15.4. Files
{\par\endwriteverbatim\end@nswer\@esphack}
\fi
% end of \ifdraftdoc ...\else ...
WhenIwastestingthiscodeIhadasurpriseasIgotnastyerrormessagesfromLaTeX
thefirsttimearound,butitworkedfinewhenIprocessedthesourceasecondtime! The
problemliesinthecodeline
\addtostream{ansout}{\par\noindent\textbf{Answer \ref{#1}:}}%
Thefirsttimearound,LaTeXprocessedthe
\ref
commandandofcourseitwasun-
defined. Inthiscase
\ref
getsreplacedbythecode toprinttheerrormessage, which
involvesmacrosthathave
@
intheirnames,whichLaTeXonlyunderstandsunderspecial
circumstances. Thesecondtimearound
\ref
getsreplacedbythequestionnumberand
alliswell.Ithenrememberedthatsomecommandsneedprotectingwhentheyarewritten
out,soItried(I’vewrappedthelinetofit)
\addtostream{ansout}{\par\noindent
\protect\makeatletter\textbf{Answer
\protect\ref{#1}:}\protect\makeatother}%
whichdidworkbutseemedveryclumsy.
Ithentookanotherlineofattack,andlookedatthedefinitionof
\ref
toseeifIcould
comeupwithsomethingthatdidn’texpandinto
@
names.Theresultofthiswas
\addtostream{ansout}{\par\noindent\textbf{Answer
\quietref{#1}:}}%
Inthekernelfile
ltxref.dtx
Ifoundthedefinitionof
\ref
anditusedamacro
\@setref
(shownbelow)todoitswork.My
\quietref
locallychangesthedefinitionof
\@setref
andthencalls
\ref
,whichwillthenusethemodified
\@setref
.
\def\@setref#1#2#3{%
%% kernel definition
\ifx#1\relax
\protect\G@refundefinedtrue
\nfss@text{\reset@font\bfseries ??}%
\@latex@warning{Reference ‘#3’ ’ on n page \thepage \space
undefined}%
\else
\expandafter#2#1\null
\fi}
\DeclareRobustCommand{\quietref}[1]{\begingroup
\def\@setref##1##2##3{%
\ifx##1\relax ??\else
\expandafter##2##1\null
\fi
\ref{#1}\endgroup}
Havinggoneallroundthehouses,thesimplestsolutionwasactuallyonethatIhad
skippedover
\addtostream{ansout}{\par\noindent\textbf{Answer
\protect\ref{#1}:}}%
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15. B
OXES
,
VERBATIMSANDFILES
Theadvantageofusingthe
\label
and
\ref
mechanismisthataquestionandits
answerneednotbeadjacentinthesource;Ithinkthatyouhaveseensomeofthedisad-
vantages.Anotherdisadvantageisthatitisdifficulttouse,althoughnotimpossible,ifyou
wanttheanswersinaseparatedocument.
Therealanswertoalltheproblemsisforceananswertocomeimmediatelyafterthe
questioninthesourceandtousethe
question
counterdirectly,asintheendnotesexam-
ple.Inthetraditionalmanner,thisisleftasanexerciseforthereader.
15.5 A
NSWERS
Question1. Asaconvenience,theargumenttotheenvironmentcouldbemadeoptional,
defaulting,say,tothecurrentlinewidth. Ifthedefaultwidthisusedtheframewillbe
wider thanthelinewidth, sowereallyoughttomakethewidthargumentspecifythe
widthoftheframeinsteadoftheminipage. Thismeanscalculatingareducedwidthfor
theminipagebasedonthevaluesof
\fboxsep
and
\fboxrule
.
\newsavebox{\minibox}
\newlength{\minilength}
\newenvironment{framedminipage}[1][\linewidth]{%
\setlength{\minilength}{#1}
\addtolength{\minilength}{-2\fboxsep}
\addtolength{\minilength}{-2\fboxrule}
\begin{lrbox}{\minibox}\begin{minipage}{\minilength}}%
{\end{minipage}\end{lrbox}\fbox{\usebox{\minibox}}}
Question2.Thereareatleastthreereasonableanswers.Inincreasingordecreasingorder
ofprobability(yourchoice)theyare:
 ItookSherlockHolmes’adviceandfollowedthemethodsoutlinedinthechapter;
 Iusedapackage,suchastheanswerpackagewhichisdesignedforthepurpose;
 Ijustwrotetheanswershere.
