11.6. Tabularenvironments
Figure11.3:Example
tabularx
and
tabular*
withwidthsof300pt
\begin{tabularx}{300pt}{|c|X|c|X|}
Multicolumnentry!
THREE
FOUR
one
Thewidthofthis
columndependson
thewidthofthetable.
three
Columnfourwillact
inthesamewayas
columntwo,withthe
samewidth.
\begin{tabular*}{300pt}%
{|@{\extracolsep{\fill}}c|p{5.5pc}|c|p{5.5pc}|}
Multicolumnentry!
THREE
FOUR
one
Thewidthof
thiscolumn’s
textisfixed
(5.5pc).
three
Columnfour
willactinthe
samewayas
columntwo,
withthesame
width.
maynotbeused.
3
tabular*
usesaprimitive capabilityofTeXtomodifytheintercolumnspaceof
analignment.
tabularx
hastosetthetableseveraltimesasitsearchesforthebest
columnwidths,andisthereforemuchslower.Alsothefactthatthebodyisexpanded
severaltimesmaybreakcertainTeXconstructs.
\tracingtabularx
Followingthe
\tracingtabularx
declarationalllater
tabularx
environmentswillprint
informationaboutcolumnwidthsastheyrepeatedlyre-setthetablestofindthecorrect
widths.
Bydefaultthe
X
specificationisturnedinto
p{
somevalue
}
. Suchnarrowcolumnsof-
tenrequireaspecialformat,whichcanbeachievedbyusingthe
>
syntax. Forexample,
>{\small}X
. Another format whichisuseful innarrow columnsisraggedright, how-
everLaTeX’s
\raggedright
macroredefines
\\
inawaywhichconflictswithitsusein
tabular
or
array
environments.
\arraybackslash
Forthisreasonthecommand
\arraybackslash
isprovided; thismaybeusedaftera
\raggedright
,
\raggedleft
or
\centering
declaration.Thusa
tabularx
formatmay
include
>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}X
These format specifications s may y of course be e saved using g the command,
\newcolumntype
.Afterspecifying,say,
3
Actually,\verband\verb*maybeused,buttheymaytreatspacesincorrectly,andtheargumentcannot
containanunmatched{or},ora%character.
223
Pdf combine files online - Merge, append PDF files in C#.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
Provide C# Demo Codes for Merging and Appending PDF Document
c# merge pdf files; pdf combine two pages into one
Pdf combine files online - VB.NET PDF File Merge Library: Merge, append PDF files in vb.net, ASP.NET, MVC, Ajax, WinForms, WPF
VB.NET Guide and Sample Codes to Merge PDF Documents in .NET Project
reader merge pdf; merge pdf
11. R
OWSANDCOLUMNS
\newcolumntype{Y}{>{\small\raggedright\arraybackslash}X}
then
Y
couldbeusedinthe
tabularx
formatargument.
\tabularxcolumn
The
X
columnsaresetusingthe
p
column,whichcorrespondsto
\parbox[t]
. Youmay
wantthemsetusing, say, , the
m
column, whichcorrespondsto
\parbox[c]
. It t isnot
possibletochangethecolumntype usingthe
>
syntax,soanothersystemisprovided.
\tabularxcolumn
shouldbedefinedtobeamacrowithoneargument,whichexpands
tothe
tabular
formatspecificationthatyouwanttocorrespondto
X
.Theargumentwill
bereplacedbythecalculatedwidthofacolumn.
Thedefaultdefinitionis
\newcommand{\tabularxcolumn}[1]{p{#1}}
Thismaybechanged,forinstance
\renewcommand{\tabularxcolumn}[1]{>{\small}m{#1}}
sothat
X
columnswillbetypesetas
m
columnsusingthe
\small
font.
Normallyall
X
columnsinasingletablearesettothesamewidth,howeveritispossible
tomake
tabularx
setthemtodifferentwidths.Aformatargumentof
{>{\hsize=.5\hsize}X>{\hsize=1.5\hsize}X}
specifiestwocolumns,wherethesecondwillbethreetimesaswideasthefirst. Ifyou
thinkyouneedtodothingslikethistryandredesignyourtable. However,ifyoumust
youshouldfollowthesetworules.
