multimarkdownuser’sguide
31
aredesignedtobecompatiblewiththeLaTeXclassesofthesame
names.
LaTeXTitle
SinceMultiMarkdownsyntaxisnotprocessedinsideofmetadata,
youcanusethe
latex title
metadatatooverridetheregulartitle
metadatawhenexportingtoLaTeX.
Thismetadatamustcomeaftertheregular
title
metadataifitis
alsobeingused.
MMDFooter
The
MMD Footer
metadataisusedtospecifythenameofafilethat
shouldbeappendedtotheendofthedocumentusingtheFileTran-
sclusion(section)feature.Thisisusefulforkeepingalistofrefer-
ences,abbreviations,footnotes,links,etc.allinasinglefilethatcan
bereusedacrossmultipledocuments.Ifyou’rebuildingabigdocu-
mentoutofsmallerdocuments,thisallowsyoutouseonelistinall
files,withoutmultiplecopiesbeinginsertedinthemasterfile.
ODFHeader
YoucanincluderawXMLtobeincludedintheheaderofafileout-
putinOpenDocumentformat. It’suptoyoutoproperlyformatyour
XMLandgetitworking—MultiMarkdownjustcopiesitverbatimto
theoutput.
Title
Self-explanatory.
TranscludeBase
WhenusingtheFileTransclusion(section)featureto“link”toother
documentsinsideaMultiMarkdowndocument,thismetadataspec-
ifiesafolderthatcontainsthefilesbeinglinkedto.Ifomitted,the
defaultisthefoldercontainingthefileinquestion.Thiscanbea
relativepathoracompletepath.
ThismetadatacanbeparticularlyusefulwhenusingMultiMark-
downtoparseatextstringthatdoesnotexistasafileonthecom-
puter,andthereforedoesnothaveaparentfolder(whenusing
stdin
oranotherapplicationthatoffersMultiMarkdownsupport).Inthis
case,thepathmustbeacompletepath.
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32 fletchert. . penney
SmartTypography
MultiMarkdownincorporatesJohnGruber’sSmartyPants
47
toolin
47http://daringfireball.net/projects/
smartypants/
additiontothecoreMarkdownfunctionality. Thisprogramconverts
“plain”punctuationinto“smarter”typographicpunctuation.
Justliketheoriginal,MultiMarkdownconverts:
• Straightquotes(
"
and
)into“curly”quotes
• Backticks-stylequotes(
“this”
)into“curly”quotes
• Dashes(
--
and
---
)intoen-andem-dashes
• Threedots(
...
)becomeanellipsis
MultiMarkdownalsoincludessupportforquotesstylesotherthan
English(thedefault).Usethe
quotes language
metadatatochoose:
• dutch(
nl
)
• german(
de
)
• germanguillemets
• french(
fr
)
• swedish(
sv
)
Thisfeatureisenabledbydefault,butisdisabledin
compatibility
mode,sinceitisnotpartoftheoriginalMarkdown.Youcanalsouse
the
smart
and
nosmart
commandlineoptionstocontrolthisfeature.
Cross-References
Anoft-requestedfeaturewastheabilitytohaveMarkdownautomat-
icallyhandlewithin-documentlinksaseasilyasithandledexternal
links. Tothisaim,Iaddedtheabilitytointerpret
[Some Text][]
asa
cross-link,ifaheadernamed“SomeText”exists.
Asanexample,
[Metadata][]
willtakeyoutothesectiondescrib-
ingmetadata(section).
Alternatively,youcanincludeanoptionallabelofyourchoosing
tohelpdisambiguatecaseswheremultipleheadershavethesame
title:
### Overview w [MultiMarkdownOverview] ##
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multimarkdownuser’sguide
33
Thisallowsyoutouse
[MultiMarkdownOverview]
torefertothis
sectionspecifically,andnotanothersectionnamed
Overview
.This
workswithatx-orsettext-styleheaders.
