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Eight
Paragraphsandlists
Withinasectionaldivisionthetextistypicallybrokenupintoparagraphs. Sometimes
theremaybetextthatissetofffromthenormalparagraphing,likequotationsorlists.
8.1P
ARAGRAPHS
Therearebasicallytwoparametersthatcontroltheappearanceofnormalparagraphs.
\parindent\parskip
Thelength
\parindent
istheindentationofthefirstlineofaparagraphandthelength
\parskip
isthe verticalspacingbetweenparagraphs, asillustratedinFigure 8.1. . The
valueof
\parskip
isusually0pt, and
\parindent
isusuallydefinedintermsofems
sothattheactualindentationdependsonthefontbeingused. If
\parindent
issettoa
negativelength,thenthefirstlineoftheparagraphswillbe‘outdented’intothelefthand
margin.
8.1.1Blockparagraph
Ablockparagraphisobtainedbysetting
\parindent
to0em;
\parskip
shouldbesetto
somepositivevaluesothatthereissomespacebetweenparagraphstoenablethemtobe
identified. Mosttypographersheartilydislikeblockparagraphs,notonlyonaesthetical
groundsbutalsoonpracticalconsiderations. Considerwhathappensifthelastlineofa
blockparagraphisfullandalsoisthelastlineonthepage.Thefollowingblockparagraph
PrecedingText
?
\parskip
-
\parindent
Figure8.1:Paragraphingparameters
Chapterlastupdated2013/05/22 (revision470)
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8. P
ARAGRAPHSANDLISTS
willstartatthetopofthenextpagebuttherewillbenoidentifiablespacetoindicatean
inter-paragraphbreak.
ItisimportanttoknowthatLaTeXtypesetsparagraphbyparagraph.Forexample,the
\baselineskip
thatisusedforaparagraphisthevaluethatisineffectattheendofthe
paragraph,andthefontsizeusedforaparagraphisaccordingtothesizedeclaration(e.g.,
\large
or
\normalsize
or
\small
)attheendoftheparagraph,andtheraggednessor
otherwiseofthewholeparagraphdependsonthedeclaration(e.g.,
\centering
)ineffect
attheendoftheparagraph. IfapagebreakoccursinthemiddleofaparagraphTeXwill
notresetthepartoftheparagraphthatgoesontothefollowingpage,evenifthetextwidths
onthetwopagesaredifferent.
8.1.2Hangingparagraphs
Ahangingparagraphisonewherethelengthofthefirstfewlinesdiffersfromthelength
oftheremaininglines. (Anormalindentedparagraphmaybeconsideredtobeaspecial
caseofahangingparagraphwhere‘few=one’).
\hangpara{
indent
}{
num
}
Using
\hangpara
atthestartofaparagraphwillcausetheparagraphtobehung.
Ifthelengthindentispositivethelefthandendofthelineswillbeindentedbut
ifitisnegativetherighthandendswillbeindentedbythespecifiedamount.Ifthe
numbernum,sayN,isnegativethefirstNlinesoftheparagraphwillbeindentedwhile
ifNispositivetheN+1thlinesonwardswillbeindented. Thisparagraphwassetwith
\hangpara{3em}{-3}
.Thereshouldbenospacebetweenthe
\hangpara
commandand
thestartoftheparagraph.
\begin{hangparas}{
indent
}{
num
}
text
\end{hangparas}
The
hangparas
environmentislike the
\hangpara
command except that everypara-
graphintheenvironmentwillbehung.
Thecodeimplementingthehangingparagraphsisthesameasforthehangingpack-
age[Wil01f].Examplesofsomeusescanbefoundin[Thi99].
Asnotedeleswherethesectioningcommandsusetheinternalmacro
\@hangfrom
as
partoftheformattingofthetitles.
\hangfrom{
text
}
The
\hangfrom
macroisprovidedasanauthor’sversionofthe internal
\@hangfrom
macroused,amongotherthings,intypesettingsectiontitles.
Simplehungparagraphs(likethisone)canbespecifiedusingthe
\hangfrom
macro.The
macroputstextinaboxandthenmakesahangingparagraph
ofthefollowingmaterial.Thisparagraphcommencedwith
\hangfrom{Simple hung paragraphs s }(like e ...
andyouarenowreadingtheresult.