 Makesurethatthesumofthewidthsofallthe
X
columnsisunchanged. (Inthe
aboveexample,thenewwidthsstilladduptotwicethedefaultwidth,thesameas
twostandard
X
columns.)
 Donotuse
\multicolumn
entrieswhichcrossany
X
column.
tabularx
willnotset
X
columnstoanegativewidth. Ifthewidthsofthe‘normal’
columnsofthetablealreadytotalmore thantherequestedtotalwidthyouwillgetthe
warning‘
X columns too narrow w (table e too wide)
’.The
X
columnswillbesettoa
widthof1emandsothetableitselfwillbewiderthantherequestedtotalwidthgivenin
theargumenttotheenvironment.
Thestandard
\verb
macrodoesnotworkinsidea
tabularx
,justasitdoesnotwork
intheargumenttoanymacro.
\TX@verb
The‘poorman’s
\verb
’(and
\verb*
)definedhereisbasedonpage382oftheTeXbook.As
explainedthere,doingverbatimthiswaymeansthatspacesarenottreatedcorrectly,and
so
\verb*
maywellbeuseless. Themechanismisquitegeneral,andanymacrowhich
wantstoallowaformof
\verb
tobeusedwithinitsargumentmay
\let\verb=\TX@verb
Itmustensurethattherealdefinitionisrestoredafterwards.
Thisversionof
\verb
and
\verb*
aresubjecttothefollowingrestictions:
1. Spacesintheargumentarenotreadverbatim,butmaybeskippedaccordingtoTeX’s
usualrules.
2. Spaceswillbeaddedtotheoutputaftercontrolwords,eveniftheywerenotpresent
intheinput.
224
Online Merge PDF files. Best free online merge PDF tool.
Drag and drop your PDF or several files in the box Also you can add more PDFs to combine them and merge to make it as easy as possible to merge your PDF files.
add multiple pdf files into one online; reader create pdf multiple files
C# Word - Merge Word Documents in C#.NET
RasterEdge C#.NET Word document merging toolkit (XDoc.Word) is designed to help .NET developers combine Word document files created by different users to one
pdf merge comments; break a pdf into multiple files
11.7. Spacesandrules
3. Unlesstheargumentisasinglespace,anytrailingspace,whetherintheoriginal
argument,oraddedasin(2),willbeomitted.
4. Theargumentmustnotendwith
\
,so
\verb|\|
isnotallowed,however,because
of(3),
\verb|\ |
produces
\
.
5. Theargumentmustbebalancedwithrespectto
{
and
}
.So
\verb|{|
isnotallowed.
6. Acommentcharacterlike
%
willnotappearverbatim.Itwillactasusual,comment-
ingouttherestoftheinputline!
7. Thecombinations
?‘
and
!‘
willappearas
¿
and
¡
iftheComputerTypewriterfont
isbeingused.
11.7S
PACESAND RULES
11.7.1Spacing
Sometimestabularrowsappearverticallychallenged.
\arraystretch
Themacro
\arraystretch
controlsthespacingbetweenrows.Thenormalspaceismul-
tipliedbythevalueof
\arraystretch
,whosedefaultdefinitionis
\newcommand{\arraystretch}{1.0}
Ifthisischangedto1.25,forexample,therowspacingisincreasedby25%.
\extrarowheight
Ifthelength
\extrarowheight
ispositive,itsvalueisaddedtothenormalheightofevery
rowofthearrayortable,whilethedepthwillremainthesame.Thisisimportantfortables
withhorizontallinesbecausethoselinesnormallytouchthecapitalletters.Forexample
\begin{table}
\centering
\caption{The array and d tabular r format options.}%
\label{tab:tabpream}
\setlength{\extrarowheight}{1pt}
\begin{tabular}{cp{9cm}} \toprule
...
wasusedforTable11.1.