Ifyouhavealreadydefinedananchorusingthesameidthatis
usedbyaheader,thenthedefinedanchortakesprecedence.
Inadditiontoheaderswithinthedocument,youcanprovidela-
belsforimagesandtableswhichcanthenbeusedforcross-references
aswell.
LinkandImageAttributes
Addingattributestolinksandimageshasbeenrequestedforalong
timeontheMarkdowndiscussionlist.Iwasfairlyopposedtothis,as
mostoftheproposalsreallydisruptedthereadabilityofthesyntax.
Iconsidermyselfa“Markdownpurist”,meaningthatItookJohn’s
introductiontoheart:
TheoverridingdesigngoalforMarkdown’sformattingsyntaxis
tomakeitasreadableaspossible.TheideaisthataMarkdown-
formatteddocumentshouldbepublishableas-is,asplaintext,without
lookinglikeit’sbeenmarkedupwithtagsorformattinginstructions.
WhileMarkdown’ssyntaxhasbeeninfluencedbyseveralexisting
text-to-HTMLfilters,thesinglebiggestsourceofinspirationforMark-
down’ssyntaxistheformatofplaintextemail.
BecausetherewasnotasyntaxproposalthatIfeltfitthisgoal,I
wasgenerallyopposedtotheidea.
Then,ChoanC.Gálvezproposed
48
abrilliantlysimplesyntaxthat
48http://six.pairlist.net/pipermail/
markdown-discuss/2005-October/
001578.html
stayedoutoftheway.Bysimplyappendingtheattributestothelink
referenceinformation,whichisalreadyremovedfromthetextitself,
itdoesn’tdisturbthereadability.
Forexample:
This is s a a formatted ![image][] ] and d a a [link][] with attributes.
[image]: http://path.to/image "Image e title" " width=40px x height=400px
[link]:
http://path.to/link.html "Some Link" " class=external
style="border: solid black k 1px;"
Thiswillgeneratewidthandheightattributesfortheimage,and
aborderaroundthelink.Andwhileitcanbearguedthatitdoes
look“likeit’sbeenmarkedupwithtags[and]formattinginstruc-
tions”,evenIcan’targuetoostronglyagainstit.Thelinkandthe
titleinquotesalreadylooklikesomeformofmarkup,andthethe
additionaltagsarehardlythatintrusive,andtheyofferagreatdeal
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34 fletchert. . penney
offunctionality. Theymightevenbeusefulinfurtherfunctions(cita-
tions?).
Theattributesmustcontinueaftertheotherlink/imagedata,and
maycontainnewlines,butmuststartatthebeginningoftheline.
Theformatis
attribute=value
or
attribute="multi word value"
.
Currently,MultiMarkdowndoesnotattempttointerpretormake
anyuseofanyoftheseattributes.Also,youcan’thaveamultiword
attributespananewline.
Images
ThebasicsyntaxforimagesinMarkdownis:
![Alt text](/path/to/img.jpg)
![Alt text](/path/to/img.jpg g "Optional title")
![Alt text][id]
[id]: url/to/image
"Optional title e attribute"
Inadditiontotheattributesyoucanusewithlinksandimages
(describedintheprevioussection),MultiMarkdownalsoaddsafew
additionalthings.Ifanimageistheonlythinginaparagraph,itis
treatedasablocklevelelement:
This image e (![Alt text](/path/to/img.jpg))
is different than the following image:
![Alt text](/path/to/img.jpg)
TheresultingHTMLis:
<p>This image e (<img src="/path/to/img.jpg" alt="Alt t text" " />)
is different than the following image:</p>
<figure>
<img src="/path/to/img.jpg" " alt="Alt text" " />
<figcaption>Alt text</figcaption>
</figure>
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multimarkdownuser’sguide
35
Thefirstonewouldbeaninlineimage.Thesecondone(inHTML)
wouldbewrappedinanHTML
figure
element.Inthiscase,the
alt
textisalsousedasafigurecaption,andcancontainMultiMarkdown
syntax(e.g.bold,emph,etc.).Thealttextisnotspecificallydesigned
tolimitwhichMultiMarkdownissupported,buttherewillbelimits
andblocklevelelementsaren’tsupported.
