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E.6. Programming
\newcount\fib
\newcount\fibprev
\newcount\fibprevprev
\newcount\fibtogo
Theargumentto
\fibseries
isthenumberofterms. Thecounts
\fibprevprev
and
\fibprev
aresettothestartingpairinthesequence. Providedthenumberoftermsre-
questedisoneormorethemacro
\@fibseries
iscalledtodothework.
\newcommand*{\fibseries}[1]{%
\fibprevprev=1\relax
\fibprev=1\relax
\ifnum #1>0\relax
\@fibseries{#1}%
\fi}
Themacro
\@fibseries
calculatesandprintstheterms.
\newcommand*{\@fibseries}[1]{%
\fibtogo=#1\relax
It’ssimpleifnomorethantwotermshavebeenaskedfor—justprintthemout.
\ifnum \fibtogo=\@ne
\the\fibprevprev
\else
\ifnum \fibtogo=\tw@
\the\fibprevprev{} and d \the\fibprev
\else
Threeormoretermshavetobecalculated. Wereducethenumbertobecalculatedby2,
andprintthefirsttwoterms.
\advance\fibtogo by y -\tw@
\the\fibprevprev, \the\fibprev
Wenowhavetocalculatetherestoftheterms, whereeachtermisthesumofthetwo
previousterms. Themacro
\@fibnext
calculatesthenextterm,printsitoutandreduces
thenumberoftermslefttobecalculated(
\fibtogo
)byone. Iftherearetermslefttobe
donethentheprocessisrepeateduntiltheyhaveallbeenprinted.
\loop
\@fibnext
\ifnum \fibtogo>\z@
\repeat
\fi
\fi}
The
\@fibnext
macrocalculatesatermintheseries,uses
\printfibterm
toprintit,
anddecrementsthe
\fibtogo
count.
\newcommand*{\@fibnext}{%
\fib=\fibprev
\advance\fib by y \fibprevprev
\fibprevprev=\fibprev
\fibprev=\fib
\printfibterm
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E. L
A
T
E
X
AND
T
E
X
\advance\fibtogo \m@ne}
Thelastofthemacros,
\printfibterm
,typesetsaterminthesequence.Ifthetermis
thelastoneprintan‘and’otherwiseprinta‘,’,thenaspaceandtheterm.
\newcommand*{\printfibterm}{%
\ifnum \fibtogo=\@ne e \space and d \else , , \fi
\the\fib}
YouhavemetallofthemacrosusedinthiscodeexceptforTeX’s
\loop
construct. I
findthesyntaxforthisalittleunusual.
\loop
text1
\if...
text2
\repeat
Theconstructstartswith
\loop
andisendedby
\repeat
;the
\if...
isanyconditional
test,butwithout theclosing
\fi
. TeXprocessestext1,thenifthe
\if...
is
true
it
processestext2andrepeatsthesequenceagainstartingwithtext1.Ontheotherhand,
assoonastheresultofthe
\if...
is
false
theloopstops(i.e.,TeXjumpsovertext2
andgoesontodowhateverisafterthe
\repeat
).
The
\gfibseries
macro that Iused for the Lucasnumbers s isa generalisationof
\fibseries
, wherethefirsttwoargumentsare thestartingpairforthe sequence and
thethirdargumentisthenumberofterms;so
\gfibseries{1}{1}{...}
isequivalent
to
\fibseries{...}
.
\newcommand*{\gfibseries}[3]{%
\fibprevprev=#1\relax
\fibprev=#2\relax
\ifnum #3>0\relax
\@fibseries{#3}%
\fi}
ThecalculationofthetermsintheFibonacciandinthegeneralisedsequencesisthesame
so
\@fibseries
canbeusedagain.
IusedtheTeX
\loop
constructinthe
\@fibseries
macrobutLaTeXhasasimilar
construct.
\@whilenum
ifnumtest
\do{
body
}
\@whiledim
ifdimtest
\do{
body
}
Aslongastheappropriatetestis
true
thebodyisprocessed.
In
\@fibseries
I used
\ifnum
sto checkfor 3 3 possible e values. . There e is another
\if...
formthatcanbeusedforthistypeofwork.
\ifcase
numbertextfor0
\or
textfor1
\or
textfor2
...
