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Bye,ByeClockworkUniverse
163
ExperimentsandQuestions
165
7 SCHRO
¨
DINGER(ANDHISZOMBIECAT)
167
Real-WorldParticleinaBox
171
QuantumTunneling
174
QuantumTunnelingTime
178
Many-WorldsInterpretation
183
Schro
¨
dinger’sCatintheLab
184
BeamSplitters
186
WhoRollstheDice?
190
TheMach–ZehnderInterferometer
192
“Which-Way”Experiments
197
TheQuantumEraser
199
ExperimentsandQuestions
200
8 ENTANGLEMENT
203
Bell’sInequalities
205
AnEntangled-PhotonSource
211
DetectingEntangledPhotons
214
High-PuritySingle-PhotonSource
219
TestingBell’sInequality
220
ClosingtheLoopholes
225
TheAgeofQuantumInformation
226
AQuantumRandom-NumberGenerator
228
QuantumInformation
229
QuantumTeleportation
230
Faster-Than-LightCommunication
236
QuantumCryptography
237
QuantumComputingandTechnologiesfortheFuture
240
ExperimentsandQuestions
242
REFERENCES
245
SOURCESFORMATERIALSANDCOMPONENTS
249
ABBREVIATIONS
255
INDEX
257
CONTENTS
ix
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INTRODUCTION
TellmeandIforget.TeachmeandIremember.InvolvemeandIlearn.
—BenjaminFranklin
PhysicsdevelopedsteadilyaftertheintroductionofIsaacNewton’sideasinthe1600s
andhadmadegreatprogressbythenineteenthcentury.Peoplereallyfelttheimpactof
thisknowledgewhentheIndustrialRevolutionwasmadepossiblebytheapplication
ofeverythingthatscientistshadlearnedaboutmechanicalforces,gravity,electricity,
magnetism,heat,light,andsound.
Bythelatenineteenthcentury,scientistsfeltthatallofthisunderstandingof
physicsformedaframeworkthatcoulddescribetheworldverydeeplyandthoroughly.
Still,thereweresomenagginginconsistenciesbetweentheoreticalcalculationsand
experimentaldata,whichwereacknowledgedbyLordKelvin(whoformulatedthe
FirstandSecondLawsofThermodynamics)inhis1900lecturetitled“Nineteenth-
CenturyClouds over theDynamicalTheoryof Heat t and Light.” The two“dark
clouds”towhichhewasalludingweretheunsatisfactoryexplanationsthatthephysics
ofthetimecouldgivefortheconstancyofthespeedoflight,aswellasfortheglow
producedbyahotbody.
Whatisnowknownas“modernphysics”wasbornfromthetwomajorphysical
theoriesthatweredevelopedduringthetwentiethcenturytoresolvethesetwo“dark
clouds”:fortheformer,theTheoryofRelativity;forthelatter,quantummechanics.
The shift t caused d by modern physics was s dramatic, because e new concepts
showedaspectsofrealitythatarecompletelydifferentfromourday-to-dayobser-
vations.TheTheoryofRelativitydescribeshoweventslookverydifferentfortwo
observerswhoaremovingrelativetooneanother.Itmakesreallybizarrepredictions
aboutthewayclockstickrelativetooneanotherwhentheymove,howobjectsare
measuredtobeshortenedinthedirectionthattheyaremovingwithrespecttothe
observer,andhowenergyandmassareequivalent(describedbythefamousequation
E¼mc
2
).
Quantummechanicsmakesstatementsthatareevenweirderthanthoseofrela-
tivity.Intheoddworldofquantumphysics—atleastasexplainedthroughtheextreme
thoughtexperimentsofitsoriginalfounders—objectscanbeintwoplacesatthesame
time,catscanbebothsimultaneouslydeadandalive,andeverythingthatlookscon-
tinuoustousisreallypixelatedintotiny,discretechunks.
ExploringQuantumPhysicsThroughHands-OnProjects. ByDavidPrutchiandShanniR.Prutchi
#2012JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.Published2012byJohnWiley&Sons,Inc.
xi
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Inspiteofitsstrangeness,aworkingknowledgeofrelativityrequiresnomore
thanbasic algebraand geometry. . Afterall, relativity y is just amorefundamental,
up-to-date, andaccurate e versionoftheclassicalphysics foundedbyNewton. . On
theotherhand,quantummechanicsismuchmoredifficulttounderstand.Richard
Feynman,aphysicistwhowontheNobelPrizeforhisworkonquantumphysics,
didn’tbelievethatanyonereallyunderstandswhatthetheorytellsus.Inhiswords:
“IthinkIcansafelysaythatnobodyunderstandsQuantumMechanics.”