\arraycolsep\tabcolsep
Thelength
\arraycolsep
ishalfthewidthofthehorizontalspacebetweencolumnsin
an
array
environment andsimilarlythelength
\tabcolsep
ishalfthespacebetween
columnsinan
tabular
or
tabular*
environment.
\arrayrulewidth\doublerulesep
Thelength
\arrayrulewidth
isthewidthofthe linecreatedbya
|
intheformat,or
byan
\hline
,
\cline
or
\vline
command. Thelength
\doublerulesep
isthespace
betweenlinescreatedbytwosuccessive
|
optionsintheformatorbysuccessive
\hline
commands.
225
C# PowerPoint - Merge PowerPoint Documents in C#.NET
RasterEdge C#.NET PowerPoint document merging toolkit (XDoc.PowerPoint) is designed to help .NET developers combine PowerPoint document files created by
reader combine pdf pages; acrobat merge pdf
C# PDF: C#.NET PDF Document Merging & Splitting Control SDK
SDK > C# > Merge and Split Document(s). "This online guide content is toolkit is designed to help .NET developers combine PDF document files created by
pdf split and merge; append pdf
11. R
OWSANDCOLUMNS
11.7.2Specialvariationsonhorizontallines
Thefamilyof
tabular
environmentsallowsverticalpositioningwithrespecttothebase-
lineofthetextinwhichtheenvironmentappears. Bydefaulttheenvironmentappears
centered,butthiscanbechangedtoalignwiththefirstorlastlineintheenvironmentby
supplyinga
t
or
b
valuetotheoptionalpositionargument.However,thisdoesnotwork
whenthefirstorlastelementintheenvironmentisa
\hline
command—inthatcasethe
environmentisalignedatthehorizontalrule.
Hereisanexample:
Tables withno
hline
commands
versus
tables
withsome
hline
commands
used.
Tables
\begin{tabular}[t]{l}
with no\\ hline\\ commands
\end{tabular} versus tables
\begin{tabular}[t]{|l|}
\hline
with some\\ \ hline\\ \ commands\\
\hline
\end{tabular} used.
\firsthline\lasthline
\extratabsurround
Using
\firsthline
and
\lasthline
willcuretheproblem,andthetableswillalign
properlyaslongastheirfirstorlastlinedoesnotcontainextremelylargeobjects.
Tables withno
line
commands
versus
tables
withsome
line
commands
used.
Tables
\begin{tabular}[t]{l}
with no\\ line\\ commands
\end{tabular} versus tables
\begin{tabular}[t]{|l|}
\firsthline
with some\\ line\\ commands\\
\lasthline
\end{tabular} used.
Theimplementationofthesetwocommandscontainsanextradimension, whichis
called
\extratabsurround
,toaddsomeadditionalspaceatthetopandthebottomof
suchanenvironment.Thisisusefulifsuchtablesarenested.
11.7.3Handlingofrules
Therearetwopossibleapproachestothehandlingofhorizontalandverticalrulesintables:
1. rulescanbeplacedintotheavailablespacewithoutenlargingthetable,or
2. rulescanbeplacedbetweencolumnsorrowstherebyenlargingthetable.
TheclassimplementsthesecondpossibilitywhilethedefaultimplementationintheLaTeX
kernelimplementsthefirstconcept.
WithstandardLaTeXaddingrulestoatablewillnotaffectthewidthorheightofthe
table(unlessdoublerulesareused),e.g.,changingaformatfrom
lll
to
l|l|l
doesnot
226
C# PDF File Split Library: Split, seperate PDF into multiple files
Also able to combine generated split PDF document files with other PDF files to form Advanced component for splitting PDF document in preview without
merge pdf files; c# merge pdf files into one
VB.NET Word: Merge Multiple Word Files & Split Word Document
destnPath As [String]) DOCXDocument.Combine(docList, destnPath Merge Word Files or Split Word in Batch Mode. & profession imaging controls, PDF document, image
add pdf pages together; pdf merge files
11.8. Freetabulars
affectthedocumentotherthanaddingrulestothetable.Incontrast,withtheclassatable
thatjustfitsthe
\textwidth
mightnowproduceanoverfullbox.(Butyoushouldn’thave
verticalrulesinthefirstplace.)