Thecommandsforhangingparagraphsdonotquiteworkasmightbeexpectedwhen
theyareusedinalistenvironment,forexampleinsidean
enumerate
. Ifyouwishfora
hangingparagraphinsidesuchanenvironmentyouwillhavetodefineyourowncom-
mandsforthis. Ifyoufeelcapableofdoingsothen,withmycongratulations,moveon
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8.2. Flushandragged
tothe nextsection. . Ifyouarenotsoconfidentyoucouldtryusingthefollowingnon-
guaranteedcode,whichisbasedonanideabyPatrikNymanwhichhepostedon
CTT
in
January2004.
%\makeatletter
% A A version n of f \hangpara a for r use e in a list
%
\listhanging{indent}{num} text text t text t ...
\def\listhanging#1#2#3\par{%
\@tempdima\textwidth \advance\@tempdima -\leftmargin
\parbox{\@tempdima}{\hangpara{#1}{#2}#3}\par}
% A A version n of f \hangfrom m for r use e in a list
%
\listhangfrom{stuff} text text text t ...
\def\listhangfrom#1#2\par{%
\@tempdima\textwidth \advance\@tempdima -\leftmargin
\parbox{\@tempdima}{\@hangfrom{#1}#2}\par}
%\makeatother
8.2F
LUSHANDRAGGED
Flushlefttexthasthelefthandendofthelinesalignedverticallyatthelefthandmargin
andflushrighttexthastherighthandendofthelinesalignedverticallyattherighthand
margin.Theoppositesoftheseareraggedlefttextwherethelefthandendsarenotaligned
andraggedrightwheretherighthandendoflinesarenotaligned.LaTeXnormallytypesets
flushleftandflushright.
\begin{flushleft}
text
\end{flushleft}
\begin{flushright}
text
\end{flushright}
\begin{center}
text
\end{center}
Text in a
flushleft
environment is typeset flushleft and raggedright, , while e in a
flushright
environmentistypesetraggedleftandflushright. Ina
center
environment
thetextissetraggedleftandraggedright,andeachlineiscentered.Asmallverticalspace
isputbeforeandaftereachoftheseenvironments.
\raggedleft\raggedright\centering
The
\raggedleft
declarationcanbeusedtohavetexttypesetraggedleftandflushright,
and similary y the e declaration
\raggedright
causes typesetting g to o be flushleft and
raggedright.Thedeclaration
\centering
typesetsraggedleftandraggedrightwitheach
linecentered.Unliketheenvironments,noadditionalspaceisadded.
\centerfloat
Thecontentsoffloatsliketablesorfiguresareusuallycenteredand
\centering
should
beusedforthis,notthe
center
environmentwhichaddsextra,usuallyundesired,vertical
space.Forexample:
\begin{figure}
\centering
...
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8. P
ARAGRAPHSANDLISTS
\caption{...}
\end{figure}
However, ifthefloatiswiderthanthetextblockthenitisalignedwiththeleftmargin
andextendsintotherightmargin. Thecommand
\centerfloat
isaspecialversionof
\center
thatwhenusedinawidefloatwillcenteritwithrespecttothetextblock,i.e.,
itwillextendequallyintobothmargins. Notethat
\centerfloat
needstobeapplied
where thereisaknownwidth; ifappliedtoaregulartextparagraphitwillcenter the
paragraphbutputallthetextononeline.
\raggedyright[
space
]
\ragrparindent
Whenusing
\raggedright
innarrowcolumnstherighthandedgetendstobetooragged,
andparagraphsarenotindented.Textset
\raggedyright
usuallyfillsmoreoftheavail-
ablewidthandparagraphsare indentedby
\ragrparindent
, whichisinitiallyset to
\parindent
. Theoptionalspaceargument,whosedefaultis2em,canbeusedtoadjust
theamountofraggedness.Asexamples:
\raggedyright[0pt]
% typeset t flushright
\raggedyright[1fil] % % same e as \raggedright
\raggedyright[0.5em] % % less s ragged d than n \raggedright
RememberthatLaTeXtypesetsonaper-paragraphbasis,sothatputtingthesequence
of
\centering
,
\raggedleft
declarationsinthesameparagraphwillcausetheentire
paragraphtobetypesetraggedleftandflushright—the
\centering
declarationisnot
theoneineffectattheendoftheparagraph.