Tables
TableBasics
MultiMarkdownhasaspecialsyntaxforcreatingtables.Itisgen-
erallycompatiblewiththesyntaxusedbyMichaelFortinforPHP
MarkdownExtra
49
49http://www.michelf.com/projects/
php-markdown/extra/
Basically,itallowsyoutoturn:
|
|
Grouping
||
First Header
| Second Header r | | Third Header |
------------ | | :-----------: : | | -----------: |
Content
|
*
Long Cell
*
||
Content
|
**
Cell
**
|
Cell |
New section
|
More
|
Data |
And more
| With an n escaped d ’\|’
||
[Prototype table]
intothefollowingtable(subsection1).
Grouping
FirstHeader
SecondHeader
ThirdHeader
Content
LongCell
Content
Cell
Cell
Newsection
More
Data
Andmore
Withanescaped‘|’
Table1:Prototypetable
TableRules
Therequirementsare:
• Theremustbeatleastone
|
perline
• The“separator”linebetweenheadersandtablecontentmust
containonly
|
,
-
,
=
,
:
,
.
,
+
,orspaces
• Cellcontentmustbeononelineonly
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36 fletchert. . penney
• Columnsareseparatedby
|
• Thefirstlineofthetable,andthealignment/dividerline,must
startatthebeginningoftheline
Othernotes:
• Itisoptionalwhetheryouhave
|
charactersatthebeginningand
endoflines.
• The“separator”lineuses
----
or
====
toindicatethelinebetween
aheaderandcell.Thelengthofthelinedoesn’tmatter,butmust
haveatleastonecharacterpercell.
• Tosetalignment,youcanuseacolontodesignateleftorright
alignment,oracolonateachendtodesignatecenteralignment,
asabove.Ifnocolonispresent,thedefaultalignmentofyour
systemisselected(leftinmostcases).Iftheseparatorlineends
with
+
,thencellsinthatcolumnwillbewrappedwhenexporting
toLaTeXiftheyarelongenough.
• Toindicatethatacellshouldspanmultiplecolumns,thensimply
addadditionalpipes(
|
)attheendofthecell,asshowninthe
example.Ifthecellinquestionisattheendoftherow,thenof
coursethatmeansthatpipesarenotoptionalattheendofthat
row....Thenumberofpipesequalsthenumberofcolumnsthe
cellshouldspan.
• YoucanusenormalMarkdownmarkupwithinthetablecells.
• Captionsareoptional,butifpresentmustbeatthebeginningof
thelineimmediatelyprecedingorfollowingthetable,startwith
[
,andendwith
]
.Ifyouhaveacaptionbeforeandafterthetable,
onlythefirstmatchwillbeused.
• Ifyouhaveacaption,youcanalsohavealabel,allowingyouto
createanchorspointingtothetable.Ifthereisnolabel,thenthe
captionactsasthelabel
• Cellscanbeempty.
• Youcancreatemultiple<
tbody
>tags(forHTML)withinata-
blebyhavingasingleemptylinebetweenrowsofthetable.This
allowsyourCSStoplacehorizontalborderstoemphasizediffer-
entsectionsofthetable.Thisfeaturedoesn’tworkinalloutput
formats(e.g.RTFandOpenDocument).
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multimarkdownuser’sguide
37
LimitationsofTables
• MultiMarkdowntablesupportisdesignedtohandlemosttables
formostpeople;itdoesn’tcoveralltablesforallpeople.Ifyou
needcomplextablesyouwillneedtocreatethembyhandorwith
atoolspecificallydesignedforyouroutputformat. Atsomepoint,
however,youshouldconsiderwhetheratableisreallythebest
approachifyoufindMultiMarkdowntablestoolimiting.
