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D.2. Pictureobjects
TypesetexampleD.2:Picture:textinboxes
center
bottom
topleft
(bottom)Placesthecontentsatthebottomofthebox.
Theseplacethetextinthecorrespondingpositioninthebox. Inatwo-letterargument
theorderofthelettersisimmaterial. Forexample,
[tr]
and
[rt]
willbothresultinthe
textbeingplacedatthetoprighthandcornerofthebox. Unlikethenormal
\framebox
command,a
\framebox
ina
picture
environmentdoesnotaddanyextraspacearound
thetext.
Correspondingtothe
\framebox
thereisa
\makebox
commandwhichdoesnotdraw
aframearounditscontents. The
\makebox
commandtakesthesameargumentsasthe
\framebox
. Particularlyinteresting g iswhen you u specifya zero sized
\makebox
. A
\makebox(0,0){text}
commandwillmakethereferencepointthecenterof
text
.Sim-
ilarly,theotherpositioningargumentswhichwilladjustthereferencepointwithrespect
totheboxcontents.Thiscanbeusedforfine-tuningthepositionoftextinapicture.
SourceforexampleD.3
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pc}
\begin{picture}(16,2)
\put(0,0){\framebox(16,2){}}
\thicklines
\put(3.5,1){\makebox(0,0){center}}
% ref f at text t center
\put(3.5,1){\vector(0,-1){0}}
\put(7,1){\makebox(0,0)[b]{bottom}}
% ref f at text t bottom
\put(7,1){\vector(0,1){0}}
\put(11,1){\makebox(0,0)[tl]{top left}} % % ref f at text t top p left
\put(11,1){\vector(1,-1){0}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
Youcandrawadashedboxwiththe
\dashbox
command.
\dashbox{
len
}(
width,height
)[
pos
]{
text
}
413
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D. P
ICTURES
TypesetexampleD.3:Picture:positioningtext
center
?
bottom
6
topleft
R
TypesetexampleD.4:Picture:dashedbox
topright
Thefirstargumentofthiscommandspecifiesthelengthofeachdash.Thefollowingargu-
mentsarethesameasfortheotherboxcommands.
SourceforexampleD.4
\setlength{\unitlength}{4mm}
\begin{picture}(7,4)
\put(0,0){\framebox(7,4){}}
\thicklines
\put(1,1){\dashbox{0.5}(5,2)[tr]{top right}}
\put(1,1){\vector(1,1){0}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
Theappearanceoftheboxisbestwhenthewidthandheightoftheboxareinteger
multiplesofthedashlength.Intheexamplethedashlengthhasbeensetto
0.5
withthe
widthandheightsetas
(5,2)
;thusthewidthandheightarerespectivelytenandfour
timesthedashlength.
The
\frame
commanddrawsaframearoundthecontentsoftheboxthatexactlyfits
thecontents.
\frame{
contents
}
Ittakesasinglerequiredargumentwhichisthecontents.
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D.2. Pictureobjects
TypesetexampleD.5:Picture:framing
FRAMEtext
SourceforexampleD.5
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pc}
\begin{picture}(10,3)
\put(0,0){\framebox(10,3){}}
\thicklines
\put(0.5,2){\frame{$\mathcal{FRAME}$ text}}
\put(0.5,2){\vector(1,1){0}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
The
\shortstack
commandenablesyoutostacktextvertically.Itproducesaboxwith
asinglecolumnoftext.Aswiththeotherboxes,thereferencepointisatthelowerlefthand
corner,althoughnoframeisdrawnaroundthestack. The
\shortstack
commandisan
ordinaryboxmakingcommand,butitisnotoftenusedoutsidepicturemode.
\shortstack[
pos
]{
text
}
Eachlineoftext,exceptforthelast,isendedbya
\\
command.Thedefaultistocenter
eachtextlinewithinthecolumn. However,thereisanoptionalpositioningargument. A
valueoflforposwillleftalignthetextandavalueofrwillrightalignthetext.
