multimarkdownuser’sguide
41
The HTML specification
is maintained d by y the W3C.
becomes:
The <abbr title="Hyper r Text Markup p Language">HTML</abbr> > specification
is maintained d by y the <abbr title="World d Wide e Web b Consortium">W3C</abbr>.
Here’sanexampleusingHTMLandWorldWideWebConsortium
(W3C).Theexactbehaviorwilldependonwhichformatyouare
viewingthisdocumentin.EspeciallyifweuseHTMLandW3C
again.(RememberthatHTMLhasprobablyalreadybeenusedif
you’reviewingalongerversionofthisdocument.)
AsinPHPMarkdownExtra,abbreviationsarecase-sensitiveand
willworkonmultiplewordabbreviations.Inthiscase,MultiMark-
downistolerantofdifferentvariationsofwhitespacebetweenwords.
Operation Tigra a Genesis s is s going well.
*
[Tigra Genesis]:
Anabbreviationwithanemptydefinitionresultsinanomitted
title
attribute.
Thereareafewlimitations:
• Thefullnameoftheabbreviationisplaintextonly–noMulti-
Markdownmarkupwillbeprocessed.
• Abbreviationsdon’tdoanythingwhenexportingtoODF–there’s
notanequivalentstructurethere–itwouldhavetobehand
coded.Imayormaynotgetaroundtothis,butpullrequests
welcome.;)
• WhenexportingtoLaTeX,the
acronym
packageisused;thismeans
thatthefirstusagewillresultin
full text (short)
,andsubse-
quentuseswillresultin
short
.
FencedCodeBlocks
InadditiontotheregularindentedcodeblockthatMarkdownuses,
youcanuse“fenced”codeblocksinMultiMarkdown.Thesecode
blocksdonothavetobeindented,andcanalsobeconfiguredtobe
compatiblewithathirdpartysyntaxhighlighter.Thesecodeblocks
shouldbeginwith3to5backticks,anoptionallanguagespecifier(if
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42 fletchert. . penney
usingasyntaxhighlighter),andshouldendwiththesamenumberof
backticksyoustartedwith:
# Demonstrate Syntax x Highlighting g if f you u link k to highlight.js s #
# http://softwaremaniacs.org/soft/highlight/en/
print "Hello,
world!\n";
$a = = 0;
while ($a < 10) ) {
print "$a...\n";
$a++;
}
Idon’trecommendanyspecificsyntaxhighlighter,buthaveused
thefollowingmetadatatosetthingsup.Itmayormaynotworkfor
you:
html header:
<link rel="stylesheet" " href="http://yandex.st/highlightjs/7.3/styles/default.min.css">
<script src="http://yandex.st/highlightjs/7.3/highlight.min.js"></script>
<script>hljs.initHighlightingOnLoad();</script>
Fencedcodeblocksareparticularlyusefulwhenincludinganother
file(FileTransclusion(section)),andyouwanttoshowthesourceof
thefile,notwhatthefilelookslikewhenprocessedbyMultiMark-
down.
Math
MultiMarkdown2.0usedASCIIMathML
57
totypesetmathematical
57http://www1.chapman.edu/
jipsen/mathml/asciimath.html
equations.TherewerebenefitstousingASCIIMathML,butalsosome
disadvantages.
WhenrewritingforMultiMarkdown3.0,therewasnostraightfor-
wardwaytoimplementASCIIMathMLwhichleadmetolookfor
alternatives.IsettledonusingMathJax
58
.Theadvantagehereisthat
58http://www.mathjax.org/
thesamesyntaxissupportedbyMathJaxinbrowsers,andinLaTeX.
ThisdoesmeanthatmathwillneedtobeenteredintoMultiMark-
downdocumentsusingtheLaTeXsyntax,ratherthanASCIIMathML.
ToenableMathJaxsupportinwebpages,youhavetoincludea
linktoanactiveMathJaxinstallation—settingthisupisbeyondthe
scopeofthisdocument,butit’snottoohard.
Here’sanexampleofthemetadatasetup,andsomemath:
latex input:
mmd-article-header
Title:
MultiMarkdown Math Example
latex input:
mmd-article-begin-doc
latex footer:
mmd-memoir-footer
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multimarkdownuser’sguide
43
HTML header:
<script type="text/javascript"
src="http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS-MML
_
HTMLorMML">
</script>
An example of f math within n a paragraph --- \\({e}^{i\pi }+1=0\\)
--- easy enough.
And an n equation on n it’s own:
\\[ {x}
_
{1,2}=\frac{-b\pm \sqrt{{b}^{2}-4ac}}{2a} \\]
That’s it.
