthetargetmethod
• Errorhandling
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B
DataConversion
DataConversionRules(p.B-2)
Describestheprocessofconverting
databetweenMATLABandCOM
variants
ArrayFormattingFlags(p.B-12)
Describestheflagsthatcontrolthe
formattingofdata
DataConversionFlags(p.B-14)
Describestheflagsthatcontrolthe
conversionofdata
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B
DataConversion
DataConversionRules
ThistopicdescribesthedataconversionrulesforMATLABBuilderforExcel
components.ThesecomponentsaredualinterfaceCOMobjectsthatsupport
datatypescompatiblewithAutomation.
Note Automation(formerlycalledOLEAutomation)isatechnologythat
allowssoftwarepackagestoexposetheiruniquefeaturestoscriptingtools
andotherapplications.AutomationusestheComponentObjectModel(COM),
butmaybeimplementedindependentlyfromotherOLEfeatures,suchas
in-placeactivation.
WhenamethodisinvokedonanExcelBuildercomponent,theinput
parametersareconvertedtoMATLABinternalarrayformatandpassedtothe
compiledMATLABfunction.Whenthefunctionexits,theoutputparameters
areconvertedfromMATLABinternalarrayformattoCOMAutomationtypes.
TheCOMclientpassesallinputandoutputargumentsinthecompiled
MATLABfunctionsastype
VARIANT
.TheCOM
VARIANT
typeisaunionof
severalsimpledatatypes.Atype
VARIANT
variablecanstoreavariableofany
ofthesimpletypes,aswellasarraysofanyofthesevalues.
TheWin32ApplicationProgramInterface(API)providesmanyfunctionsfor
creatingandmanipulating
VARIANT
sinC/C++,andVisualBasicprovides
nativelanguagesupportforthistype.
Note Thisdiscussionofdatareferstoboth
VARIANT
and
Variant
datatypes.
VARIANT
istheC++nameand
Variant
isthecorrespondingdatatypein
VisualBasic.
SeetheVisualStudiodocumentationfordefinitionsandAPIsupportforCOM
VARIANT
s.
VARIANT
variablesareselfdescribingandstoretheirtypecode
asaninternalfieldofthestructure.
Thefollowingtableliststhe
VARIANT
typecodessupportedbyExcelBuilder
components.
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DataConversionRules
VARIANTTypeCodesSupported
VARIANT
Type Code
(C/C++)
C/C++Type
Variant
Type Code
(VisualBasic)
Visual
Basic
Type
Definition
VT_EMPTY
vbEmpty
Uninitialized
VARIANT
VT_I1
char
Signedone-byte
character
VT_UI1
unsigned
char
vbByte
Byte
Unsignedone-byte
character
VT_I2
short
vbInteger
Integer
Signedtwo-byte
integer
VT_UI2
unsigned
short
Unsignedtwo-byte
integer
VT_I4
long
vbLong
Long
Signedfour-byte
integer
VT_UI4
unsigned long
Unsignedfour-byte
integer
VT_R4
float
vbSingle
Single
IEEEfour-byte
floating-pointvalue
VT_R8
double
vbDouble
Double
IEEEeight-byte
floating-pointvalue
VT_CY
CY
+
vbCurrency
Currency
Currency value
(64-bitinteger,scaled
by10,000)
VT_BSTR
BSTR
+
vbString
String
Stringvalue
VT_ERROR
SCODE
+
vbError
A
HRESULT
(Signed
four-byteinteger
representingaCOM
errorcode)
B-3
B
DataConversion
VARIANTTypeCodesSupported(Continued)
VARIANT
Type Code
(C/C++)
C/C++Type
Variant
Type Code
(VisualBasic)
Visual
Basic
Type
Definition
VT_DATE
DATE
+
vbDate
Date
Eight-bytefloating
point value
representingdate
andtime
VT_INT
int
Signedinteger;
equivalenttotype
int
VT_UINT
unsigned int
Unsignedinteger;
equivalenttotype
unsigned int
VT_DECIMAL
DECIMAL
+
vbDecimal
96-bit (12-byte)
unsignedinteger,
scaledbyavariable
powerof10
VT_BOOL
VARIANT_BOOL
+
vbBoolean
Boolean
Two-byteBoolean
value(0xFFFF =
True;0x0000=False)
VT_DISPATCH
IDispatch*
vbObject
Object
IDispatch*
pointer
toanobject
VT_VARIANT
VARIANT+
vbVariant
Variant
VARIANT
(canonlybe
specifiedifcombined
with
VT_BYREF
or
VT_ARRAY
)
<anything
>|VT_ARRAY
Bitwisecombine
VT_ARRAY
withany
basictypetodeclare
asanarray
B-4
DataConversionRules
VARIANTTypeCodesSupported(Continued)
VARIANT
Type Code
(C/C++)
C/C++Type
Variant
Type Code
(VisualBasic)
Visual
Basic
Type
Definition
<anything
>|VT_BYREF
Bitwisecombine
VT_BYREF
withany
basictypetodeclare
asareferencetoa
value
+DenotesWindows-specifictype. NotpartofstandardC/C++.
ThefollowingtableliststherulesforconvertingfromMATLABtoCOM.
MATLAB toCOMVARIANTConversionRules
MATLAB Data
Type
VARIANT
Type for
ScalarData
VARIANT
Type for
ArrayData
Comments
cell
A1-by-1 cellarray
convertstoasingle
VARIANT
withatype
conformingtothe
conversionruleforthe
MATLABdatatypeof
thecellcontents.
Amultidimensional
cellarrayconverts
toa
VARIANT
of type
VT_VARIANT|VT_ARRAY
with the typeof
eacharraymember
conformingtothe
conversionruleforthe
MATLABdatatypeof
thecorrespondingcell.
structure
VT_DISPATCH
VT_DISPATCH
AMATLAB
struct
arrayisconvertedto
an
MWStruct
object.
(See“ClassMWStruct”
onpageC-16.) This
objectispassedasa
VT_DISPATCH
type.
B-5
B
DataConversion
MATLABtoCOMVARIANTConversionRules(Continued)
MATLAB Data
Type
VARIANT
Type for
ScalarData
VARIANT
Type for
ArrayData
Comments
char
A1-by-1
char
matrix
convertstoa
VARIANT
oftype
VT_BSTR
with
stringlength=1.
A1-by-L
char
matrixis
assumedtorepresent
astringoflengthLin
MATLAB.Thiscase
convertstoa
VARIANT
oftype
VT_BSTR
witha
stringlength=L.
char
matricesofmorethan
onerow,orofahigher
dimensionalityconvert
toa
VARIANT
of type
VT_BSTR|VT_ARRAY
.
Eachstringin the
converted array
is of length1 and
correspondstoeach
character in the
originalmatrix.
Arraysofstringsare
notsupportedas
char
matrices. Topassan
arrayofstrings,use
acellarrayof1-by-L
char
matrices.
sparse
VT_DISPAATCH
VT_DISPATCH
AMATLABsparse
arrayisconvertedto
an
MWSparse
object.
(See“ClassMWSparse”
onpageC-27.) This
objectispassedasa
VT_DISPATCH
type.
B-6
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