SourceforexampleD.6
\setlength{\unitlength}{1mm}
\begin{picture}(75,25)
\put(0,0){\framebox(75,25){}}
\put(3,3){\shortstack{Default \\ short \\ \ Stack}}
\put(3,3){\vector(1,1){0}}
\put(23,3){\shortstack[l]{Left\\aligned\\short\\Stack}}
\put(23,3){\vector(1,1){0}}
\put(43,3){\shortstack[r]{Right\\aligned\\short\\Stack}}
\put(43,3){\vector(1,1){0}}
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D. P
ICTURES
TypesetexampleD.6:Picture:stacking
Default
short
Stack
Left
aligned
short
Stack
Right
aligned
short
Stack
Extra
spaced
Stack
\put(63,3){\shortstack{Extra \\[4ex] ] spaced \\[2ex] Stack}}
\put(63,3){\vector(1,1){0}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
Therowsinastackare not evenlyspaced. . Thespacingbetweentwo o rowscanbe
changedinoneoftwoways.
1. Addastruttoarow.Astrutisaverticalrulewithnowidth.
2. Usetheoptionalargumenttothe
\\
command. Thisoptionalargumentisalength
value.
\\[
len
]
Ithastheeffectofaddingadditionallenverticalspacebetweenthetwolinesthat
the
\\
separates.
\newsavebox{
box
}
\savebox{
box
}(
width,height
)[
pos
]{
text
}
\sbox{
box
}{
text
}
\usebox{
box
}
Justasinnormaltextyoucansaveandreuseboxes. The
\savebox
macroinpicture
modeisavariantofthenormaltextversion,buttheotherthreecommandsarethesame
inbothpictureandparagraphmodes,andaredescribedinChapter15. Inpicturemode
youhavetospecifythesizeofthestorageboxwhensavingit, viathe
(
width,height
)
argumentto
\savebox
.
A
\savebox
commandcanbeusedwithinapicturetostoreapictureobject.Thefirst
argumentof
\savebox
isthenameofthestoragebintobeused.Thefollowingarguments
arethesameasthe
\makebox
command.Theresultisstored,notdrawn.Whenyouhave
savedsomethingitcanbedrawnineitherthesameor otherpicturesviathe
\usebox
command.Thiscommandtakesoneargument,whichisthenameofthestoragebin.
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D.2. Pictureobjects
TypesetexampleD.7:Picture:savedboxes
SAVED
SAVED
SourceforexampleD.7
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pc}
\begin{picture}(18,5)
\put(0,0){\framebox(18,5){}}
\newsavebox{\Mybox}
\savebox{\Mybox}(6,3)[tr]{$\mathcal{SAVED}$}
\thicklines
\put(1,1){\frame{\usebox{\Mybox}}}
\put(11,1){\frame{\usebox{\Mybox}}}
\put(1,1){\vector(1,1){0}}
\put(11,1){\vector(1,1){0}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
It cantakeLaTeXalongtime todraw something. . Whenaboxissaveditactually
containsthetypesetcontents,whichthenjustgetprintedoutwhentheboxisused.Itcan
saveprocessingtimeifsomethingwhichappearsseveraltimesissavedandthenusedas
andwhererequired. Ontheotherhand,asavedboxcanuseupasignificantamountof
LaTeX’sinternalstoragespace.The
\sbox
commandwithanemptytextargumentcanbe
usedtodeletethecontentsofabin.Forexample,
\sbox{\Mybox}{}
willemptythe
\Mybox
box.Notethatthisdoesnotdeletethestorageboxitself.
D.2.3 Lines
LaTeXcandrawstraightlines, but therangeofslopesforlinesissomewhatrestricted.
Further,veryshortlinescannotbedrawn.
\line(
i,j
){
distance
}
Thepair
(
i,j
)
specifiestheslopeoftheline, anddistanceisavaluethatcontrolsthe
lengthoftheline.Thelinestartsatitsreferencepoint(i.e.,theplacewhereitis
\put
).The
slopeofthelineissuchthatifapointonthelineisslidalongtheline,thenforeveryiunits
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D. P
ICTURES
thepointmovesinthehorizontaldirectionitwillalsohavemovedjunitsinthevertical
direction. Negativevaluesforiorjhavetheexpectedmeaning. . Amoveof-3unitsini
meansamoveof3unitstotheleft,andsimilarlyamoveof-4unitsinjmeansamoveof
4unitsdownwards.So,alineslopinguptotherightwillhavepositivevaluesforiandj,
whilealineslopinguptotheleftwillhaveanegativevalueforiandapositivevaluefor
j.
