Figure4:Exampleofalistofsymbols.
precededby\appendix
7
asinthefollowingexample:
...
\mainmatter
\include{chapter1}
\include{chapter2}
\include{chapter3}
\appendix
\include{appendix1}
\include{appendix2}
...
3.7 Index
TheindexcanbeautomaticallycreatedwiththemakeidxpackageandtheMakeIn-
dexprogram.The\makeindexcommandmustbeinthepreamble.Inordertobal-
ancethecolumnsofthelastpageoftheindex,itcanbeinsertedintoamulticols
7. \appendixmustbeusedonlyonceeveniftherearemultipleappendices.
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environment
8
redefiningthetheindexenvironmentwiththefollowingcode
\let\orgtheindex\theindex
\let\orgendtheindex\endtheindex
\def\theindex{%
\def\twocolumn{\begin{multicols}{2}}%
\def\onecolumn{}%
\clearpage
\orgtheindex
}
\def\endtheindex{%
\end{multicols}%
\orgendtheindex
}
3.8 Bibliography
Thebibliography,liketheindex,canbeautomaticallygeneratedbyLAT
E
X. Itcan
becreatedwiththethebibliographyenvironment,butitisfarbettertouseBibT
E
X,
aprogramthatletsyouseparatethecontentofthebibliography(storedin.bib
databases)andthestyle(definedby.bstfiles). The.bibfilesarejusttextfiles
that canbecreatedwithanytext editorbutitisadvisabletousebibliography
dedicatededitors. JabRef
9
isoneofthebestbibliographymanagersand, being
basedonJavaVM,itisavailableforallplatforms(Windows,Linux,andMacOS
X).
Thenatbibpackageisaveryusefulandflexibletooltoformatboththebibliog-
raphyandthereferencesintextanditisthoroughlydescribedinitsguide.Every
LAT
E
Xdistributionandthenatbibpackageofferseveralbibliographystyles; itis,
however,possibletocreateacustomstyle. Theuserjust t needstocompilethe
makebst.texfileandinteractivelyanswerthequestions. Thisprocesscreatesa
.dbjfilethatjustneedstobecompiledwithLAT
E
Xtoproducethe.bststyle.The
8. Thisenvironmentrequiresthemulticolpackage.
9. http://jabref.sourceforge.net/
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\url{}commandprovidedbytheurlpackageautomaticallybreakslongURLs
overseverallines. Thebibliographycanbeaddedtothetableofcontentswith
the\addcontentslinecommand.
Thefollowingcodetypesetsthereferenceswiththeplainstyle,addsthebibli-
ographytothetableofcontents(forathesisthebibliographysectionisachapter),
andloadstheThesisBib.bibdatabase. Thenameofthebibliographysectionis
addedtotableofcontentswiththe\bibnamecommandinordertoletitbede-
pendentonthelanguageused.
10
\cleardoublepage
\bibliographystyle{plain}
\refstepcounter{chapter}
\addcontentsline{toc}{chapter}{\bibname}
\bibliography{ThesisBib}
4 Objects
4.1 Figures
Figuresare oneofthemost t popularsubject for r LAT
E
X guides. . Thereareeven
guides and books [3923] completely y dedicated to this subject. . The e reader
shouldrefertothemforthedetails.
LAT
E
Xusersareusuallyfacedwithtwokindsofproblemsregardingthefig-
ures. Thefirstkindhasitsorigininthefigurefileitselfandwillbediscussed
insec.4.1.1,thesecondkindregardstheirplacementandwillbediscussedin
sec.4.3.
10.\bibnamebecomes“Bibliography”withtheenglishoption,“Bibliografia”withtheitalian
option.
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4.1.1 Formats
Imagescanbedividedintotwobigclasses: vectorimagesandbitmapimages.
Theformattouseshouldnotbechosenarbitrarilysinceeachoneissuitablefor
differentpurposes.Thefirstclass,definedasgroupsofgeometricshapes,canbe
scaledanddeformedwithoutlosingdefinitionorsharpnessandisrecommended
forgraphs,schemesandeveryotherimagethatcanbedefinedintermsofsimple
geometricentities.Thesecondclass,definedasmatricesofcoloredpixels,cannot
bedeformedwithoutalteringtheinformationcontentandshouldbeusedonly
incases inwhich vectorgraphicsarenot usable, , i.e. . forphotographs, , artistic
paintings,etc.