Nevertheless,quantummechanicsworkssowellthatithasenabledthedevel-
opmentoflasers,transistors,chips,anddisplaysusedintheelectronicgadgetsthat
aresoimportanttoourmodernlives.Becauseofthis,quantumphysicsoughttobe
animportantpartofeveryone’seducation. However,themathissocomplex, and
ourmostintuitivenotionsaboutrealityaresoshockinglywrong,thatunderstanding
ofthissubjecthasremainedlargelyconfinedtoaselectgroupofphysicistsandengin-
eers.Unfortunately,thishasalsoledtomanypopularizationsthatgrosslymisguide
readersandgivethemcompletelyfalsenotionsabouttheconceptsandimplications
ofquantummechanics.
Inthisbookwewilltryadifferentapproach.Theideaistobuildanintuitive
understanding of f the e principles behind d quantum m mechanics through h hands-on
constructionandreplicationoftheoriginalexperimentsthatledtoourcurrentview
ofthequantumworld.Wehavedevelopedtheexperimentalsetupsinsuchaway
thattheycanbeconstructedeasilyandatlowcost.Inaddition,wehaveworkedand
re-worked the e math, , so that it is accessible to anyone with knowledge e of high
schoolalgebra,basictrigonometry,and,ifpossible,alittlebitofcalculus.Wewant
topointoutthatinspiteofthemanysimplificationsthatwemake,westrivetopresent
aconceptuallycorrectviewofquantumphysicstothosewhoarenotconversantinits
highlyspecializedjargonandformalism.
Ourapproachcomesfromthebeliefthatthereisahugedifferencebetween
knowingaboutsomethingandactuallyunderstandingit.Webelievethatifoneisto
understandanythingaboutquantummechanics,onemustfirstdevelopa“gutfeeling”
aboutthequantumworld,togetpastthemysticalveilthatsotightlywrapsitsinner
workings. Wearehands-ontinkerers, sowefollowBenjaminFranklin’sapproach
towardeducation:“TellmeandIforget.TeachmeandIremember.Involvemeand
Ilearn.”
Ourhopeisthatthedo-it-yourselfapproachwilldemystifyquantumphysics,
and help p you u navigate e away from m sensationalistic, speculative, or r outright t false
accountsofthisincrediblybeautifulfield.
Quantumeffectstendtovanishasthesizeofanobjectincreases.Forthisreason,
quantumexperimentsarepracticalonlyforverysmallobjects,suchasphotons(bitsof
light),electrons,protons,andothersubatomicparticles. Inthisbook,wewillshow
you how w to adapt t commonly y available electronic components, , hardware e store
supplies,andotherrelativelylow-costitemsthatcanbepurchasedonlinetoreproduce
someofthemostground-breakingexperimentseverdoneinphysics!
Thedifficultyofstudyingquantumeffectsonevenslightlylargerobjects,suchasatomsormolecules,isso
greatthatonlyafewlabsaroundtheworldareequippedtohandlethisdifficulttask.
xii
INTRODUCTION
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Throughoutthebook,wewillslowlybuildupaquantumpictureoftheworld.
Thefirstchapterwillhaveyoubecomefamiliarwiththewaynineteenthcenturyphy-
sicistsunderstoodlight.Despitetheadventofquantummechanics,nineteenthcentury
opticsisstillusedtodaytomakecameralenses,glasses,telescopes,andmicroscopes.
However,themisbehaviorofclassicalopticsunderveryspecificcircumstanceswas
oneofthetwocloudsloomingonLordKelvin’shorizon.Understandingtheclassical
viewoflightiskeytoappreciatingwhyquantummechanicswouldstirsucharevolu-
tioninphysics.Inthefirstchapter,wewillperformtheexperimentsthatseemedto
confirm thecorrectness of theclassicalunderstandingof light’s nature, butwe’ll
alsolookatsomeoftheproblemsraisedbythesesameexperiments.
Inthesecondchapter,wewillreplicatetheexperimentsthatproducedthedata
thatcouldnotbereconciledwiththetheoreticalexplanationsofclassicalphysics.We
willstudythesweepingexplanationsproposedbyMaxPlanckandAlbertEinsteinto
resolvethisissue.
Thethirdchapterwillgetusintoatomicphysicsandradioactivity.Wewillbuild
equipmenttoperformtheexperimentsthatgaveusourcurrentviewofatomsandthat
broughtchemistryintothemodernera.