8.3Q
UOTATIONS
LaTeXprovidestwoenvironmentsthataretypicallyusedfortypesettingquotations.
\begin{quote}
text
\end{quote}
\begin{quotation}
text
\end{quotation}
Inbothoftheseenvironmentsthetextissetflushleftandflushrightinameasurethat
issmallerthanthenormaltextwidth. Theonlydifferencebetweenthetwoenvironments
isthatparagraphsarenotindentedinthe
quote
environmentbutnormalparagraphingis
usedinthe
quotation
environment.
\sourceatright[
length
]{
text
}
Somequotationsarecompletedbygivingthesourceorauthor. Using
\sourceatright
attheendofthequotationwilltypesettextflushrightattheendofthelineifthereis
enoughspace,otherwiseittypesetsitflushrightonthenextline.Aspacelength(default
2em)isleftbetweentheendofthequoteandtext.
Sourceforexample8.1
\begin{quotation}
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8.4. Somelesscommonparagraphshapes
Typesetexample8.1:Settingthesourceofaquotation
Thisquotationhasashortlastlinesotherethereisenoughspaceforthe
sourcetobesetattheendoftheline.
I.M.Short
Thelastlineofthisquotationturnsouttobetoolongforthesourcetobe
setattheend,soitisautomaticallysetflushrightonthefollowingline.
N.O.Space
This quotation n has s a short last line so there there is enough space
for the e source e to o be set at
the end d of the e line.\sourceatright{I. . M. . Short}
\end{quotation}
\begin{quotation}
The last line e of this s quotation n turns out t to o be e too o long for
the source e to be set at the e end, , so it is s automatically
set flushright on n the e following g line.\sourceatright{N. O. Space}
\end{quotation}
8.4S
OMELESSCOMMONPARAGRAPHSHAPES
TheparagraphshapesdescribedinthissectionarebasedonaseriesthatIpresentedinmy
Glisteringscolumn[Wil07e,Wil08b]. Liketheearlier
\centering
, etc.,paragraphstyle
declarations,thestylethatappliesistheoneineffectattheendoftheparagraph.Thusthe
generalusageis:
\bgroup%
a group to o keep changes s local l % % or r could be e { or r \begin...
\paragraphstyle
.... text
\par%
ensure the e end d of a paragraph
\egroup%
end the e group % % or r could be } } or r \end...
Ifyouuseone oftheseparagraphshapesthenusing
\\
tobreakalinemaygivea
surprisingresult.Ifso,thefollowingmayhelp.
\atcentercr
\break
\memorigdbs
\memorigpar
Youcouldtry
\atcentcr
,whichisuserlevelversionofaninternalLaTeXcommandused
insomeparagraphsettingsforlinebreaking,or
\break
,whichisaTeXcommandtoend
aline.
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8. P
ARAGRAPHSANDLISTS
Typesetexample8.2:Paragraph’slinenottooshort
Thelastlineofthisparagraphwillbenoshorterthanaparticularlength. abcde
fghi
Thelastlineofthisparagraphwillbenoshorterthanaparticularlength.abcdefg
hijk
Insomecasestheparagraphshapingcommandschangethedefinitionsof
\\
or
\par
.
Justincaseyouneedtorestorethem,copiesoftheoriginaldefinitionsarein
\memorigdbs
(for
\\
)and
\memorigpar
(for
\par
).
\flushleftright
Ifyouuseoneoftheshapeslistedlaterinthissectionandthingsgowrong,thedec-
laration
\flushleftright
returnsallparagraphingparameters
1
totheirnormalvalues,
thusproducingparagraphsasnormal—justifiedleftandrightwiththelastlineflushleft
andraggedright.
8.4.1Lastlinenotshort
Onoccasionaparagraphmayendwithasingleshortwordasthelastline.
\linenottooshort[
length
]
Followingthe
\linenottooshort
declarationparagraphswillbesetasnormal,except
thatthelastlinewillnotbeshorterthanlength(default2em).
Sourceforexample8.2
\linenottooshort[4em]
The last t line of f this s paragraph will be no o shorter r than a particular
length. a a b b c d d e e f g h h i i % j j k k l m m n
The last t line of f this s paragraph will be no o shorter r than a particular
length. a a b b c d d e e f g h h i i j k k % % l m m n
8.4.2Russiantypography
ApparentlyintheRussiantypographictraditionthelastlineofamultilineparagraphmust
eitherbeatleastaslongasthe
\parindent
andhaveatleast
\parindent
attheend,or
itmustfillthewholeline(i.e.,flushleftandflushright).