Theconversionbetweenvectorandbitmapgraphicsshouldalwaysbeavoided.
Infact,ontheonehandtheconversionfromvector(e.g..epsor.pdf)tobitmap
image(e.g..bmp, .jpg or.png)eliminatesalltheinformationonthegeometry
containedinthefigureanddeterioratesthequalityoftheimageandthepossibil-
itytoresizeitwithoutlosinganydetail.Ontheotherhand,theconversionfrom
abitmaptovectorgraphicsdoesnotimproveitsquality,itjustinsertsthebitmap
insideavectorframe.Theonlywaytoobtainatruevectorgraphicimagefroma
bitmapistotraceitwithdedicatedapplicationssuchasPotrace.
11
The boundingboxisa fundamentalparameterof.eps s files. . Itdefines s the
sizeoftheimageand isused byLAT
E
Xtocomputehowmuchspacetoassign
tothefigure. Theboundingboxshouldideallybetheminimumrectanglethat
contains the image. . Sometimes, , however, graphics applications leavemargins
(i.e.emptyspace)betweentheimageanditsboundingbox.Thismaycausesome
confusionbecause,althoughLAT
E
Xassignsthecorrectspacetothefigure,itmay
seem that thefigure istoo small, not centered, , etc. . Ghostview
12
canbeused
toopenthefigure,visualizetheboundingbox,andcheckifthedimensionsare
correct.Iftheyarenot,thebestoptionistochangesettingsintheapplicationthat
11.http://potrace.sourceforge.net/
12.http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/help/Catalogue/entries/ghostscript-afpl.html
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generatedthe.eps. AlternativelyGSView
13
cancomputetheoptimalbounding
box
14
ortheusercandirectlyopenthe.epsfilewithatexteditorandmodifythe
valuesdefiningtheboundingbox,whichareusuallyinthefirstfewlines. The
detailsonhowtousefigureswithPDFL
A
T
E
Xandtoconvertthemfrom.epsto
.pdfarereportedinsec.5.2.
4.1.2 Usefulpackages
Thegraphicxpackageneedstobeloadedinordertoinsertfigures.Itsguideisvery
useful.
15
Subfigures(Fig.1)canbeobtainedwiththesubfigpackage.
16
Inmany
casesthispackageisnotevenneededsincemorethanonefigureortablecanbe
insertedintoafigureortableenvironment,asshowninthefollowingexample
\begin{figure}[tb]
\includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{fig:a}
\caption{caption:a}\label{fig:a}
\hspace{4em}
\includegraphics[width=0.3\textwidth]{fig:b}
\caption{caption:b}\label{fig:b}
\end{figure}
Thisisagoodwaytoreducethenumberoffloatingobjectsandtofacilitatetheir
placement.
Itisadvisabletocollectallthefiguresinoneormoresubfolderstokeepthe
sourcefilesinorder.Ifthefig:afigureisinsidethefol_1folder,theusershould
specifyit
\includegraphics{fol_1/fig:a}
Bytheway,itisfarmoreconvenienttospecifythefolder’snamejustonceinthe
preamblewiththecommand
13.http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/help/Catalogue/entries/gsview.html
14.File-PStoEPS-AutomaticallycalculateBoundingBox.
15.http://tug.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/required/graphics/grfguide.pdf
16.Thispackagesupersedesthesubfigurepackage,whichhasbeendeclaredobsoletebyitsown
author.
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\graphicspath{{fol_1/},{fol_2/}}
Thepathdeclaredwith\graphicspathcanberelativetothefolderhostingthe
main.texfile(asinthepreviousexample),orabsolute,
17
as,forexample,
\graphicspath{{c:/documents/thesis/images/}}
Thecaptionpackageletsyouformatcaptionseasily.
4.2 Tables
Thectablepackageimprovesthespacingofthestandardtabularenvironment.The
xcolorpackagewiththetableoptioncanbeusedtocolorthebackgroundorrows,
columns,andcells.Whendealingwithbigtables,itispossibleto:
– scaledownthetable,forexamplewiththefollowingcommands:
\begin{center}
\resizebox{0.95\textwidth}{!}{%
\begin{tabular}
...
\end{tabular}}
\end{center}
– rotatethetableby90
withtherotatingpackage,
18
– breakthetableoverseveralpageswiththesupertabularpackage.
Forfurtherdetailsthereadercanrefertoaspecificguide,suchas[20].