• NativeRTFsupportfortablesisverylimited.Ifyouneedmore
complextables,IrecommendusingtheOpenDocumentformat,
andthenusingLibreOffice
50
toconvertyourdocumenttoRTF.
50http://www.libreoffice.org/
Footnotes
IhaveaddedsupportforfootnotestoMultiMarkdown,usingthe
syntaxproposedbyJohnGruber.Notethatthereisnoofficialsup-
portforfootnotesyet,sotheoutputformatmaychange,butthe
inputformatsoundsfairlystable.
Tocreateafootnote,entersomethinglikethefollowing:
Here is s some text containing g a a footnote.[^somesamplefootnote]
[^somesamplefootnote]: Here is the e text of the e footnote itself.
[somelink]:http://somelink.com
Thefootnoteitselfmustbeatthestartofaline,justlikelinksby
reference.Ifyouwantafootnotetohavemultipleparagraphs,lists,
etc.,thenthesubsequentparagraphsneedanextratabpreceding
them.Youmayhavetoexperimenttogetthisjustright,andplease
letmeknowofanyissuesyoufind.
Thisiswhatthefinalresultlookslike:
Hereissometextcontainingafootnote.
51
51Hereisthetextofthefootnoteitself.
Youcanalsouse“inlinefootnotes”:
Here is s another footnote.[^This is s the footnote itself]
Citations
Ihaveincludedsupportforbasicbibliographyfeaturesinthisversion
ofMultiMarkdown.Pleasegivemefeedbackonwaystoimprovethis
butkeepthefollowinginmind:
38 fletchert. . penney
1. BibliographysupportinMultiMarkdownisrudimentary.The
goalistoofferabasicstandalonefeature,thatcanbechanged
usingthetoolofyourchoicetoamorerobustformat(e.g.BibTeX,
CiteProc).MyXSLTfilesdemonstratehowtomakethisformat
compatiblewithBibTeX,butIamnotplanningonpersonally
providingcompatibilitywithothertools. Feelfreetopostyour
ideasandtoolstothewiki.
2. Thoseneedingmoredetailedfunctionsetsfortheirbibliographies
mayneedcustomizedtoolstoprovidethoseservices. Thisisa
basictoolthatshouldworkformostpeople.Referencelibrarians
willprobablynotbesatisfiedhowever.
TousecitationsinMultiMarkdown,youuseasyntaxmuchlike
thatforanchors:
This is s a a statement that should d be e attributed d to
its source[p. 23][#Doe:2006].
And following is s the description of the e reference e to o be
used in n the bibliography.
[#Doe:2006]: John Doe.
*
Some Big g Fancy y Book
*
.
Vanity Press, , 2006.
InHTMLoutput,citationsareindistinguishablefromfootnotes.
Youarenotrequiredtousealocator(e.g.p.23),andthereareno
specialrulesonwhatcanbeusedasalocatorifyouchoosetouse
one.Ifyouprefertoomitthelocator,justuseanemptysetofsquare
bracketsbeforethecitation:
This is s a a statement that should d be e attributed d to o its
source[][#Doe:2006].
Therearenorulesonthecitationkeyformatthatyouuse(e.g.
Doe:2006
),butitmustbeprecededbya
#
,justlikefootnotesuse
ˆ
.
Asforthereferencedescription,youcanuseMarkupcodewithin
thissection,andIrecommendleavingablanklineafterwardsto
preventconcatenationofseveralreferences.Notethatthereisnoway
toreformatthesereferencesindifferentbibliographystyles;forthis
youneedaprogramdesignedforthatpurpose(e.g. BibTeX).
Ifyouwanttoincludeasourceinyourbibliographythatwasnot
cited,youmayusethefollowing:
[Not cited][#citekey]
multimarkdownuser’sguide
39
The
Not cited
bitisnotcasesensitive.