Thedistanceargumentspecifiesthelengthofthelineinthex(horizontal)direction.
Oneproblemwiththismayhaveoccuredtoyou: whatifthelineisvertical(i.e.,i=0)?
Inthiscaseonly,distancespecifiestheverticallengthoftheline.Thedistanceargument
mustbeanon-negativevalue. Forhorizontalandverticallinesonly,theactuallengthof
thelineisdistance.FigureD.2,whichisproducedfromthecodebelow,diagramstheline
specificationarguments.
\begin{figure}
\centering
\setlength{\unitlength}{1mm}
\begin{picture}(70,60)
\thicklines
% draw w line and d ref f point
\put(10,20){\line(2,1){40}}
\put(10,20){\vector(1,-1){0}}
\thinlines
% draw w axes
\put(0,0){\vector(1,0){60}} \put(63,0){x}
\put(0,0){\vector(0,1){50}} \put(0,53){y}
% draw w i i and d j j vectors
\put(20,25){\vector(1,0){20}}
\put(30,22){\makebox(0,0)[t]{$i$}}
\put(40,25){\vector(0,1){10}}
\put(42,30){\makebox(0,0)[l]{$j$}}
% draw w distance e vector
\put(30,10){\vector(-1,0){20}}
\put(30,10){\vector(1,0){20}}
\put(30,8){\makebox(0,0)[t]{\textit{distance}}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
\caption{Specification of f a line or r arrow}
\label{flpic:spec}
\end{figure}
Onlyafixednumberofslopesareavailable. ThisisbecauseLaTeXusesaspecialfont
fordrawinglines—alineactuallyconsistsoflittlebitsofangledrulesjoinedtogether.
Thus,thereisonlyalimitednumberofvaluesforiandj.Theymustbothbeintegersand
intherange−6≤i,j≤6.Also,theymusthavenocommondivisorotherthan1.Inother
words,theratiobetweeniandjmustbeinitssimplestform. Youcannot,forexample,
have(3,6); insteaditwouldhavetobe(1,2). . TheshortestlinethatLaTeXcandrawis
abouttenpoints(1/7inchapproximately)inoveralllength. Youcan,though,drawlines
thataretoolongtofitonthepage.
FigureD.3showsthelinesandarrowsslantingupwardsandtotherightthatcanbe
drawninLaTeX.Theslope(i,j)pairareshowntotherightofthefirstsetoflinesand
418
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D.2. Pictureobjects
R
-
x
6
y
-
i
6
j
-
distance
FigureD.2:Specificationofalineorarrow
arrows,togetherwiththej/iratiowhichgivestheslopeofthelineasadecimalnumber.
D.2.4 Arrows
AsshowninFigureD.3youcanalsodrawaline withanarrowhead onit. . These e are
specifiedbythe
\vector
command.
\vector(
i,j
){
distance
}
Thisworksexactlylikethe
\line
commandandthearrowheadisputonthelineattheend
awayfromthereferencepoint.Thatis,thearrowpointsawayfromthereferencepoint.If
thedistanceargumentistoosmall(zero,forinstance)thearrowheadonlyisdrawn,with
itspointatthepositionwhereitis
\put
.
LaTeXisevenmorerestrictiveinthenumberofslopesthatitcandrawwitharrows
thanitiswithlines. The(i,j)slopespecificationpairmustlieintherange−4≤i,j≤4.
Also,aswiththe
\line
command,theymusthavenocommondivisor.
D.2.5 Circles
LaTeXcandrawtwokindsofcircles. Oneisanopencirclewhereonlytheperimeteris
drawn,andtheotherisasolidlyfilleddisk.
\circle{
diameter
}
\circle*{
diameter
}
Thereferencepointfortheopencircle,drawnbythe
\circle
command,andthedisk,
whichisdrawnbythe
\circle*
command,isatthecenterofthecircle.Theargumentto
thecommandsisthediameterofthecircle.