294
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Sixteen
Crossreferencing
Asignificantaspect ofLaTeXisthatitprovidesavarietyofcrossreferencingmethods,
manyofwhichareautomatic. Anexampleofanautomaticcrossreferenceisthewayin
whicha
\chapter
commandautomaticallyaddsitstitleandpagenumbertotheToC,or
wherea
\caption
addsitselftoa‘Listof...’.
Somecrossreferenceshavetobespecificallyspecified,suchasareferenceinthetextto
aparticularchapternumber,andfortheseLaTeXprovidesageneralmechanismthatdoes
notrequireyoutoremembertheparticularnumberandmoreusefullydoesnotrequire
youtoremembertochangethereferenceifthechapternumberislaterchanged.
16.1 L
ABELSANDREFERENCES
ThegeneralLaTeXcrossreferencemethodusesapairofmacros.
\label{
labstr
}
\ref{
labstr
}\pageref{
labstr
}
Youcanputa
\label
commandwhereyouwanttolabelsomenumberedelementincase
youmightwanttorefertothenumberfromelsewhereinthedocument.Thelabstrargu-
mentisasequenceofletters,digits,andpunctuationsymbols;upperandlowercaseletters
aredifferent. The
\ref
macroprintsthenumberassociatedwithlabstr. The
\pageref
macroprintsthenumberofthepagewherethe
\label
specifyingthelabstrwasplaced.
The
\label
and
\ref
mechanismissimpletouseandworkswellbutonoccasions
youmightbesurprisedatwhat
\ref
prints.
LaTeXmaintainsacurrentrefvaluewhichissetbythe
\refstepcounter
command.
Thiscommandisusedbythesectioningcommands,by
\caption
,bynumberedenviron-
mentslike
equation
,by
\item
inan
enumerate
environment,andsoon. The
\label
commandwritesanentryinthe
aux
fileconsistingofthelabstr,thecurrentrefvalueand
thecurentpagenumber.A
\ref
commandpicksuptherefvalueforlabstrandprintsit.
Similarly
\pageref
printsthepagenumberforlabstr.
Thecriticalpointisthatthe
\label
commandpicksupthevaluesetbythemostrecent
visible1
\refstepcounter
.
 A
\label
aftera
\section
picksupthe
\section
number,notthe
\chapter
num-
ber.
 A
\label
aftera
\caption
picksupthecaptionnumber.
 A
\label
beforea
\caption
picksupthesurroundingsectionalnumber.
1
Remember,achangewithinagroup,suchasanenvironment,isnotvisibleoutsidethegroup.
Chapterlastupdated2013/04/24 (revision442)
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16. C
ROSSREFERENCING
Ifyouaredefiningyourownmacrothatsetsacounter,thecountervaluewillbeinvisible
toany
\label
unlessitissetusing
\refstepcounter
.
\fref{
labstr
}\figurerefname
\tref{
labstr
}\tablerefname
\pref{
labstr
}\pagerefname
Theclassprovidesthesemoreparticularnamedreferencestoafigure,tableorpage. For
examplethedefaultdefinitionsof
\fref
and
\pref
are
\newcommand{\fref}[1]{\figurerefname~\ref{#1}}
\newcommand{\pref}[1]{\pagerefname~\pageref{#1}}
andcanbeusedas
\ldots footnote e parameters s are shown in~\fref{fig:fn}
on~\pref{fig:fn}.
whichinthisdocumentprintsas:
...footnoteparametersareshowninFigure12.1onpage235.