Here’swhatitlookslikeinaction(ifyou’reviewingthisdocument
inasupportedformat):
Anexampleofmathwithinaparagraph—e
ip
+1=0—easyenough.
Andanequationonit’sown:
x
1,2
=
b
p
b4ac
2a
That’sit.
Inadditiontothe
\\[ \\]
and
\\( \\)
syntax,youcanuseLaTeX
style“dollarsign”delimiters:
An example of f math within n a paragraph --- ${e}^{i\pi i }+1=0$
--- easy enough.
And an n equation on n it’s own:
$${x}
_
{1,2}=\frac{-b\pm \sqrt{{b}^{2}-4ac}}{2a}$$
That’s it.
Inordertobecorrectlyparsedasmath,theremustnotbeany
spacebetweenthe
$
andtheactualmathontheinsideofthedelim-
iter,andtheremustbespaceontheoutside.
SuperscriptsandSubscripts
YoucaneasilyincludesuperscriptsandsubscriptsinMultiMark-
downaswell:
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44 fletchert. . penney
This apartment has an n area of f 100m^2
One must consider r the value of x~z
becomes
Thisapartmenthasanareaof100m
2
Onemustconsiderthevalueofx
z
Thesubscriptmustnotcontainanywhitespaceorpunctuation.
Morecomplicatedexponentsandsubscriptscanbedelimitedlike
this:
y^(a+b)^
x~y,z~
y
(a+b)
x
y,z
Glossaries
MultiMarkdownhasafeaturethatallowsfootnotestobespecified
asglossaryterms.Itdoesn’tdomuchforXHTMLdocuments,but
theXSLTfilethatconvertsthedocumentintoLaTeXisdesignedto
convertthesespecialfootnotesintoglossaryentries.
Theglossaryformatforthefootnotesis:
[^glossaryfootnote]: glossary: term (optional sort key)
The actual l definition n belongs s on n a a new line, and can n continue on
just as s other footnotes.
The
term
istheitemthatbelongsintheglossary.The
sort key
is
optional,andisusedtospecifythatthetermshouldappearsome-
whereelseintheglossary(whichissortedinalphabeticalorder).
Unfortunately,ittakesanextrasteptogeneratetheglossarywhen
creatingapdffromalatexfile:
1. Youneedtohavethe
basic.gst
fileinstalled,whichcomeswith
thememoirclass.
2. Youneedtorunaspecialmakeindexcommandtogeneratethe
.glo
file:
makeindex -s s ‘kpsewhich basic.gst‘ ‘ -o o "filename.gls"
"filename.glo"
3. Thenyouruntheusualpdflatexcommandagainafewtimes.
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multimarkdownuser’sguide
45
Alternatively,youcanusethecodebelowtocreateanenginefile
forTeXShop(itbelongsin
/Library/TeXShop/Engines
).Youcan
nameitsomethinglike
MemoirGlossary.engine
.Then,whenprocess-
ingafilethatneedsaglossary,youtypesetyourdocumentoncewith
thisengine,andthencontinuetoprocessitnormallywiththeusual
LaTeXengine. Yourglossaryshouldbecompiledappropriately.If
youuseTeXShop
59
,thisisthewaytogo.
59http://www.uoregon.edu/koch/
texshop/
NoteGettingglossariestoworkisaslightlymoreadvancedLaTeX
feature,andmighttakesometrialanderrorthefirstfewtimes.
#!/bin/
set path = = ($path /usr/local/teTeX/bin/powerpc-apple-darwin-current
/usr/local/bin) # # This is s actually a a continuation n of f the line above
set basefile e = = ‘basename "$1" .tex‘
makeindex -s s ‘kpsewhich h basic.gst‘ -o o "${basefile}.gls" "${basefile}.glo"
CriticMarkup
WhatIsCriticMarkup?
CriticMarkupisawayforauthorsandeditorstotrackchangestodoc-
umentsinplaintext.AswithMarkdown,smallgroupsofdistinctive
charactersallowyoutohighlightinsertions,deletions,substitutions
andcomments,allwithouttheoverheadofheavy,proprietaryoffice
suites.http://criticmarkup.com/
CriticMarkupisintegratedwithMultiMarkdownitself,aswell
asMultiMarkdownComposer
60
. Iencourageyoutocheckoutthe
60http://multimarkdown.com/
websitetolearnmoreasitcanbeaveryusefultool.Thereisalsoa
greatvideoshowingCriticMarkupinusewhileeditingadocument
inMultiMarkdownComposer.
TheCriticMarkupSyntax
TheCriticMarkupsyntaxisfairlystraightforward.Thekeythingto
rememberisthatCriticMarkupisprocessedbeforeanyotherMulti-
Markdownishandled. It’salmostlikeaseparatelayerontopofthe
MultiMarkdownsyntax.