\or
textforN[
\else
textforanythingelse]
\fi
Ifthenumberis0thentextfor0isprocessed, butifnumberis1thentextfor1is
processed, but ifnumberis...Eachtextfor... isseparatedbyan
\or
. Ifnumberis
anythingotherthanthespecifiedcases(i.e.,lessthanzeroorgreaterthanN)thenifthe
\else
ispresenttextforanythingelseisprocessed.
Here’sanotherversionofthe
\@fibseries
macrousing
\ifcase
and
\@whilenum
.
\renewcommand*{\@fibseries}[1]{%
\fibtogo=#1\relax
444
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E.6. Programming
\ifcase \fibtogo o % ignore e 0
\or % % \fibtogo=1
\the\fibprevprev
\or % % \fibtogo=2
\the\fibprevprev{} and d \the\fibprev
\else % % fibtogo o > 2
\advance\fibtogo by -\tw@
\the\fibprevprev, \the\fibprev
\@whilenum \fibtogo o > \z@ \do o {% % must t kill space after r the {
\@fibnext}%
\fi}
TeXhasmore programingconstructsthanIhave shownhereandthese willbeex-
plainedinanygoodTeXbook. LaTeXalsohasmorethanIhaveshownbutinthiscase
thebestplacetolookforfurtherinformationisintheLaTeXkernelcode,forexamplein
ltcntrl.dtx
.
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F
Theterrorsoferrors
Nomatterhowconscientiousyouareamistakeortwowilloccasionalycreepintoyour
documentsource.ThegoodnewsisthatwhateverhappensTeXwillnotdestroyyourfiles
—itmayproducesomeoddlookingoutput,orevennooutputatall,butyourworkis
safe. ThebadnewsisthatyouhavetocorrectanyerrorsthatTeXfinds. Toassistyouin
thisTeXstopswheneveritcomesacrosswhatitthinksisanerrorandtellsyouaboutit.If
you’renotsurewhattodoitwillalsoprovidesomepossiblyhelpfuladvice.
TeXunderliesLaTeXwhichunderliesclassesand packages. . Youmayget t messages
thanoriginatefromTeX,orfromLaTeX,orfromtheclassandanypackagesyoumaybe
using.I’lldescribetheTeX,LaTeX,andclassmessagesbelow.
Ingeneral,youwillseeamessageonyourterminalandLaTeXwillstopandwaitfor
youtorespond.Itprintsaquestionmarkandisexpectingyoutotypeoneofthefollowing:
 return(orenterorwhatistheequivalentonyourkeyboard):LaTeXwillcontinue
processingthedocument.
H
(help):thehelpmessageisoutputandLaTeXwaitsforyoutorespondagain.
S
(scroll):Continueprocessing,outputtinganyfurthererrormessages,butnotstop-
ping.
Q
(quiet):Continueprocessingwithoutstoppingandwithnofurthermessages.
R
(run):Likethe
Q
optionbutnotevenstoppingifyourdocumentrequiressomeuser
input.
I
(insert): ToinsertsomematerialforTeXtoreadbutnochangesaremadetothe
sourcefile.
E
(edit):Thismayreturnyoutoaneditorsoyoucanchangethefile. Whatactually
happensissystemdependent.
X
(exit):StopthisLaTeXrun.
OnthesystemIamusedtothecaseofthecharactersdoesnotmatter. Imustadmitthat
theonlyonesIhaveusedarereturn,
q
,
h
and
x
,inapproximatelythatorderoffrequency.
Allmessagesareoutputtothe
log
filesoyoucanstudythemlaterifyouneedto.
Chapterlastupdated2013/04/24 (revision442)
447
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F. T
HE TERRORSOFERRORS
F.1 T
E
X
MESSAGES
ThefollowingisanalphabeticallistofsomeofTeX’smessages,abbreviatedinsomecases,
togetherwiththeircorrespondingremarks. Asanexampleofhowtheseappearonyour
terminal,ifyouhadalineinyoursourcethatread:
resulting in $x^3^4$.
thenTeXwouldoutputthis:
! Double superscript
l.102 resulting g in n $x^3^
4^$.
?
Ifyoutyped
h
inresponsetothisyouwouldthensee:
I treat ‘x^1^2’ ’ essentially y like ‘x^1{}^2’.