\Aref{
labstr
}\appendixrefname
\Bref{
labstr
}\bookrefname
\Pref{
labstr
}\partrefname
\Cref{
labstr
}\chapterrefname
\Sref{
labstr
}\sectionrefname
Similarly,specificcommandsaresuppliedforreferencingsectionaldivisions;
\Aref
for
Appendix,
\Bref
forBook,
\Pref
forPart,
\Cref
forChapter,and
\Sref
fordivisions
belowChapter.Forexample:
This is s \Sref{sec:lab&ref} in n \Cref{chap:xref}.
Thisis§16.1inChapter16.
16.2 R
EFERENCEBYNAME
Intechnicalworksitiscommontoreferenceachapter,say,byitsnumber.Innon-technical
workssuchcrossreferencesarelikelytoberare,andwhentheyaregivenitismorelikely
thatthechaptertitlewouldbeusedinsteadofthenumber,asin:
The chapter r \textit{\titleref{chap:bringhurst}} } describes s \ldots
ThechapterAnexamplebookdesigndescribes...
Therearetwopackages,nameref[Rahtz01]andtitleref[Ars01a],thatletyoureferto
thingsbynameinsteadofnumber.
Namereferenceswereaddedtotheclassasaconsequenceofaddingasecondoptional
argumenttothesectioningcommands. Ifoundthatthisbrokethenamerefpackage,and
hencethehyperrefpackageaswell,sotheyhadtobefixed.ThechangealsobrokeDonald
Arseneau’stitlerefpackage, anditturnedoutthatnamerefalsoclobberedtitleref. The
classalsoprovidestitles,like
\poemtitle
,thatarenotrecognisedbyeitherofthepack-
ages. Frommyviewpointthemostefficientthingtodowastoenabletheclassitselfto
providenamereferencing.
\titleref{
labstr
}
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16.2. Referencebyname
Typesetexample16.1:Namedreferencesshouldbetotitledelements
Labelsmaybeappliedto:
1. Chapters,sections,etc.
2. Captions
3. Legends
4. Poemtitles
5. Itemsinnumberedlists,etc....
Item1insectionReference byname mentionssectionswhile itemNamed references
should betotitledelements,onpage297inthesame section, mentionsthingslike
itemsinenumeratedliststhatshouldnotbereferencedby
\titleref
.
Themacro
\titleref
isaclassadditiontotheusualsetofcrossreferencingcommands.
Insteadofprintinganumberittypesetsthetitleassociatedwiththelabellednumber.This
isreallyonlyusefulifthereisatitle,suchasfroma
\caption
or
\section
command.
Forexample,lookatthiscodeanditsresult.
Sourceforexample16.1
Labels may be applied d to:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Chapters, , sections, , etc.
\label{sec:nxref:1}
...
\item Items in n numbered d lists, etc. \ldots \label{sec:nxref:5}
\end{enumerate}
Item \ref{sec:nxref:1} } in n section n \textit{\titleref{sec:nxref}}
mentions sections s while item m \titleref{sec:nxref:5}, on n page
\pageref{sec:nxref:5} in n the e same section, , mentions things like
items in n enumerated d lists that should not t be e referenced
by \verb?\titleref?.
Astheaboveexampleshows,youhavetobealittlecarefulinusing
\titleref
.Gen-
erallyspeaking,
\titleref{
key
}
producesthelastnamedthingbeforethe
\label
that
definesthekey.
\headnameref\tocnameref
There canbe three possibilitiesforthe nameofasectionaldivision; thefullname, the
nameintheToC,andthenameinthepageheader. Asfaras
\titleref
isconcernedit
doesnotusethefullname,andsothechoicesimplifiestotheToCorpageheader.Follow-
ingthedeclaration
\headnameref
itusesthepageheadername. Followingtheopposite
declaration
\tocnameref
,whichisthedefault,itusestheToCname.
NOTE:Specificallywiththememoirclass, donotputa
\label
commandinsidean
297
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16. C
ROSSREFERENCING
Typesetexample16.2:Currenttitle
Thissentenceinthesectiontitled‘Currenttitle’isanexampleoftheuseofthecom-
mand
\currenttitle
.
argumenttoa
\chapter
or
\section
or
\caption
,etc.,command. Mostlikelyitwill
eitherbeignoredorreferencingitwillproduceincorrectvalues.Thisrestrictiondoesnot
applytothestandardclasses,butinanycaseIthinkitisgoodpracticenottoembedany
\label
commands.
