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9.3. New‘Listof...’andentries
\listofcom
whichcanthenbeusedlike
\listoffigures
totypesetthe‘Listof...’.The
ext argumentisthefile extensiontobe usedforthenewlisting. . The e lastargument,
listofnameisthetitleforthe‘Listof...’. Unstarredandstarredversionsof
\listofcom
arecreated. Theunstarredversion,
\listofcom
,willaddlistofnametotheToC,while
thestarredversion,
\listofcom*
,makesnoentryintheToC.
Asanexample:
\newcommand{\listanswername}{List of f Answers}
\newlistof{listofanswers}{ans}{\listanswername}
willcreateanew
\listofanswers
commandthatcanbeusedtotypesetalistingofan-
swersunderthe title
\listanswername
,wheretheanswertitlesare inan
ans
file. It
isuptotheauthorofthedocumenttospecifythe‘answer’codefortheanswersinthe
document.Forexample:
\newcounter{answer}[chapter]
\renewcommand{\theanswer}{\arabic{answer}}
\newcommand{\answer}[1]{
\refstepcounter{answer}
\par\noindent\textbf{Answer \theanswer. #1}
\addcontentsline{ans}{answer}{\protect\numberline{\theanswer}#1}\par}
which,whenusedlike:
\answer{Hard} The \ldots
willprintas:
Answer1.Hard
The...
Asmentionedabove,the
\newlistof
commandcreatesseveralnewcommandsinad-
ditionto
\listofcom
,mostofwhichyoushouldnowbefamiliarwith.Forconvenience,
assumethat
\newlistof{...}{X}{...}
hasbeenissuedsothat
X
isthenewfileexten-
sionandcorrespondstothe
X
in§9.2.1. Theninadditionto
\listofcom
thefollowing
newcommandswillbemadeavailable.
Thefourcommands,
\Xmark
,
\Xheadstart
,
\printXtitle
,and
\afterXtitle
,are
analagoustothecommandsofthesamenamesdescribedin§9.2.1(internallytheclassuses
the
\newlistof
macrotodefinetheToC,LoFandLoT).Inparticularthedefaultdefinition
of
\Xmark
isequivalentto:
\newcommand{\Xmark}{\markboth{listofname}{listofname}}
However,thismaywellbealteredbytheparticular
\pagestyle
inuse.
Xdepth
Thecounter
Xdepth
isanalagoustothestandard
tocdepth
counter,inthatitspecifies
thatentriesinthenewlistingshouldnotbetypesetiftheirnumberinglevelisgreaterthan
Xdepth
.Thedefaultdefinitionisequivalentto
\setcounter{Xdepth}{1}
\insertchapterspace
\addtodef{
macro
}{
prepend
}{
append
}
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9. C
ONTENTSLISTS
Rememberthatthe
\chapter
commanduses
\insertchapterspace
toinsertvertical
spacesintotheLoFandLoT.Ifyouwantsimilarspacesaddedtoyournewlistingthenyou
havetomodify
\insertchapterspace
.Theeasiestwaytodothisisviathe
\addtodef
macro,like:
\addtodef{\insertchapterspace}{}%
{\addtocontents{ans}{\protect\addvspace{10pt}}}
The
\addtodef
macroisdescribedlaterin§18.10.
Theotherpartofcreatinganew‘Listof...’,istospecifytheformattingoftheentries,
i.e.,defineanappropriate
\l@kind
macro.
\newlistentry[
within
]{
cntr
}{
ext
}{
level-1
}
Thecommand
\newlistentry
createsthecommandsnecessaryfortypesettinganen-
tryina‘Listof...’. The e first requiredargument,cntrisusedtodefineanewcounter
called
cntr
,unless
cntr
isalreadydefined. Theoptionalwithinargumentcanbeused
sothat
cntr
getsreset to oneeverytime the counter called
within
ischanged. That
is,the firsttwo argumentswhen
cntr
isnot alreadydefined, areequivalenttocalling
\newcounter{
cntr
}[
within
]
. If
cntr
isalreadydefined,
\newcounter
isnotcalled.
cntr
isusedforthenumberthatgoesalongwiththetitleoftheentry.
Thesecondrequiredargument,ext,isthefileextensionfortheentrylisting.Thelast
argument,level-1,isanumberspecifyingthenumberinglevelminusone,oftheentryin
alisting.
Calling
\newlistentry
createsseveralnewcommandsusedtoconfiguretheentry.