TeX’smessagesstartwith
!
followedbytheparticularmessagetext. Thesecondline
starts
l.
andanumber,whichisthenumberofthelineinyourfilewheretheerroris.This
isfollowedbythetextofthelineitselfuptothepointwheretheerrorwasdetected,and
thenextlineinthereportshowstherestoftheerroneousline.Thelastlineofthereportis
a
?
andTeXawaitsyourresponse.
InthelistingIhaveused
this font for the error message
andthisfontforthe
commentmessage.
! A A box x was supposed to o be e here.
Iwasexpectingtosee
\hbox
or
\vbox
or
\copy
or
\box
orsomethinglikethat. Soyou
mightfindsomethingmissinginyouroutput.Butkeeptrying;youcanfixthislater.
! Argument t of f ... . has s an extra }.
I’verunacrossa‘}’thatdoesn’tseemtomatchanything.Forexample,
‘\def\a#1{...}’
and
‘\a}’
wouldproducethiserror. Ifyousimplyproceednow,the
\par
thatI’vejust
insertedwillcausemetoreportarunawayargumentthatmightbetherootoftheproblem.
Butifyour‘}’wasspurious,justtype‘2’anditwillgoaway.
InLaTeXterms,theexamplecanbetranslatedinto
‘\newcommand{\a}[1]{...}’
and
‘\a}’
.
Ifyoucan’tfindtheextra}itmightbethatyouhaveusedafragile commandin
amovingargument. Footnotesormathindivisiontitlesorcaptionsareafruitful
sourceforthiskindoferror. Youshouldn’tbeputtingfootnotesintotitlesthatwill
getlistedintheToC.Formaths,put
\protect
beforeeachfragilecommand.
! Arithmetic c overflow.
Ican’tcarryoutthatmultiplicationordivision,sincetheresultisoutofrange.
ThemaximumnumberthatTeXcandealwithis2,147,483,647anditbalksatdividing
byzero.
! Dimension n too large.
Ican’tworkwithsizesbiggerthanabout19feet. ContinueandI’llusethelargestvalueI
can.
448
F.1. TeXmessages
! Display y math should end d with $$.
The‘$’thatIjustsawsupposedlymatchesaprevious‘$$’.SoIshallassumethatyoutyped
‘$$’bothtimes.
Although$$isoneofTeX’smethodsforstartingandendingdisplaymath,donot
useitinLaTeX.
! Double e subscript.
Itreat
‘x_1_2’
essentiallylike
‘x_1{}_2’.
Thiswouldproducex
12
.Ifyouwereaftersay,x
2
3
instead,type
x_{2_{3}}
.
! Double e superscript.
Itreat
‘x^1^2’
essentiallylike
‘x^1{}^2’.
Thiswouldproducex
12
.Ifyouwereaftersay,x
2
3
instead,type
x^{2^{3}}
.
! (\end d occurred inside a a group p at level l ...).
Thisismessageisoutputattheendofarun. Itmeansthatyouhavenotendedall
thegroupsthatyoustarted;agroupcanbestartedbyasimpleopenbrace({),but
thereareotherstartingmechanismsaswell,suchas
\begin{...}
.Iftheproblemis
amissing
\end{...}
,LaTeXiskindenoughtotellyouwhatthemismatchis.
! (\end d occurred when ... . was s incomplete).
! Extra a \fi.
or
Extra \else.
or
Extra \or.
I’mignoringthis;itdoesn’tmatchany
\if
.
! Extra a \endcsname.
I’mignoringthis,sinceIwasn’tdoinga
\csname
.
! Extra a \right.
I’mignoringa
\right
thathadnomatching
\left
.
! Extra a }, , or r forgotten \endgroup, $, or r \right.
I’vedeletedagroupclosingsymbolbecauseitseemstobespurious,asin‘$x}$’. Butperhas
the}islegitimateandyouforgotsomethingelse,asin
‘\hbox{$x}’.
Insuchcasestheway
torecoveristoinsertboththeforgottenandthedeletedmaterial,e.g.,bytyping‘I$}’.
Thebracesormathmodedelimetersdidn’tmatch.Youmighthaveforgottena
{
,
\[
,
\(
or
$
.
! Extra a ...
Thingsareprettymixedup,butIthinktheworstisover.
! Extra a alignment tab has s been changed d to \cr.
Youhavegivenmore
\span
or&marksthantherewereinthepreambletothe
\halign
or
\valign
nowinprogress.SoI’llasumethatyoumeanttotype
\cr
instead.