SourceforexampleD.8
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
419
D. P
ICTURES
-
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
:
1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
*
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
3
>
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(1,0)=0
(6,1)=0.167
(5,1)=0.2
(4,1)=0.25
(3,1)=0.333
(5,2)=0.4
(2,1)=0.5
(5,3)=0.6
(3,2)=0.667
(4,3)=0.75
(5,4)=0.8
(6,5)=0.833
(1,1)=1
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
7



6
(1,2)=2
(0,1)=∞
FigureD.3:Slopinglinesandarrows
TypesetexampleD.8:Picture:circles
&
%
$
~
\begin{picture}(200,60)
\put(0,0){\framebox(200,60){}}
\put(30,30){\circle{40}}
\put(30,30){\vector(1,1){0}}
\put(150,50){\circle*{20}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
Justaswiththe
\line
and
\vector
commands,thereisonlyalimitedrangeofcircles
thatcanbedrawn.Typically,themaximumdiamterofa
\circle
isabout40points,while
fora
\circle*
themaximumdiameterisless,beingabout15points. LaTeXwillchoose
thenearestsizedcircletotheonethatyouspecify. Eitherconsultyourlocalgurutofind
420
D.2. Pictureobjects
TypesetexampleD.9:Picture:ovals
 
whatsizedcirclesyoucandrawonyoursystem,ortrysomeexperimentsbydrawinga
rangeofcirclestoseewhathappens.
Quartercirclesandboxes
InLaTeXan
\oval
isarectangularboxwithroundedcorners.
\oval(
width,height
)[
portion
]
The
\oval
commandhasonerequiredargumentwhichspecifiesthewidthandheight
ofthebox. Thenormallysharpcornersoftheboxarereplacedbyquartercirclesofthe
maximumpossibleradius(whichLaTeXfiguresoutforitself).Unliketheboxesdiscussed
earlier,thereferencepointisatthe‘center’oftheoval.
SourceforexampleD.9
\setlength{\unitlength}{1mm}
\begin{picture}(75,20)
\thicklines
\put(0,0){\framebox(75,20){}}
\put(15,10){\oval(15,10)}
% complete e oval
\put(15,10){\vector(1,1){0}}
\put(30,10){\oval(5,5)}
% small oval
\put(30,10){\vector(1,1){0}}
\put(45,10){\oval(15,10)[l]} % % left half
\put(45,10){\vector(1,1){0}}
\put(60,10){\oval(15,10)[bl]} % bottom left quarter
\put(60,10){\vector(1,1){0}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
The
\oval
commandalsohasoneoptionalargument,portion,whichcomesafterthe
requiredargument. Useoftheoptionalargumentenableseitherhalforaquarterofthe
completeroundedboxtobedrawn.Theargumentisaoneortwolettercodedrawnfrom
thefollowing.
421
D. P
ICTURES
TypesetexampleD.10:Picture:textinoval
Textinoval
(left)Drawtheleftoftheoval.
(right)Drawtherightoftheoval.
(top)Drawthetopoftheoval.
(bottom)Drawthebottomoftheoval.
Thesearesimilartotheoptionalpositioningargumentintheboxcommands.Aoneletter
codewilldrawthedesignatedhalfoftheoval,whileatwolettercoderesultsinthedes-
ignatedquarteroftheovalbeingdrawn.Inallcasesthereferencepointisatthecenterof
the‘complete’oval.
SourceforexampleD.10
\setlength{\unitlength}{1mm}
\begin{picture}(30,10)
\thicklines
\put(15,5){\oval(30,10)}
\put(15,5){\makebox(0,0){Text in n oval}}
\end{picture}
\setlength{\unitlength}{1pt}
Unliketheboxesdescribedin§D.2.2thereisnotextargumentforan
\oval
. Ifyou
wanttheroundedboxtocontaintext,thenyouhavetoplacethetextinsidetheboxyour-
self. ThecodeinexampleD.10showsonewayofdoingthis;azero-sizedboxisusedto
centerthetextatthecenteroftheoval.
D.3 R
EPETITIONS
The
\multiput
commandisaconvenientwaytoplaceregularlyspacedcopiesofanobject
inapicture.
\multiput(
x,y
)(
dx,dy
){
num
}{
object
}
Asyoucansee,thisissimilartothesyntaxforthe
\put
command,exceptthatthereare
twomorerequiredarguments,namely
(
dx,dy
)
andnum.
422
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