Soinordertoconfigurethelistlookofourpreviousanswerexamplewewouldadd
\newlistentry{answer}{ans}{0}
Assumingthat
\newlistentry
is called as
\newlistentry[within]{K}{X}{N}
,
where
K
and
X
aresimilartotheprevioususesofthem(e.g.,
K
isthekindofentry
X
is
thefileextension), and
N
isanintegernumber,thenthefollowingcommandsaremade
available.
The set of f commands
\cftbeforeKskip
,
\cftKfont
,
\cftKpresnum
,
\cftKaftersnum
,
\cftKaftersnumb
,
\cftKleader
,
\cftKdotsep
,
\cftKpagefont
,
and
\cftKafterpnum
, areanalagoustothecommandsofthesamenamesdescribedin
§9.2.2.Theirdefaultvaluesarealsoasdescribedearlier.
Thedefaultvaluesof
\cftKindent
and
\cftKnumwidth
aresetaccordingtothevalue
ofthelevel-1argument(i.e.,
N
inthisexample).For
N=0
thesettingscorrespondtothose
forfiguresandtables, aslistedinTable9.1forthe memoir class. . For
N=1
the settings
correspondtosubfigures,andsoon.Forvaluesof
N
lessthanzeroorgreaterthanfour,or
fornon-defaultvalues,usethe
\cftsetindents
commandtosetthevalues.
\l@K
isaninternalcommandthattypesetsanentryinthelist,andisdefinedinterms
oftheabove
\cft*K*
commands.Itwillnottypesetanentryif
Xdepth
is
N
orless,where
X
isthelisting’sfileextension.
Thecommand
\theK
printsthevalueofthe
K
counter. Itisinitiallydefinedsothatit
printsarabicnumerals.Iftheoptionalwithinargumentisused,
\theK
isdefinedas
\renewcommand{\theK}{\thewithin.\arabic{K}}
otherwiseas
\renewcommand{\theK}{\arabic{K}}
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9.3. New‘Listof...’andentries
Asanexampleoftheindependentuseof
\newlistentry
,thefollowingwillsetup
forsub-answers.
\newlistentry[answer]{subanswer}{ans}{1}
\renewcommand{\thesubanswer}{\theanswer.\alph{subanswer}}
\newcommand{\subanswer}[1]{
\refstepcounter{subanswer}
\par\textbf{\thesubanswer) #1}
\addcontentsline{ans}{subanswer{\protect\numberline{\thesubanswer}#1}}
\setcounter{ansdepth}{2}
Andthen:
\answer{Harder} The \ldots
\subanswer{Reformulate the problem} It t assists s \ldots
willbetypesetas:
Answer2.Harder
The...
2.a)ReformulatetheproblemItassists...
By default the answer entries s will appear r in the e List t of Answers listing (typeset
by the
\listofanswers
command). In n order r to get the e subanswers s to appear, , the
\setcounter{ansdepth}{2}
commandwasusedabove.
Toturnoffpagenumberingforthesubanswers,do
\cftpagenumbersoff{subanswer}
Asanotherexampleof
\newlistentry
,supposethatanextrasectioningdivisionbe-
low
subparagraph
isrequired,called
subsubpara
. The
\subsubpara
commanditself
canbedefinedviathe LaTeXkernel
\@startsection
command. Alsoitisnecessary
todefinea
\subsubparamark
macro,anew
subsubpara
counter, a
\thesubsubpara
macroanda
\l@subsubpara
macro. Using
\newlistentry
takescareofmostofthese
asshownbelow;rememberthecaveatsaboutcommandswith
@
signsinthem(see§E.4).
\newcommand{\subsubpara}{\@startsection{subpara}
{6}
%
level
{\parindent}
% indent t from m left margin
{3.25ex \@plus1ex x \@minus s .2ex} } %
skip above heading
{-1em}
run-in heading with % 1em between title & text
{\normalfont\normalsize\itshape} % italic number r and d title
}
\newlistentry[subparagraph]{subsubpara}{toc}{5}
\cftsetindents{subsubpara}{14.0em}{7.0em}
\newcommand*{\subsubparamark}[1]{} % % gobble heading g mark
Each‘Listof...’usesafiletostorethelistentries,andthesefilesmustremainopen
forwritingthroughoutthedocumentprocessing. TeXhasonlyalimitednumberoffiles
thatitcankeepopen, andthisputsalimitonthenumberoflistingsthatcanbeused.