IfyouarecreatingaLaTeXdocument,thecitationswillbein-
cluded,andnatbibwillbeusedbydefault.IfyouarenotusingBib-
TeXandaregettingerrorsaboutyourcitationsnotbeingcompatible
with‘Author-Year’,youcanaddthefollowingtoyourdocuments
metadata:
latex input:
mmd-natbib-plain
Thischangesthecitationstyleinnatbibtoavoidtheseerrors,and
isusefulwhenyouincludeyourcitationsintheMultiMarkdown
documentitself.
BibTeX
IfyouarecreatingaLaTeXdocument,andneedabibliography,then
youshoulddefinitelylookintoBibTeX
52
andnatbib
53
.Itisbeyond
52http://www.bibtex.org/
53http://merkel.zoneo.net/Latex/
natbib.php
thescopeofthisdocumenttodescribehowthesetwopackageswork,
butitispossibletocombinethemwithMultiMarkdown.
TouseBibTeXinaMultiMarkdowndocument,youneedtousethe
BibTeX
metadata(section)tospecifywhereyourcitationsarestored.
Since
natbib
isenabledbydefault,youhaveachoicebetween
usingthe
\citep
and
\citet
commands.Thefollowingshowshow
thisrelatestotheMultiMarkdownsyntaxused.
[#citekey]
=> ~\citep{citekey}
[#citekey][]
=> ~\citep{citekey}
[foo][#citekey] => > ~\citep[foo]{citekey}
[foo\]\[bar][#citekey] => ~\citep[foo][bar]{citekey}
[#citekey;]
=> \citet{citekey}
[#citekey;][]
=> \citet{citekey}
[foo][#citekey;] => > \citet[foo]{citekey}
[foo\]\[bar][#citekey;] => > \citet[foo][bar]{citekey}
40 fletchert. . penney
DefinitionLists
MultiMarkdownhassupportfordefinitionlistsusingthesamesyn-
taxusedinPHPMarkdownExtra
54
.Specifically:
54http://www.michelf.com/projects/
php-markdown/extra/
Apple
:
Pomaceous fruit of f plants s of f the genus s Malus in
the family y Rosaceae.
:
An american computer r company.
Orange
:
The fruit t of f an n evergreen tree of f the genus s Citrus.
becomes:
Apple PomaceousfruitofplantsofthegenusMalusinthefamily
Rosaceae.
Anamericancomputercompany.
Orange ThefruitofanevergreentreeofthegenusCitrus.
Youcanhavemorethanonetermperdefinitionbyplacingeach
termonaseparateline.Eachdefinitionstartswithacolon,andyou
canhavemorethanonedefinitionperterm.Youmayoptionallyhave
ablanklinebetweenthelasttermandthefirstdefinition.
Definitionsmaycontainotherblocklevelelements,suchaslists,
blockquotes,orotherdefinitionlists.
UnlikePHPMarkdownExtra,alldefinitionsarewrappedin<
p
>
tags.First,IwasunabletogetMarkdownnottocreateparagraphs.
Second,Ididn’tseewhereitmattered-theonlydifferenceseems
tobeaesthetic,andIactuallypreferthe<
p
>tagsinplace.Letme
knowifthisisaproblem.
SeethePHPMarkdownExtra
55
pageformoreinformation.
55http://www.michelf.com/projects/
php-markdown/extra/
Abbreviations
MultiMarkdownincludessupportforabbreviations,asimplemented
inMichelFortin’sPHPMarkdownExtra
56
.Basically,youdefinean
56http://michelf.ca/projects/php-
markdown/extra/
abbreviationusingthefollowingsyntax:
*
[HTML]: HyperText Markup p Language
*
[W3C]:
World Wide Web Consortium
Then,whereveryouusethewords
HTML
or
W3C
inyourdocument,
the
abbr
markupwillbeadded:
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