\currenttitle
Ifyoujustwanttorefertothecurrenttitleyoucandosowith
\currenttitle
.Thisacts
asthoughtherehadbeenalabelassociatedwiththetitleandthen
\titleref
hadbeen
usedtorefertothatlabel.Forexample:
Sourceforexample16.2
This sentence e in n the e section n titled ‘\currenttitle’ ’ is s an n example of the
use of f the e command d \verb?\currenttitle?.
\theTitleReference{
num
}{
text
}
Both
\titleref
and
\currenttitle
usethe
\theTitleReference
totypesetthetitle.
Thisiscalledwithtwoarguments—thenumber,num,andthetext,text,ofthetitle.
Thedefaultdefinitionis:
\newcommand{\theTitleReference}[2]{#2}
sothatonlythetextargumentisprinted. Youcould,forexample,changethedefinition
to
\renewcommand{\theTitleReference}[2]{#1\space \textit{#2}}
toprintthenumberfollowedbythetitleinitalics.Ifyoudothis,onlyuse
\titleref
for
numberedtitles,asaprintednumberforanunnumberedtitle(a)makesnosense,and(b)
willinanycasebeincorrect.
The commands
\titleref
,
\theTitleReference
and
\currenttitle
are direct
equivalentsofthoseinthetitlerefpackage[Ars01a].
\namerefon\namerefoff
Thecapabilityforreferencingbynamehasonepotentiallyunfortunatesideeffect—
itcausessomearguments,suchasthatfor
\legend
,tobemovingargumentsandhence
anyfragilecommandintheargumentwillneed
\protect
ing.However,noteverydocu-
mentwillrequiretheuseof
\titleref
andsothedeclaration
\namerefoff
isprovided
toswitchitoff(theargumentto
\legend
wouldthennotbemoving). Thedeclaration
\namerefon
,whichisthedefault,enablesnamereferencing.
298
Seventeen
Backmatter
Thebackmatterconsistsofreferenceandsupportiveelementsforthemainmatter;things
likebibliographies,indexes,glossaries,endnotes,andothermaterial. Theclassprovides
additionalelementsandfeaturesofsuchmatterthatarenotinthestandardclasses.
17.1 B
IBLIOGRAPHY
Justasareminderthebibliographyistypesetwithinthe
thebibliography
environment.
\bibname
\begin{thebibliography}{
exlabel
}
\bibitem
...
\end{thebibliography}
Theenvironmenttakesonerequiredargument,exlabel,whichisapieceoftextaswide
asthewidestlabelinthebibliography. Thevalueof
\bibname
(default‘Bibliography’)is
usedasthetitle.
\bibintoc\nobibintoc
Thedeclaration
\bibintoc
willcausethe
thebibliography
environmenttoaddthetitle
totheToC,whilethedeclaration
\nobibintoc
ensuresthatthetitleisnotaddedtothe
ToC.Thedefaultis
\bibintoc
.
\cite[
detail
]{
labstr-list
}
Withinthetextyoucalloutabibliographicreferenceusingthe
\cite
command,where
labstr-listisacomma-separatedlistofidentifiersforthecitedworks; theremustbeno
spacesinthislist.Theoptionaldetailargumentisforanyadditionalinformationregard-
ingthecitationsuchasachapterorpagenumber;thisisprintedafterthemainreference.
Variousaspectsofabibliographycanbechangedandatthispointitmaybehelpfulto
lookatsomeoftheinternalsofthe
thebibliography
environment,whichisdefinedlike
this
\newenvironment{thebibliography}[1]{%
\bibsection
\begin{bibitemlist}{#1}}%
{\end{bibitemlist}\postbibhook}
Thebibliographicentriesaretypesetasalist,the
bibitemlist
.