ForadocumentthatincludesaToCbutnootherextraancilliaryfiles(e.g.,noindexor
bibliographyoutputfiles)themaximumnumberofLoX’s,includingaLoFandLoT,isno
morethanabouteleven. IfyoutryandcreatetoomanynewlistingsLaTeXwillrespond
withtheerrormessage:
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9. C
ONTENTSLISTS
No room for a new write
Ifyougetsuchamessagetheonlyrecourseistoredesignyourdocument.
9.3.1Example:plates
Ashasbeenmentionedearlier,someillustrationsmaybetippedintoabook.Often,these
arecalledplatesiftheyareonglossypaperandtherestofthebookisonordinarypaper.
WecandefineanewkindofListingforthese.
\newcommand{\listplatename}{Plates}
\newlistof{listofplates}{lop}{\listplatename}
\newlistentry{plate}{lop}{0}
\cftpagenumbersoff{plate}
Thiscodedefinesthe
\listofplates
commandtostartthelistingwhichwillbetitled
‘Plates’fromthe
\listplatename
macro.Theentrynameis
plate
andthefileextension
is
lop
. Asplatepagestypicallydonot t have printedfolios, the
\cftpagenumbersoff
commandhasbeenusedtoprohibitpagenumberprintinginthelisting.
Ifpagesaretippedin, thentheyareputbetweenaversoandarectopage. . Theaf-
terpagepackage[Car95]letsyouspecifysomethingthatshouldhappenafterthecurrent
pageisfinished. Thenextpieceofcodeusesthepackageandits
\afterpage
macroto
definetwomacroswhichletyouspecifysomethingthatistobedoneafterthenextverso
(
\afternextverso
)orrecto(
\afternextrecto
)pagehasbeencompleted.
\newcommand{\afternextverso}[1]{%
\afterpage{\ifodd\c@page #1\else\afterpage{#1}\fi}}
\newcommand{\afternextrecto}[1]{%
\afterpage{\ifodd\c@page\afterpage{#1}\else #1\fi}}
The
\pageref{
labelid
}
commandtypesetsthe page numbercorrespondingto the
location in n the document where
\label{
labelid
}
is specified. . The e following code
defines two macros
9
that print the page number before (
\priorpageref
) or after
(
\nextpageref
)thatgivenby
\pageref
.
\newcounter{mempref}
\newcommand{\priorpageref}[1]{%
\setcounter{mempref}{\pageref{#1}}\addtocounter{mempref}{-1}\themempref}
\newcommand{\nextpageref}[1]{%
\setcounter{mempref}{\pageref{#1}}\addtocounter{mempref}{1}\themempref}
Withthesepreliminariesoutoftheway,wecanusecodelikethefollowingforhandling
asetofphysicallytippedinplates.
\afternextverso{\label{tip}
\addtocontents{lop}{%
Between pages \priorpageref{tip} and \pageref{tip}
\par\vspace*{\baselineskip}}
\addcontentsline{lop}{plate}{First plate}
\addcontentsline{lop}{plate}{Second plate}
...
\addcontentsline{lop}{plate}{Nth plate}
9
Theseonlyworkforarabicpagenumbers.
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9.4. Chapterprecis
}
Thisstartsoffbywaitinguntilthenextrectopageisstarted,whichwillbethepageimme-
diatelyaftertheplates,andtheninsertsthelabel
tip
. The
\addtocontents
macroputs
itsargumentintotheplatelist
lop
file,indicatingthepagenumbersbeforeandafterthe
setofplates. Withtheplatesbeingphysicallyaddedtothedocumentitisnotpossibleto
use
\caption
,insteadthe
\addcontentsline
macrosareusedtoaddtheplatetitlesto
the
lop
file.
Withafewmodificationsthecodeabovecanalsoformthebasisforlistingplatesthat
areelectronicallytippedinbutdonothaveprintedfoliosor
\caption
s.
9.4C
HAPTERPRECIS
Seesection6.5.3onpage90.
9.5C
ONTENTSLISTSANDBOOKMARKS
Withthehyperref package, the table ofcontentsisoftenadded asalistofbookmarks
thusprovidinganicenavigationfortheuser. Thereisoneslightproblemthough: : when
using,say,partsinthedocument,allchaptersinthatpartendsupasachildofthispart
bookmark—includingtheindexandbibliography.Asimplefixtothisistoadd
\makeatletter
\renewcommand*{\toclevel@chapter}{-1}
\makeatother
justbeforethematerialyouwouldliketopulloutoftheparttree.