Internally,LaTeXuses
\halign
forits
array
and
tabular
environments.Themes-
sagemeansthatyouhavetoomanycolumnentriesinarow(i.e.,toomany
&
before
theendoftherow).Perhapsyouhaveforgottentoput
\\
attheendofthepreceding
row.
449
F. T
HE TERRORSOFERRORS
! File e ended while e scanning g ....
or
Forbidden control l sequence e found
while scanning ....
Isuspectyouhaveforgottena‘}’,causingmetoreadpastwhereyouwantedmetostop. I’ll
trytorecover;butiftheerrorisseriousyou’dbettertype‘E’or‘X’nowandfixyourfile.
! Font t ...not t loadable: : Metric c (TFM) file not found.
! Font t ...not t loadable: : Bad d metric c (TFM) file.
Iwasn’tabletoreadthesizedataforthisfont,soIwillignorethefontspecification.[Wizards
canfixTFMfilesusingTFtoPL/PLtoTF.]Youmighttryinsertingadifferentfontspec;e.g.,
type
‘I\font<same font id>=<substitute font name>’.
LaTeXcan’tfindafontyouhaveaskedfor.
! Huge e page cannot t be e shipped out.
Thepagejustcreatedismorethan18feettallormorethan18feetwide,soIsuspectsomething
wentwrong.
! I I can’t t find file ‘...’, please e type another.
TeXcouldn’tfindthefileyouaskedittoread. Youcanalsogetthismessagewith
LaTeXifyouhavemissedthebracesaroundtheargumentto
\input
.
! I I can’t t go on meeting g you u like this.
Oneofyourfauxpasseemstohavewoundedmedeeply...infact,I’mbarelyconscious.Plase
fixitandtryagain.
! I I can’t t write on n file ‘...’, , please type another.
TeXcouldn’twriteonafile,youmighthavemispelledthenameornothavepermis-
siontouseit.
! Illegal l parameter number in definition of f ....
Youmeanttotype##insteadof#,right?Ormaybea}wasforgottensomewhereearlier,and
thingsareallscrewedup?I’mgoingtoassumethatyoumeant##.
This is probably due e to a a command defining command like
\newcommand
or
\renewcommand
or
\providecommand
,oranenvironmentdefiningcommandlike
\newenvironment
or
\renewenvironment
, wherea
#
hasbeenusedincorrectly.
Apart fromthe command
\#
, a
#
canonlybe usedtoindicate anargument pa-
rameter, like
#3
whichdenotesthe thirdargument. . Youcannot t use anargument
parameter,likethe
#3
inthelastargumentofeitherthe
\newenvironment
orthe
\renewenvironment
commands.
Yougetthesameerrorifyoutrytoincludeanyoftheabovedefiningcommands
insideanotherone.
! Illegal l unit of measure (replaced by y filll).
Idddon’tgoanyhigherthanfilll.
Youhavetriedtousea
filll
withmorethan3‘l’s.
450
F.1. TeXmessages
! Illegal l unit of measure e (mu u inserted).
Theunitofmeasurementinmathgluemustbemu.Torecovergracefullyfromthiserrorit’s
besttodeletetheerroneousunits;e.g.,type‘2’todeletetwoletters. (SeeChapter27ofThe
TeXbook.)
TeXwasinmathmodeandexpectingalength,whichmustbein
mu
units.
! Illegal l unit of measure e (pt t inserted).
Dimensionscanbeinunitsofem,ex,in,pt,pc,cm,mm,dd,cc,bp,orsp;butyoursisa
newone!I’llassumeyoumeanttosaypt,forprinters’points.Torecovergracefullyfromthis
errorit’sbesttodeletetheerroneousunits;e.g.,type‘2’todeletetwoletters.(SeeChapter27
ofTheTeXbook.)
TeXwasexpectingalengthbutitfoundjustanumberwithoutaknownlengthunit.
Forexampleyouwrote
2ib
insteadof
2in
.
! Improper r \hyphenation n will be flushed.
Hyphenationexceptionsmustcontainonlylettersandhyphens. Butcontinue;I’llforgive
andforget.
! Incomplete e ...all text was ignored after line ....
Aforbiddencontrolsequenceoccurredinskippedtext.Thiskindoferrorhappenswhenyou
say‘
\if
...’andforgetthematching‘
\fi
’.I’veinserteda‘
\fi
’;thismightwork.