\bibsection
Chapterlastupdated2013/05/02 (revision454)
299
17. B
ACKMATTER
The macro
\bibsection
definestheheadingforthe
thebibliography
environment;
thatis,everythingbeforetheactuallistofitems.Itiseffectivelydefinedas
\newcommand{\bibsection}{%
\chapter*{\bibname}
\bibmark
\ifnobibintoc\else
\phantomsection
\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{\bibname}
\fi
\prebibhook}
Ifyouwanttochangetheheading,redefine
\bibsection
. Forexample,tohavethebib-
liographyasanumberedsectioninsteadofanunnumberedchapter,redefineitlike
\renewcommand{\bibsection}{%
\section{\bibname}
\prebibhook}
Ifyouusethenatbib[Dal99a]and/orthechapterbib[Ars01b]packageswiththesectionbib
option, thentheychange
\bibsection
appropriatelytotypesettheheadingasanum-
beredsection.
\bibmark
\bibmark
maybeusedinpagestylesforpageheadersinabibliography.Itsdefaultdefi-
nitionis:
\newcommand*{\bibmark}{}
butcouldberedefinedlike,say,
\renewcommand*{\bibmark}{\markboth{\bibname}{}}
\prebibhook\postbibhook
Thecommands
\prebibhook
and
postbibhook
arecalledaftertypesettingthetitleof
thebibliographyandaftertypesettingthelistofentries,respectively. Bydefault,theyare
definedtodonothing.Youmaywishtouseoneorotherofthesetoprovidesomegeneral
informationaboutthebibliography.Forexample:
\renewcommand{\prebibhook}{%
CTAN is s the Comprehensive \tx\ Archive Network and URLS for the
several CTAN mirrors can be found at \url{http://www.tug.org}.}
\biblistextra
Justattheendofsettingupthe
bibitemlist
the
\biblistextra
commandiscalled.By
defaultthisdoesnothingbutyoumaychangeittodosomethinguseful. Forinstance,it
canbeusedtochangethelistparameterssothattheentriesaretypesetflushleft.
\renewcommand*{\biblistextra}{%
\setlength{\leftmargin}{0pt}%
\setlength{\itemindent}{\labelwidth}%
\addtolength{\itemindent}{\labelsep}}
300
17.1. Bibliography
\setbiblabel{
style
}
Thestyleofthelabelsmarkingthebibliographicentriescanbesetvia
\setbiblabel
.The
defaultdefinitionis
\setbiblabel{[#1]\hfill}
where
#1
isthecitationmarkposition,whichgeneratesflushleftmarksenclosedinsquare
brackets.Tohavemarksjustfollowedbyadot
\setbiblabel{#1.\hfill}
\bibitem[
label
]{
labstr
}
\newblock
Withinthe
bibitemlist
environmentthe entriesareintroducedby
\bibitem
instead
ofthemorenormal
\item
macro. Therequiredlabstrargumentistheidentifierforthe
citationand correspondsto alabstrfor
\cite
. The e itemsinthelistarenormallyla-
bellednumericallybutthiscanbeoverridenbyusingtheoptionallabelargument. The
\newblock
commandcanbeusedatappropriateplacesinthe entryforencouraginga
linebreak(thisisusedbytheopenbiboption).
\bibitemsep
Inthelistingtheverticalspacebetweenentriesiscontrolledbythelength
\bibitemsep
,
whichbydefaultissettothenormal
\itemsep
value.Theverticalspaceis
(\bibitemsep
+ \parsep)
.Ifyouwishtoeliminatethespacebetweenitemsdo
\setlength{\bibitemsep}{-\parsep}
17.1.1 BibTex
Often the BibTeX program m [Pat88a] ] is used to generate the bibliography list from
database(s)ofbibliographicdata. ForBibTeXabibliographicdatabaseisa
bib
filecon-
taininginformationnecessarytoproduceentriesinabibliography. BibTeXextractsthe
rawdatafromthefilesforeachcitationinthetextandformatsitfortypesettingaccording
toaparticularstyle.