4.3 Controllingthefloatingobjects
LAT
E
Xusersoftencomplainaboutthepositionoffigures(andoffloatingobjects
ingeneral). Inmost t cases, thisiscausedbyusingthepositionoptionsforthe
17.OnLinuxorUNIXsystemstheabsolutepathcannottakeadvantageofthetildeexpansion.For
example\graphicspath{{/home/lapo/documents/thesis/images/}}shouldbeusedinsteadof
\graphicspath{{~/documents/thesis/images/}}.
18.Othertechniquestorotatetablesandfiguresarereportedin[28].
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floating objects s incorrectly. . This s section explains what t should d be done while
writing(sec.4.3.1)andwhatwhilereviewingthetext(sec.4.3.2).
4.3.1 Whattodowhilewriting
FirstofalltheusershouldacceptthefactthatLAT
E
Xmovesafloatingobjecteither
becausethereisnospaceonagivenpageorforestheticreasons. Luckily,when
usingtherightcommands,LAT
E
Xdoesaverygoodjob.
Theveryfirstthingtodoistoavoidcommandslike\clearpageandletLAT
E
X
automaticallychoosethepositionofthefloatingobjects:whilewritingthethesis,
theauthorshouldbefocusedonlyonthecontentandnotbeconcernedwiththe
layout.AlmostanyinterferenceinthecomplexroutinethatL
A
T
E
Xusestoplacethe
floats,willcausepoorerresults.Thefollowingsuggestionsensurethatthefloats
areplacedascloseaspossibletotheirinsertionpointwithoutanyintervention
bytheauthor.
Oneofthemajorcausesofproblemsistheuseofthe[h]optionwhichtells
LAT
E
Xtoplacethefigureatthesamepoint whereit appearsinthecode. . Even
worsethan[h]arethe[htbp]andthe[h!t]options. Itisacommonmisbelief
thatthisoptionisthebesttoguaranteethattheobjectremainsclosetothepoint
whereitappearsinthecode.Itactuallyworksonlywhentheobjectisverysmall
(comparedto\textheight). Theonlythingthattheauthorshoulddetermineis
whethertheobjectissmallenoughtoappearonapagewithothertext orwill
requirea wholepage toitself. . Inthe e first t casethebest optionis[tb], inthe
second[p]. Iftherearenofloatsleft t toplace,theninthefirstcaseLAT
E
Xwill
placetheobjectjustbeforeitsinsertionpoint(whichcannothappenwhenusing
[h])oronthefollowingpage. Whenusingthe[p]optionforbigobjects,they
willbeplacedonaseparatepagerightaftertheinsertionpointandnotat the
endofthechapterasinthecaseof[tbp]. Thisiswhatisdoneineverybook
withagoodlayout:thefiguresareeitheratthetoporatthebottomofapage,on
ablankpageifverybig,andinthetextifverysmall. Someusersareannoyed
withfiguresthatprecedetheirreferenceinthetext(e.g.afigurethatappearsat
17
thetopofthepageofitsreferenceinthetext).Thisproblemcanbeeasilysolved
withtheflafterpackagethatpreventsthefloatingobjectfromappearingbeforeits
definitioninthetext.
Ingeneral,L
A
T
E
Xchoosesagoodplaceforfiguresiftheratio
text
figures
issufficientlyhigh. Thusitisadvisable,alsofromatypographicpointofview,
towritesomethinginterestinginsteadoffillingupthethesiswithfigures.Ifthis
ratioistoolow,L
A
T
E
Xmayproducethiserror:
! LaTeX Error: : Too o many unprocessed floats.
ThisisduetothefactthatLAT
E
Xcanallocateonlyalimitedamountofmemory
toplace thefloatingobjects. . Iftherearetoo o manyfloatstobeprocessed, this
amountofmemorymightbeinsufficient[5]. Thisproblemcanbesolvedwith
the\FloatBarriercommand,providedbytheplaceinspackage,whichcannotbe
crossedbyfloatingobjectsandforcesLAT
E
Xtoplacealltheonesthatarestillin
memory.Ifpossible,eventhe\clearpagecommandcanbeused.Itinsertsapage
breakandalsoplacesalltheunprocessedfloats.Themorefloatspackageincreases
thenumberoffloatsthatcanbeheldinmemoryfrom18to36. Somejournals
requirethatallthefiguresareplacedattheendofthedraft.Theendfloatpackage
doesthatautomatically.