11.8F
REE TABULARS
Allthetabularenvironmentsdescribedsofarputthetableintoabox,whichLaTeXtreats
likealargecomplexcharacter,andcharactersarenotbrokenacrosspages. Ifyouhavea
longtablethatrunsoffthebottomofthepageyoucanturnto,say,thelongtable[Car98b]
orxtab[Wil00e]packageswhichwillautomaticallybreaktablesacrosspageboundaries.
Thesehavevariousbellsandwhistles,suchasautomaticallyputtingacaptionatthetop
ofeachpage,repeatingthecolumnheads,andsoforth.
11.8.1Continuoustabulars
\begin{ctabular}[
pos
]{
format
}
rows
\end{ctabular}
The
ctabular
environmentissimilarto
tabular
,butwithacoupleofdifferences, the
mainonebeingthatthetablewillmerrilycontinueacrosspagebreaks.Theformatargu-
mentisthesameasfortheprevious
array
and
tabular
environments,buttheoptional
posargumentcontrolsthehorizontalpositionofthetable,notthevertical. Thepossible
argumentvalueisoneofthefollowingcharacters:
leftjustified,
centered,or
rightjustified;
thedefaultisc.
\begin{ctabular}{lcr} \toprule
LEFT & CENTER & & RIGHT \\ \ \midrule
l & & c c & r r \\
l & & c c & r r \\
l & & c c & r r \\
l & & c c & r r \\ \ \bottomrule
\end{ctabular}
LEFT
CENTER
RIGHT
l
c
r
l
c
r
l
c
r
l
c
r
Anexampleuseisforsettingtwotextsinparallel,forinstanceapoemandit’stransla-
tion,withouthavingtobeconcernedaboutpagebreaks.
JesuisFrançoys,dontilmepois,
IamFrançois,whichisunfortunate,
NédeParisemprèsPointoise,
borninParisnearPointoise,
Etdelacorded’unetoise
andwithasix-footstretchofrope,
Sçauramoncolquemonculpoise.
myneckwillknowmyarse’sweight.
227
VB.NET TIFF: Merge and Split TIFF Documents with RasterEdge .NET
docList As [String]()) TIFFDocument.Combine(filePath, docList be processed and manipulated TIFF files in high & profession imaging controls, PDF document, tiff
combine pdf online; add pdf files together
VB.NET PowerPoint: Merge and Split PowerPoint Document(s) with PPT
Just like we need to combine PPT files, sometimes, we also be divided into two separate sub-PPT files from the If you want to see more PDF processing functions
.net merge pdf files; pdf merge documents
11. R
OWSANDCOLUMNS
Table11.7:Exampleautomaticroworderedtable
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
FrançoisVillon,1431–1463?
The
ctabular
environmentwillprobablynotbeusedwithina
table
environment
(which defeats s the e possibility of f the table e crossing g page boundaries). . To o caption a
ctabular
youcandefineafixedcaption.Forexample:
\newfixedcaption{\freetabcaption}{table}
Andthen
\freetabcaption
canbeusedlikethenormal
\caption
withina
table
float.
11.8.2Automatictabulars
Atabularformatmaybeusedjusttolistthings,forexamplethenamesofthemembersof
aparticularorganisation,orthenamesofLaTeXenvironments.
Especiallywhendraftingadocument,orwhenthenumberofentriesislikelytochange,
itisconvenienttobeabletotabulatealistofitemswithouthavingtoexplicitlymarkthe
endofeachrow.