\bibliography{
bibfile-list
}
Thebibliographywillbe printed at thelocationofthe
\bibliography
command. Its
argumentisacomma-separatedlistofBibTeX
bib
fileswhichwillbesearchedbyBibTeX
togeneratethebibliography.Onlythefilename(s)shouldbesupplied,theextensionmust
notbegiven.
\nocite{
labstr
}\nocite{*}
Thecommand
\nocite
causesBibTeXtomakeanentryinthebibliographybutnocita-
tionwillappearinthetext.Thespecialcase
\nocite{*}
causeseveryentryinthedatabase
tobelistedinthebibliography.
\bibliographystyle{
style
}
301
17. B
ACKMATTER
ManydifferentBibTeXstylesareavailableandtheparticularonetobeusedisspecifiedby
calling
\bibliographystyle
beforethebibliographyitself.The‘standard’bibliography
stylesfollowthegeneralschemesformathematicallyorientedpapersandare:
plain
TheentryformatissimilartoonesuggestedbyMary-ClairevanLeunen[Leu92],
andentriesaresortedalphabeticallyandlabelledwithnumbers.
unsrt
Theformatisthesameas
plain
butthatentriesareorderedbythecitationorderin
thetext.
alpha
Thesameas
plain
butentriesarelabelledlike‘Wil89’,formedfromtheauthorand
publicationdate.
abbrv
Thesameas
plain
exceptthatsomeelements,likemonthnames,areabbreviated.
There aremanyother stylesavailable, someofwhichare usedincollaborationwitha
package,onepopularonebeingPatrickDaly’snatbib[Dal99a]packageforthekindsof
author-yearcitationstylesusedinthenaturalsciences.Anotherpackageisjurabib[Ber02]
forcitationstylesusedinlegaldocumentswherethereferencesareoftengiveninfootnotes
ratherthanlistedattheendofthedocument.
IassumeyouknowhowtogenerateabibliographyusingBibTeX,sothisisjustaquick
reminder.YoufirstrunLaTeXonyourdocument,havingspecifiedthebibliographystyle,
citedyourreference materialandlistedtherelevant BibTeXdatabase(s). . Youthenrun
BibTeX,andafterrunningLaTeXtwicemorethebibliographyshouldbecomplete.Aftera
changetoyourcitationsyouhavetorunLaTeXonce,BibTeXonce,andthenLaTeXtwice
moretogetanupdatedsetofreferences.
TheformatandpotentialcontentsofaBibTeXdatabasefile(a
bib
file)arespecifiedin
detailinLamport[Lam94]andthefirstoftheCompanions[MG
+
04]. Alternativelythereis
thedocumentationbyOrenPatashnik[Pat88a]whowrotetheBibTeXprogram.
ABibTeXstyle,specifiedina
bst
file,iswrittenusingananonymousstackbasedlan-
guagecreatedspecificallyforthispurpose. Ifyoucan’tfindaBibTeXstylethatprovides
whatyouwantyoucaneitherusethemakebst[Dal99b]packagewhichleadsyouthrough
creatingyourownstyleviaaquestionandanswersession,oryoucandirectlywriteyour
own. IfyouchoosethelatterapproachthenPatashnik’sDesigningBibTeXfiles[Pat88b]is
essentialreading. Ashesays,itisbesttotakeanexistingstyleandmodifyitratherthan
startingfromscratch.
17.2 I
NDEX
Itistimetotakeacloserlookatindexing.Theclassallowsmultipleindexesandanindex
maybetypesetasasingleoradoublecolumn.
Thegeneralprocessistoputindexingcommandsintoyoursourcetext,andLaTeXwill
writethisrawindexingdatatoan
idx
file. Therawindexdataisthenprocessed,notby
LaTeXbutbyyourselfifyouhaveplentyofsparetimeonyourhands,ormoreusuallyby
aseparateprogram,tocreateasortedlistofindexeditemsinasecondfile(usuallyan
ind
file).ThiscanthenbeinputtoLaTeXtoprintthesortedindexdata.
17.2.1 Printinganindex
\makeindex[
file
]
\printindex[
file
]
302
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