Shouldallthesetricksnotbeenough,theusercanmakesomemanualadjust-
mentsjustbeforeprinting,asexplainedinthenextsection.
4.3.2 Whattodowhilereviewing
Justbeforeprintingthethesis,itmightbenecessarytomanuallyadjusttheposi-
tionofsomefloatingobjectssuchastablesandfigures. Thefloatpackagepro-
vides the e H position option which make e the e floating objects non-floating g and
forcestheirplacement intheexact placeinthe e text. . The\FloatBarrier r com-
mand(seesec.4.3.1)canevenbeusedtofinetunethepositionofsomeobjects.
18
LAT
E
Xprovidessomecommandstogloballycontrolthefloatingobjects:
\setcounter{topnumber}{...}maximumnumberoffloatsintpositionforeach
page
\def\topfraction{...}maximumpagefractionforfloatsintpositionforeach
page
\setcounter{bottomnumber}{...}maximumnumberoffloatsinbpositionfor
eachpage
\def\bottomfraction{...}maximumpagefractionforfloatsinbpositionfor
eachpage
\setcounter{totalnumber}{...}maximumnumberoffloatsinthesamepage
\setcounter{dbltopnumber}{...}maximumnumberofbigfloatsinthesame
page
\def\textfraction{...}minimumfractionofthepageforthetext
\def\floatpagefraction{...}minimumpagefractionforfloatsinpposition
foreachpage
\def\dbltopfraction{...}maximumpartofatwo-columntextpagethatcan
beoccupiedbytwo-columnfloatsatthetop.
\def\dblfloatpagefraction{...}minimumpartofapagethathastobeoccu-
piedbytwocolumnwidefloatingobjectsbeforea‘floatpage’isproduced.
5 Compilingthecode
5.1 Choosingtheformat
TheLAT
E
XcodecanbecompiledtoobtainaDeVice-Independentfile(.dvi)ora
PortableDocumentFormatfile(.pdf).
19
Eachformathasadvantagesanddisad-
19.Thereisactuallyathird option, thePostScriptfile (.ps),butit hasbeensubstitutedbythe
.pdfformatasthedefactostandard.
19
vantages. Ontheonehand,the.dviallowsadirectsearch(withadoubleclick
onthecodeinsidethetexteditor,the.dvi viewerfindsthecorrespondingout-
put)andinversesearch(withadoubleclickontheoutputinsidethe.dviviewer,
thetexteditorpositionsthecursoratthecorrespondingpositioninthecode)that
areveryuseful whenwriting thethesis. . Unfortunatelymost t .dvi viewersdo
notrendertheeffectsofthegraphicxpackageproperly–suchas\resizeboxand
\rotatebox
20
andcannottakeadvantageofthemicrotypepackage(seesec.5.2).
The.pdfformat,ontheotherhand,althoughitdoesnotallowdirectandinverse
search,
21
correctlyrendersalltheeffectsofthegraphicxpackage,takesadvantage
ofthemicrotypepackage,isaverypopularformatevenoutsidetheT
E
XandLAT
E
X
community,takesadvantageofthehypertextlinksofthehyperref package,and
allowstorestrictthedocumentaccesswithapassword.
22
Inconclusion,itisrecommendedtousethe.dviwhilewritingandthe.pdf
forprintingthethesisanddistributingitinelectronicformat.
5.2 CreatingaPDF
Thereareseveralwaystocreatea.pdfwithL
A
T
E
X,suchas:
– convertinga.dviora.psfilewithGhostscript,
– directlycompilingthesource.texcodewithPDFLAT
E
X.
Without going intothedetails, forwhicha good referenceis[24], inorderto
exploitallthepotentialofthePDFformat
23
itisnecessarytousePDFL
A
T
E
Xwhich
isavailableinmostLAT
E
Xdistributions.
20.YAP(MiKT
E
X.dviviewer)solvedthisproblemssincethe2.5version.
21.TheMacTeXdistributionforApplecomputersallowsdirectandinversesearchevenwith.pdf
files.
22.Apasswordcanbeusedtolimitaccesstothedocument,tolimittheprintoptions(restrictitor
allowitonlyatlowresolution),andtolimitchanges(textextraction,pageextractionorremoval,
etc.).
23.ThePDFformatallowstousehypertext,bookmarks,thumbnails,anddocumentinformation
whicharenotavailablewhenconverting.dviand.psfiles.
20
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