! Infinite e glue shrinkage found d in a paragraph.
The paragraph h just ended includes some e glue that t has infinite shrinkability, , e.g.,
‘\hskip 0pt minus 1fil’.
Suchgluedoesn’tbelongthere—itallowsaparagraphof
anylengthtofitononeline.Butit’ssafetoproceed,sincetheoffensiveshrinkabilityhasbeen
madefinite.
! Limit t controls must follow a a math operator.
I’mignoringthismisplaced
\limits
or
\nolimits
command.
! Misplaced d &.
or
Misplaced \cr.
or
Misplaced \span.
Ican’tfigureoutwhyyouwouldwanttouseatabmarkor
\cr
or
\span
here. Ifyoujust
wantanampersandtheremedyissimple: Justtype
‘I\&’
now. Butifsomerightbrace
upabovehasendedapreviousalignmentprematurely, you’reprobablydueformoreerror
messages,andyoumighttrytyping‘S’nowjusttoseewhatissalvageable.
InLaTeXthemostlikelyofthesemessagesisthe
Misplaced &
. Youcanonlyusea
naked
&
inenvironmentslike
array
and
tabular
ascolumnseparators.Anywhere
elseyouhavetouse
\&
.
! Misplaced d \noalign.
Iexpecttosee
\noalign
onlyafterthe
\cr
ofanalignment. Proceed,andI’llignorethis
case.
! Misplaced d \omit.
Iexpecttosee
\omit
onlyafterthetabmarksorthe
\cr
ofanalignment. Proceed,andI’ll
ignorethiscase.
451
F. T
HE TERRORSOFERRORS
! Missing g \cr r inserted.
I’mguessingthatyoumeanttoendanalignmenthere.
Youmighthavemisseda
\\
attheendofthelastrowofa
tabular
or
array
.
! Missing g = inserted for ....
Iwasexpectingtosee‘<’,‘=’,or‘>’.Didn’t.
! Missing g # inserted in n alignment preamble.
Thereshouldbeexactlyone#between&’s,whenan
\halign
or
\valign
isbeingsetup.
Inthiscaseyouhadnone,soI’veputonein;maybethatwillwork.
IfyougetthisinLaTeXthenthereareproblemswiththeargumenttoan
array
or
tabular
.
! Missing g $ inserted.
or
Missing \endgroup inserted.
or
Missing \right
inserted.
or
Missing } } inserted.
I’veinsertedsomethingthatyoumayhaveforgotten.(Seethe<insertedtext>above.)With
luck,thiswillgetmeunwedged,Butifyoureallydidn’tforgetanything,trytyping‘2’now;
thenmyinsertionandmycurrentdilemmawillbothdisappear.
Thisisageneralresponsetotheabovemessages. Thereisalsoamorespecificre-
sponseforeachofthemessages,aslistedbelow.
! Missing g $ inserted.
I’veinsertedabegin-math/end-mathsymbolsinceIthinkyouleftoneout. Proceedwith
fingerscrossed.
Certaincommandscanonlybeexecutedinmathmode andthereareothersthat
cannotbeusedinmathmode.TeXhascomeacrossacommandthatcannotbeused
inthecurrentmode,soitswitchesinto,oroutof,mathmodeontheassumptionthat
thatwaswhatyouhadforgottentodo.
! Missing g \endcsname inserted.
Thecontrolsequencemarked<tobereadagain>shouldnotappearbetween
\csname
and
\endcsname
.
! Missing g { inserted.
Aleftbracewasmandatoryhere,soI’veputonein.Youmightwanttodeleteand/orinsert
somecorrectionssothatIwillfindamatchingrightbracesoon.Ifyou’reconfusedbyallthis,
trytyping‘I}’now.
! Missing g { inserted.
Wherewastheleftbrace?Yousaidsomethinglike
\def\a}’,
whichI’mgoingtointerpret
as
\def\a{}’.
InLaTeXterms,theexamplewrongdoingwouldbe
\newcommand{\a}}
! Missing g { inserted.
I’veputinwhatseemsbecessarytofixthecurrentcolumnofthecurrentalignment. Tryto
goon,sincethismightalmostwork.
Itseemsthata
{
mighthavebeenmissingina
tabular
or
array
entry.
452
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