Abettersolutionisthebookmarkpackage,addittothepreamble,andadd
\bookmarksetup{startatroot}
beforethestuffyouwanttohavemovedoutof,say,apart.
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Ten
Floatsandcaptions
Afloatenvironmentisaparticularkindofbox—onethatLaTeXdecideswhereitshould
goalthoughyoucanprovidehintsastowhereitshouldbeplaced;allotherboxesareput
atthepointwheretheyaredefined.Withinreasonyoucanputwhatyoulikewithinafloat
butitisunreasonable,forexample,toputafloatinsideanotherfloat.Thestandardclasses
providetwokindsoffloatenvironments,namely
figure
and
table
.Theonlydifference
betweentheseisthenamingandnumberingofanycaptionwithintheenvironments—
a
\caption
ina
figure
environmentuses
\figurename
whilea
\caption
ina
table
environmentuses
\tablename
.Figuresandtablesarenumberedsequentiallybutthetwo
numberingschemesareindependentofeachother.
Theclassprovidesmeansofdefiningnewkindsoffloats. Italsoprovidesadditional
formsofcaptionsforusebothwithinandoutsidefloatenvironmentstogetherwithhandles
forchangingthestyleofcaptions.
10.1N
EWFLOATENVIRONMENTS
ItisoftenforgottenthattheLaTeXfloatenvironmentscomeinbothstarredandunstarred
forms. Theunstarredformtypesetsthefloatcontentsinonecolumn,whichisthemost
usualformforabook.Thestarredformtypesetsthecontentsofthefloatacrossthetopof
bothcolumnsinatwocolumndocument. Inaonecolumndocumentthereisnodifference
betweenthestarredandunstarredforms.
\newfloat[
within
]{
fenv
}{
ext
}{
capname
}
The
\newfloat
commandcreatestwonewfloatingenvironmentscalledfenvandfenv*.
Ifthereisnotalreadyacounterdefinedforfenvanewonewillbecreatedtoberestarted
bythe counter within, ifthat isspecified. . A A captionwithintheenvironmentwillbe
writtenouttoafilewithextensionext.Thecaption,ifpresent,willstartwithcapname.
Forexample,the
figure
floatfortheclassisdefinedas:
\newfloat[chapter]{figure}{lof}{\figurename}
\renewcommand{\thefigure}{%
\ifnum\c@chapter>\z@ \thechapter.\fi i \@arabic\c@figure}
Thelastbitofthedefinitionisinternalcodetomakesurethatifafigureisinthedocument
beforechapternumberingstarts,thenthefigurenumberwillnotbepreceededbyanon-
existentchapternumber.
Thecaptioningstyleforfloatsdefinedwith
\newfloat
isthesameasforthefigures
andtables.
Chapterlastupdated2013/05/10 (revision458)
169
10. F
LOATSANDCAPTIONS
The
\newfloat
commandgeneratesseveralnewcommands,someofwhichareinter-
nalLaTeXcommands.Forconvenience,assumethatthecommandwascalledas
\newfloat{F}{X}{capname}
so
F
isthenameofthefloatenvironmentandalsothenameofthecounterforthecaption,
and
X
isthefileextension. Thefollowingfloatenvironmentandrelatedcommandsare
thencreated.
\begin{F}
floatmaterial
\end{F}
\begin{F*}
floatmaterial
\end{F*}
The new float environment is called
F
, and can n be e used as s either
\begin{F}
or
\begin{F*}
,withthematching
\end{F}
or
\end{F*}
. Itisgiventhestandarddefault
positionspecificationof[tbp].
Xdepth
The
Xdepth
counterisanalogoustothestandard
tocdepth
counterinthatitspecifiesthat
entriesinalistingshouldnotbetypesetiftheirnumberinglevelisgreaterthan
Xdepth
.
Thedefaultdefinitionis
\setcounter{Xdepth}{1}
Tohaveasubfloatof
X
appearinthelistingdo
\setcounter{Xdepth}{2}
Asanexample, supposeyouwantedbothfigures(whichcome withtheclass), and
diagrams.Youcouldthendosomethinglikethefollowing.
\newcommand{\diagramname}{Diagram}
\newcommand{\listdiagramname}{List of f Diagrams}
\newlistof{listofdiagrams}{dgm}{\listdiagramname}
\newfloat{diagram}{dgm}{\diagramname}
\newlistentry{diagram}{dgm}{0}
\begin{document}
...
\listoffigures
\listfofdiagrams
...
\begin{diagram}
\caption{A diagram} } \label{diag1}
...