\russianpar
1Exceptforthe\parindent,whichitleavesatitscurrentvalue.
128
8.4. Somelesscommonparagraphshapes
Typesetexample8.3:Rulesforspaces
Thelastlineofthisparagraphwillbebesetbyendingitwitharuletofillupany
space.
Endingaparagraphwith
\russianpar
causesittobesetfollowingRussiantypographic
rules.
Ifyouhavemanysuchparagraphsitmaybemoreconvenienttodoitlike:
\let\par\russianpar
... many paragraphs
\let\par\memorigpar
oras:
\begingroup% start a group
\let\par\russianpar
... many paragraphs
\endgroup% end d the e group
8.4.3Fillwithrules
Insomelegaldocumentstheremustbenospaceattheendofthelinesinordertoprevent
anyoneinsertingsomethingatalaterdate.Typicallyitisonlythelastlineinaparagraph
thatneedsthistreatment.
\lastlinerulefill
\lastlineparrule
Sourceforexample8.3
The last line e of this s paragraph h will be be set t by y ending it t with
a rule to o fill up p any y space.\lastlinerulefill
Using
\lastlinerulefill
toendaparagraphwillcauseanyspacesattheendsof
thelinestobefilledwiththe
\lastlineparrule
rule. Ifyouhavemanyparagraphsof
thiskindthentry:
\let\par\lastlinerulefill
.... many y paragraphs
\let\par\memorigpar
RememberthatLaTeXtreatsmanyconstructs(likesectionheadingsorcaptions)aspara-
graphs,soyoumayhave toalternatebetweenfilledtextparagraphsand regularpara-
graphing.
8.4.4Someraggedparagraphs
Afewparagraphshapeswithunusualraggedlinesareavaiable.
129
8. P
ARAGRAPHSANDLISTS
Typesetexample8.4:Raggedparagraphs
Paragraphsfollowingthe
\justlastraggedleft
declaration,asthisonedoes,have
theirlinesjustifiedexceptforthelastwhichissetraggedleft.Thedemonstrationworks
bestiftherearethreeormorelines.
Thisparagraphissetfollowingthe
\raggedrightthenleft
declaration.Thefirst
lineissetraggedrightandalltheremaininglinesaresetraggedleft.The
demonstrationisbetteriftherearethreeormorelines.
Thisparagraphissetfollowingthe
\leftcenterright
declaration.Wereallyneed
three,
orfourmaybebetter,
linestoshowtheeffectofthis.
\justlastraggedleft
\raggedrightthenleft
\leftcenterright
Followingthe
\justlastraggedleft
declarationparagraphswillbesetjustifiedex-
ceptthelastlinewillbesetraggedleft.
Followingthedeclaration
\raggedrightthenleft
paragraphswillbeset withthe
firstlineraggedrightandtheremaindersetraggedleft.
Following the e declaration
\leftcenteright
paragraphs will be e set t withthe e first
line flushleft (and raggedright)and the last line flushright (andraggedleft) ) and d those
inthe middle will be centered. . Thisdeclarationshouldbeused d withinagroup; ; also
\everypar{}
shouldbecalledattheend.
Sourceforexample8.4
\justlastraggedleft
Paragraphs following g the \verb?\justlastraggedleft? declaration, as
this one e does, have their lines justified d except for r the last which
is set raggedleft. The e demonstration n works s best if f there are e three
or more lines.
\raggedrightthenleft
This paragraph h is set following the e \verb?\raggedrightthenleft?
declaration. The e first line e is set t raggedright t and all l the e remaining
lines are e set t raggedleft. The e demonstration n is better r if f there are e three or
more lines.
\leftcenterright
This paragraph h is set following the e \verb?\leftcenterright?
declaration. We e really need d three, , \\ \ or four may be better, , \\
130
8.5. Changingthetextwidth
Typesetexample8.5:Asprungparagraph
Textattheleftisset
flushleftandraggedright.
Butthetextattherightissetraggedleftand
flushright.It’sasthoughtherewasaspringpushing
thelinesapart.
lines to o show w the effect of f this.
\everypar{}
8.4.5Leftspringright
Typicallythelinesofaparagrapharebothflushleftandflushrightandfilledwithtext,but
sometimesfillingisnotdesired.