\autorows[
width
]{
pos
}{
num
}{
style
}{
entries
}
The
\autorows
macroliststheentriesinrows;thatis,theentriesaretypesetlefttoright
andtoptobottom.Thenumargumentisthenumberofcolumns.Theentriesargument
isacomma-separatedlistofthenamestobetabulated;theremustbenocommaafterthe
lastofthenamesbeforetheclosingbrace.Table11.7wassetby
\autorows
using:
\begin{figure}
\freetabcaption{Example automatic c row ordered table}
\label{tab:autorows}
\autorows{c}{5}{c}{one, two, three, four, five,
six, seven, , eight, nine, ten,
eleven, twelve, , thirteen, , fourteen n }
\end{figure}
Theposargumentcontrolsthehorizontalpositionofthetabularandthestyleargu-
mentspecifiesthelocationoftheentriesinthecolumns;eachcolumnistreatedidentically.
Thevalueofaposorstyleargumentisoneofthefollowingcharacters:
leftjustified,
centered,or
rightjustified.
Eachcolumnisnormallythe samewidth,whichislargeenoughtoaccomodate the
widestentryinthelist. Apositivewidth(e.g.,
{0.8\textwidth}
),definestheoverall
widthofthetable,andthecolumnwidthiscalculatedbydividingwidthbythenumber
ofcolumns.Anynegativevalueforthewidthwidthletseachcolumnbewideenoughfor
thewidestentryinthatcolumn;thecolumnwidthisnolongeraconstant.
TheexamplesinFigure11.4illustratetheeffectofthewidthargument(thedefault
valueis0pt).TheprincipalelementsofthecodefortheFigureare:
228
11.8. Freetabulars
width=
-1pt
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven twelve e thirteen n fourteen
width=
0pt
(thedefault)
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
width=
0.9\textwidth
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
Figure11.4:Changingthewidthofaroworderedtable
\begin{figure}
...
\autorows[-1pt]{c}{5}{c}{one, two, , three, four, five,
six, seven, eight, nine, ten,
eleven, twelve, , thirteen, , fourteen n }
...
\autorows[0pt]{c}{5}{c}{one, two, three,
... fourteen n }
...
\autorows[0.9\textwidth]{c}{5}{c}{one, two, three,
... fourteen n }
\caption{Changing the e width of f a row ordered table}
\label{fig:arw}
\end{figure}
\autocols[
width
]{
pos
}{
num
}{
style
}{
entries
}
The
\autocols
macrolistsitsentriesincolumns,proceedingtoptobottomandleftto
right. Thearguments,arethesameasfor
\autorows
,exceptthatanegativewidthis
treatedasifitwerezero. Thecolumnwidthisalwaysconstantthroughoutthetableand
isnormallysufficientforthewidestentry.Apositiveorzerowidthhasthesameeffectas
for
\autorows
.
Ifyouneedtoincludeacommawithinoneoftheentriesinthelistforeither
\autorows
or
\autocols
youhavetouseamacro.Forinstance:
\newcommand*{\comma}{,}
TheexamplesinFigure11.5,fromthefollowingcodeelements,illustratethesepoints.
\begin{figure}
...
\autocols{c}{5}{c}{one\comma{} two, three, four, five,
six, seven, eight, nine, ten,
229
11. R
OWSANDCOLUMNS
width=
0pt
(thedefault)
one,two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
width=
0.9\textwidth
one,two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
eleven
twelve
thirteen
fourteen
Figure11.5:Changingthewidthofacolumnorderedtable
eleven, twelve, , thirteen, , fourteen n }
...
\autocols[0.9\textwidth]{c}{5}{c}{one\comma{} two, three,
... fourteen n }
\caption{Changing the width of a column ordered d table}
\label{fig:acw}
\end{figure}
230
Twelve
Pagenotes
Thestandardclassesprovidethe
\footnote
commandfornotesatthebottomofthepage.
Theclassprovidesseveralstylesoffootnotesandyoucanalsohaveseveralseriesoffoot-
notesforwhenthematerialgetscomplicated. Thenormal
\marginpar
commandputs
notesintothemargin,whichmayfloataroundalittleifthereareother
\marginpar
son
thepage.Theclassadditionallysuppliescommandsforfixedmarginalnotesandsidebars.
12.1F
OOTNOTES
Afootnotecanbeconsideredtobeaspecialkindoffloatthatisputatthebottomofapage.