WheneditinginMultiMarkdownComposer,youcanhaveCritic-
Markupsyntaxflaggedintheboththeeditorpaneandthepreview
window.ThiswillallowyoutoseechangesintheHTMLpreview.
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46 fletchert. . penney
WhenusingCriticMarkupwithMultiMarkdownitself,youhave
fourchoices:
• LeavetheCriticMarkupsyntaxinplace(
multimarkdown foo.txt
)
• Acceptallchanges,givingyouthe“new”document(
multimarkdown
-a foo.txt
)
• Rejectallchanges,givingyouthe“original”document(
multimarkdown
-r foo.txt
)
• Attempttoshowthechangesashighlights.Thisonlyworksin
HTML,andtouseityouaskforthenewandoriginaldocumentat
thesametime(
multimarkdown -a a -r foo.txt
)
CriticMarkupcommentsandhighlightingareignoredwhenpro-
cessing.
Deletionsfromtheoriginaltext:
This is s {--is s --}a test.
Additions:
This {++is s ++}a test.
Substitutions:
This {~~isn’t~>is~~} } a test.
Highlighting:
This is s a a {==test==}.
Comments:
This is s a a test{>>What t is s it t a a test of?<<}.
MyphilosophyonCriticMarkup
IviewCriticMarkupastwothings:
1. Asyntaxfordocumentingeditingnotesandchanges,andfor
collaboratingamongstcoauthors.
2. Ameanstodisplaythosenotes/changesintheHTMLoutput.
multimarkdownuser’sguide
47
Ibelievethat#1isareallygreatidea,andwellimplemented. #2is
notsowellimplemented,largelyduetothe“orthogonal”natureof
CriticMarkupandtheunderlyingMarkdownsyntax.
CMisdesignedasaseparatelayerontopofMarkdown/MultiMarkdown.
ThismeansthataMarkdownspancould,forexample,startinthe
middleofaCriticMarkupstructure,butendoutsideofit.Thismeans
thatanalgorithmtoproperlyconvertaCM/Markdowndocumentto
HTMLwouldbequitecomplex,withahugenumberofedgecasesto
consider.I’vetriedafew(fairlycreative,inmyopinion)approaches,
buttheydidn’twork.Perhapssomeoneelsewillcomeupwitha
bettersolution,orwillbesointerestedthattheyputtheworkinto
createthecomplexalgorithm.Ihavenocurrentplanstodoso.
Additionally,thereisaphilosophicaldistinctionbetweendocu-
mentingeditingnotes,andusingthosenotestoproducea“finished”
document(e.g.HTMLorPDF)thatkeepsthoseeditingnotesintact
(e.g. strikethroughs,highlighting,etc.)IbelievethatCMisincredibly
usefulfortheeditingprocess,butamlessconvincedfortheoutput
process(Iknowmanyothersdisagreewithme,andthat’sok.And
tobeclear,IthinkthatwhatGabeandErikhavedonewithCritic-
Markupisfantastic!)
ThereareotherCriticMarkuptoolsbesidesMultiMarkdownand
MultiMarkdownComposer
61
,andyouaremorethanwelcometouse
61http://multimarkdown.com/
them.
Fornow,theofficialMultiMarkdownsupportforCriticMarkup
consistsof:
1. CriticMarkupsyntaxis“understood”bytheMultiMarkdown
parser,andbyMultiMarkdownComposersyntaxhighlighting.
2. WhenconvertingfromMultiMarkdowntexttoanoutputformat,
youcanignoreCMformatting(probablynotwhatyouwantto
do),acceptallchanges,orrejectallchanges(asabove).Theseare
thepreferredchoices.
3. Thesecondarytochoice,whenexportingtoHTML,istoattempt
toshowthechangesintheHTMLoutput.Becausethesyntaxes
areorthogonal,thiswillnotalwaysworkproperly,andwillnot
alwaysgivevalidHTMLoutput.
RawHTML
Youcanincluderaw(X)HTMLwithinyourdocument.Exactlywhat
happenswiththeseportionsdependsontheoutputformat.Youcan
alsousethe
markdown
attributetoindicatethatMultiMarkdownpro-
cessingshouldbeappliedwithintheblocklevelHTMLtag.Thisis
48 fletchert. . penney
inadditiontothe
--process-html
commandlineoptionthatcauses
MultiMarkdownprocessingtooccurwithinallblocklevelHTML
tags.