\leftspringright{
lfrac
}{
rfrac
}{
ltext
}{
rtext
}
The
\leftspringright
macrosetsltextflushleftandraggedrightinacolumnwhose
widthislfracofthetextwidthand,inparallel,italsosetsrtextraggedleftandflushright
inacolumnthatisrfracofthetextwidth;theeffectisasthoughtherearespringsbetween
thelinesofthetwotexts.Thesumoflfracandrfacmustbelessthanone.
Sourceforexample8.5
\leftspringright{0.3}{0.6}%
{Text at the e left t is s set t flushleft and d raggedright.}
{But the text t at t the e right is s set raggedleft t and d flushright.
It’s as though there was s a a spring pushing the lines apart.}
8.5C
HANGINGTHE TEXTWIDTH
The
quote
and
quotation
environmentsbothlocallychangethetextwidth,ormorepre-
cisely,theytemporarilyincreasetheleftandrightmarginsbyequalamounts. Generally
speakingitisnotagoodideatochangethetextwidthbutsometimesitmaybecalledfor.
Thecommandsandenvironmentdescribedbelowaresimilartothoseintheoriginally
foundinthechngpagepackage,butdodifferinsomerespects.
\begin{adjustwidth}{
left
}{
right
}
text
\end{adjustwidth}
\begin{adjustwidth*}{
left
}{
right
}
text
\end{adjustwidth*}
131
8. P
ARAGRAPHSANDLISTS
The
adjustwidth
environmenttemporarilyaddsthelengthlefttothelefthandmargin
andrighttotherighthandmargin. Thatis,apositivelengthvalueincreasesthemargin
andhencereducesthetextwidth,andanegativevaluereducesthemarginandincreases
thetextwidth.The
quotation
environmentisroughlyequivalentto
\begin{adjustwidth}{2.5em}{2.5em}
Thestarredversionoftheenvironment,
adjustwidth*
,isreallyonlyusefuliftheleft
andrightmarginadjustmentsaredifferent. Thestarredversionchecksthepagenumber
andifitisoddthenadjuststheleft(spine)andright(outer)marginsbyleftandright
respectively;ifthepagenumberiseven(aversopage)itadjuststheleft(outer)andright
(spine)marginsbyrightandleftrespectively.
\strictpagecheck\lazypagecheck
Odd/even page checking may y be either strict t (
\strictpagecheck
) or lazy
(
\lazypagecheck
).Lazycheckingworksmostofthetimebutifitfailsatanypointthen
thestrictcheckingshouldbeused.
Asanexample,ifafigureiswiderthanthetextwidthitwillstickoutintotherighthand
margin.Itmaybedesireabletohaveanywidefigurestickoutintotheoutermarginwhere
thereisusuallymoreroomthanatthespinemargin.Thiscanbeaccomplishedby
\begin{figure}
\centering
\strictpagecheck
\begin{adjustwidth*}{0em}{-3em}
% the illustration
\caption{...}
\end{adjustwidth*}
\end{figure}
ArealexampleinthismanualisTable10.1onpage181,whichiswiderthanthetype-
block.InthatcaseIjustcentereditbyusing
adjustwidth
todecreaseeachmarginequally.
Inbrief,like
\begin{table}
\begin{adjustwidth}{-1cm}{-1cm}
\centering
...
\end{adjustwidth}
\end{table}
Notethatthe
adjustwidth
environmentappliestocompleteparagraphs;youcan’t
changethewidthofpartofaparagraphexceptforhangingparagraphsormoreesoter-
icallyvia
\parshape
. Further, , ifthe adjustedparagraphcrossesapage boundarythe
marginchangesareconstant;aparagraphthatis,say,widerattherightonthefirstpage
willalsobewiderattherightasitcontinuesontothefollowingpage.
The
center
environment horizontallycentersitscontentswithrespecttothe type-
block.Sometimesyoumaywishtohorizontallycentersometextwithrespecttothephys-
icalpage,forexamplewhentypesettingacolophonwhichmaylookoddcenteredwith
respecttothe(unseen)typeblock.
Thecalculationofthenecessarychangestothespineandfore-edgemarginsissimple.
Usingthesamesymbolsasearlierin§2.4(P
w
andB
w
arethewidthofthetrimmedpage
132
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