\footnote[
num
]{
text
}
Inthemaintext,the
\footnote
commandputsamarkeratthepointwhereitiscalled,and
putsthetext,precededbythesamemark,atthebottomofthepage.Iftheoptionalnum
isusedthenitsvalueisusedforthemark,otherwisethe
footnote
counterissteppedand
providesthemark’svalue.The
\footnote
commandshouldbeusedinparagraphmode
whereitputsthenoteatthebottomofthepage,orina
minipage
whereitputsthenoteat
theendofthe
minipage
. Resultsarelikelytobepeculiarifitisusedanywhereelse(like
ina
tabular
).
\footnotemark[
num
]
\footnotetext[
num
]{
text
}
Youcanuse
\footnotemark
toputamarkerinthemaintext; thevalueisdetermined
just like that for
\footnote
. Footnote e text can n be e put at the bottom m ofthe e page via
\footnotetext
;iftheoptionalnumisgivenitisusedasthemark’svalue,otherwise
thevalueofthe
footnote
counterisused. Itmaybehelpful,butcompletelyuntrue,to
thinkof
\footnote
beingdefinedlike:
\newcommand{\footnote}[1]{\footnotemark\footnotetext{#1}}
Inanyevent,youcanuseacombinationof
\footnotemark
and
\footnotetext
todo
footnotingwhereLaTeXwouldnormallygetupset.
\footref{
label
}
Onoccasionsitmaybedesireabletomakemorethanonereferencetothetextofafootnote.
Thiscanbedonebyputtinga
\label
inthefootnoteandthenusing
\footref
toreferto
thelabel;thisprintsthefootnotemark.Forexample:
Chapterlastupdated2013/05/02 (revision454)
231
12. P
AGENOTES
...\footnote{...values for r the kerning.\label{fn:kerning}} ...
...
... The e footnote\footref{fn:kerning} on \pref{fn:kerning} ... \\
Inthismanual,thelastlineaboveprints:
...Thefootnote
16
onpage99...
\multfootsep
Inthestandardclassesiftwoormorefootnotesareappliedsequentially
1,2
thenthemark-
ersinthetextarejustruntogether. Theclass,likethefootmisc[Fai00]andledmacpack-
ages,insertsaseparatorbetweenthemarks.Intheclassthemacro
\multfootsep
isused
astheseparator.Itsdefaultdefinitionis:
\newcommand*{\multfootsep}{\textsuperscript{\normalfont,}}
\feetabovefloat
\feetbelowfloat
In
FiXmeNote:
thisneeds
checking
thestandardclasses,footnotesonapagethathasafloatatthebottomaretypesetbefore
thefloat. Ithinkthatthislookspeculiar. . Followingthe
\feetbelowfloat
declaration
footnoteswillbetypesetatthebottomofthepagebelowanybottomfloats;theywillalso
betypesetatthebottomof
\raggedbottom
pagesasopposedtobeingputjustafterthe
bottomlineoftext. Thestandardpositioningisusedfollowingthe
\feetabovefloat
declaration,whichisthedefault.
12.1.1Avarietyoffootnotes
\verbfootnote[
num
]{
text
}
Themacro
\verbfootnote
islikethenormal
\footnote
exceptthatitstextagument
cancontainverbatimmaterial. Forexample,thenexttwoparagraphsaretypesetbythis
code:
Below, footnote~\ref{fn1} is s a a \verb?\footnote? ? while
footnote~\ref{fn2} is a a \verb?\verbfootnote?.
The \verb?\verbfootnote? ? command d should
appear\footnote{There may be e some e problems s if f color is
used.\label{fn1}}
to give identical results as s the e normal \verb?\footnote?,
but it t can n include e some e verbatim
text\verbfootnote{The \verb?\footnote? macro, like all
other macros s except for r \verb?\verbfootnote?,
can not contain verbatim m text in n its
argument.\label{fn2}}
in the \meta{text} argument.
1
Onefootnote
2
Immediatelyfollowedbyanother
232
Documents you may be interested
Documents you may be interested