Forexample:
<div>This is
*
not
*
MultiMarkdown</div>
<div markdown=1>This
*
is
*
MultiMarkdown</div>
willproducethefollowingwithout
--process-html
:
<div>This is
*
not
*
MultiMarkdown</div>
<div>This <em>is</em> > MultiMarkdown</div>
andwith
--process-html
:
<div>This is s <em>not</em> MultiMarkdown</div>
<div>This <em>is</em> > MultiMarkdown</div>
However,theresultsmaybedifferentthananticipatedwhenout-
puttingtoLaTeXorotherformats.Normally,blocklevelHTMLwill
beignoredwhenoutputtingtoLaTeXorODF.Theexampleabove
wouldproducethefollowing,leavingoutthefirst<
div
>entirely:
This \emph{is} MultiMarkdown
Andthiswith
--process-html
:
This is s \emph{not} } MultiMarkdown
This \emph{is} MultiMarkdown
Youwillalsonoticethatthelinebreaksaredifferentwhenout-
puttingtoLaTeXorODF,andthiscancausethecontentsoftwo
<
div
>tagstobeplacedintoasingleparagraph.
RawLaTeX/OpenDocument/etc.
YoucanuseHTMLcommentstoincludeadditionaltextthatwill
beincludedintheexportedfilewithoutbeingchanged.Thiscan
beusedforanyexportformat,whichmeansthateachdocument
canonlybeconfiguredforoneexportformatatatime.Inother
multimarkdownuser’sguide
49
words,itishighlyunlikelythatvalidrawLaTeXwillalsobevalid
OpenDocumentsourcecode.
This will be e processed by
*
MultiMarkdown
*
.
<!-- This will not be e processed by
*
MultiMarkdown -->
FileTransclusion
FiletransclusionistheabilitytotellMultiMarkdowntoinsertthe
contentsofanotherfileinsidethecurrentfilebeingprocessed.For
example:
This is s some text.
{{some
_
other
_
file.txt}}
Another paragraph
Ifafilenamed
some
_
other
_
file.txt
exists,itscontentswillbe
insertedinsideofthisdocumentbeforebeingprocessedbyMulti-
Markdown.Thismeansthatthecontentsofthefilecanalsocontain
MultiMarkdownformattedtext.
Ifyouwanttodisplaythecontentsofthefilewithoutprocessingit,
youcanincludeitinacodeblock(youmayneedtoremovetrailing
newlinesattheendofthedocumenttobeincluded):
This is s some text
‘‘‘
{{relative/path/to/some
_
other
_
file.txt}}
‘‘‘
Another paragraph
Transclusionisrecursive,sothefilebeinginsertedwillbescanned
toseeifitreferencesanyotherfiles.
Metadatainthefilebeinginsertedwillbeignored. Thismeans
thatthefilecancontaincertainmetadatawhenviewedalonethatwill
notbeincludedwhenthefileistranscludedbyanotherfile.
Youcanusethe
[Transclude Base]
metadatatospecifywhere
MultiMarkdownshouldlookforthefilestobeincluded.Allfiles
mustbeinthisfolder.Ifthisfolderisnotspecified,thenMultiMark-
50 fletchert. . penney
downwilllookinthesamefolderastheparentfile.
Note: ThankstoDavidRichardsforhisideasindevelopingsup-
portforthisfeature.
WildcardExtensions
Sometimesyoumaywishtotranscludealternateversionsofafile
dependingonyouroutputformat.Simplyusetheextension“.*”
tohaveMMDchoosetheproperversionofthefile(e.g.
foo.tex
,
foo.fodt
,
foo.html
,etc.)
Insert a a different version n of f a a file here based d on n export t format:
{{foo.
*
}}
TransclusionPreprocessing
Ifyouwanttoperformtransclusion,withoutconvertingtoanother
format,youcanuse
mmd
astheoutputformat:
multimarkdown -t t mmd foo.txt
Thiswillonlyperform“basic”transclusion–itdoesnotsupport
wildcardextensions,sincethefinaloutputformatisnotknown.
Escapednewlines
ThankstoacontributionfromNicolas
62
,MultiMarkdownhasan
62https://github.com/njmsdk
additionalsyntaxtoindicatealinebreak.Theusualapproachfor
Markdownis“space-space-newline”—twospacesattheendofthe
line.Forsomeusers,thiscausesproblems:
• thetrailingspacesaretypicallyinvisiblewhenglancingatthe
source,makingiteasytooverlookthem
• someusers’texteditorsmodifytrailingspace(IMHO,theproper
fixforthisisanewtexteditor...)
Nicolassubmittedapatchthatenablesanewoptionthatinter-
prets“\”beforeanewlineasamarkerthatalinebreakshouldbe
used:
This is s a a line.\
This is s a a new line.
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