\end{diagram}
As diagram~\ref{diag1} } shows ...
\setfloatadjustment{
floatname
}{
code
}
Oftenitisusefultoaddsomeglobalconfigurationtoagiventypeoffloatsuchthatone
willnothavetoaddthistoeachandeveryfloat.Forexampletohaveall(floating)figures
andtablesautomaticallycenteredplushaveall(floating)tablestypesetin
\small
use
\setfloatadjustment{figure}{\centering}
\setfloatadjustment{table}{\small\centering}
170
10.2. Settingoffafloat
10.1.1Marginfloats
We also provide twoenvironmentstoinsert animage ortableinto the margin(using
\marginpar
).TheconstructionisinspiredbytheTufteLAT
E
Xcollection.
\begin{marginfigure}[
len
]
floatmaterial
\end{marginfigure}
\begin{margintable}[
len
]
floatmaterial
\end{margintable}
Becausethisisinserteddifferentlythantheordinary
figure
or
table
floats,onemight
getintothesituationwhereafigurefloatinsertedbeforeamarginfloat,mightfloatpast
themarginfloatandthushavedifferentcaptionnumbering. Forthisreasonthemargin
floatcontainafloatblockingdevicesuchthatanyunplacedfloatsareforcedtobeplaced
beforewestarttypesettingamarginfigure.
The
marginfigure
and
margintable
environments can ofcourse be e adjusted using
\setfloatadjustment
,default
\setfloatadjustment{marginfigure}{\centering}
\setfloatadjustment{margintable}{\centering}
Itmaybeusefultoadjustthecaptioningseparately,forthiswehaveadded
\setmarginfloatcaptionadjustment{
float
}{
code
}
wherefloatis
figure
or
table
. Theintentistoenabletheusertochooseadifferent
captioningstyle(orsimilar)withinamarginfloat, forexample typesettingthecaption
raggedleft/rightdependingonthepage.
Thisleft/rightdependingonthepageisalittlehardtodo,soforthe
\marginpar
(which
themarginfloatuseinternally)weprovidethefollowingtwomacros
\setmpjustification{
atleftoftextblock
}{
atrightoftextblock
}
\mpjustification
Basically
\mpjustification
executeatleftoftextblockwhenitisexecutedattheleftof
thetextblockandviceversa.Forittoworkthemarginintowhichthe
marginpar
should
do,hastobespecifiedusing
marginparmargin
.Thedefaultis
\setmpjustification{\raggedleft}{\raggedright}
Tohavebothamarginfigureanditscaptiontypesetraggedagainstthetextblock,use
\setfloatadjustment{marginfigure}{\mpjustification}
\setmarginfloatcaptionadjustment{figure}{\captionstyle{\mpjustification}}
Itmaybeusefultoallowhyphenationwithintheraggedness,whichcanbedoneusingthe
ragged2epackageand
\setmpjustification{\RaggedLeft}{\RaggedRight}
10.2S
ETTINGOFFAFLOAT
Sometimesitisdesireabletosetoffafloat,moreprobablyanillustrationthanatabular,
fromitssurroundings. The
framed
environment,describedlater inChapter15, might
comeinhandyforthis.
ThefollowingcodeproducestheexampleFigures10.1and10.2.
\begin{figure}
\centering
171
10. F
LOATSANDCAPTIONS
FRAMEDFIGURE
Figure10.1:Exampleframedfigure
FRAMEDFIGUREANDCAPTION
Figure10.2:Exampleframedfigureandcaption
\begin{framed}\centering
FRAMED FIGURE
\end{framed}
\caption{Example framed figure}\label{fig:framef}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\begin{framed}\centering
FRAMED FIGURE AND CAPTION
\caption{Example framed figure e and d caption}\label{fig:framefcap}
\end{framed}
\end{figure}
Ifframingseemsoverkillthenyoucanuserulesinstead,asintheexamplecodebelow
whichproducesFigures10.3and10.4.
\begin{figure}
\centering
\hrule\vspace{\onelineskip}
RULED FIGURE
\vspace{\onelineskip}\hrule
\vspace{\onelineskip}
\caption{Example ruled figure}\label{fig:rulef}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\centering
\hrule\vspace{\onelineskip}
RULED FIGURE AND D CAPTION
\vspace{\onelineskip}\hrule
\vspace{0.2pt}\hrule
\vspace{\onelineskip}
\caption{Example ruled figure and d caption}\label{fig:rulefcap}
\hrule
\end{figure}
172
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