Next,inchapter4,wewilllookatquantization—thecoreprinciplebehindquan-
tummechanics—andatsomeofthewaysinwhichitsuccessfullytacklesoneofLord
Kelvin’s“darkclouds.”
Intheexperimentsofchapter5,wewilltakeadvantageoftechnologythatwas
unavailabletothepioneersofquantummechanicstoshowthatbothlightandmaterial
objectscanbehavewiththecharacteristicsofbothwavesandparticles.Thisiswhere
quantumphysicsstartstogetreallyweird,allowingparticlestobehaveasiftheyarein
twoplacessimultaneously!
Chapter6willintroduceHeisenberg’sUncertaintyPrinciple—theconceptthat
wecannotmeasuretheexactpositionandmomentumofanobjectatthesametime.
Wewillseethatthisisnotduetoimprecisemeasurements.Technologyisadvanced
enoughtohypotheticallyyieldcorrectmeasurements.Rather,theblurringofthese
magnitudesisafundamentalpropertyofnaturewithtrulymind-bogglingimplications
aboutourviewofreality.
Inchapter7,wewilltalkaboutDr.Schro¨dingerandhisfamouspet.Wewon’t
beconductinganyexperimentswithdeadoralive(orzombie)cats,butwewillbuild
somehands-on demonstrations thatshowSchro¨dinger’s legendarythoughtexper-
imentinaction.
Last,chapter8looksatdemonstrationsoftheexistenceofentanglement.This
quantum propertyis so o uncanny thatitcaused Einstein tomockit by calling it
“spookyactionatadistance.”Entanglementwasprovenonlyinthe1980s,butits
deepimplicationsarealreadycausingradicalchangesinthewayinwhichweview
ourworld.Wewillalsolookattechnologiesthatarebeingdevelopedasaconsequence
ofunderstandingtheroleofinformationinquantummechanics,andwillendthebook
bypeekingathowentanglementisquicklymakingstridesintoareasthatuntilrecently
werepurelythedomainofsciencefiction,enablingquantumteleportation,unbreak-
ablecryptography,andquantumcomputing.
INTRODUCTION
xiii
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PROLOGUE
YOUR QUANTUM M PHYSICS LAB
This book k assumes s that t you u have some e experience e in electronic prototype
construction.Thecircuitsactuallywork,andtheschematicsarecompletelyreadable.
Itwillbeeasyforyoutounderstandthemifyouknowsomecircuitdesign.However,
thetested,modularcircuits,components,andsoftwareareeasytousetobuildpractical
instrumentation,evenifyouviewthemas“blackboxes,”anddonotexploretheir
theoreticalbasis.
Ofcourse,therearesomebasicelectronicinstrumentsthatyouwillneedinorder
tobuild,test,andusetheequipmentthatwedescribeinthisbook.Attheveryleast,
youshouldequipyourlabwiththefollowing:
Soldering pen, , pen n rest with wet sponge, solder r wire, , and solder wick.
Preferably,youshouldusea70-Wsolderingstationinwhichyoucanadjust
thetemperaturebetween220–4808C.
Assortedtools,includingasharpdiagonalwirecutter,wirestripper,various
screwdrivers,hobbyknife,needle-nosepliers,etc.
Twohandheld,autoranging,4
1
2
-digit,digitalmultimeters(DMMs).Wesuggest
thatyoupurchasetwoidenticalunits.TektronixandFlukemultimetersarerec-
ommended,butanyoftheir4
1
2
-digitlook-alikes(soldforaround$35)areokay.
High-voltageprobe(.40kV)compatiblewithyourmultimeter.
Dual-channel, 60-MHz z oscilloscope e with h FFT T module. We e recommend a
second-handTektronixTDS210withFFTmodule.However,therearemany
look-alikesthatwillworkequallywell.Asalower-costalternative,youcancon-
siderconnectingyourPCtoaUSBdual-channel,60-MHzoscilloscopeadapter.
Adjustable,metered,dual-output,linear,benchpowersupply.Youwantaunit
capableofdeliveringtwooutputsadjustablebetween0andatleast20VDCat
2Aeach.AusedTektronixPS280wouldbeideal.
Thefollowingarereallyhelpful,butnotabsolutelynecessary:
High-voltageDCpowersupply.Ideally,youwanttoacquireawell-regulated
power supply y withselectable polarity(that is, , youcanchoosewhether the
outputreferencedtogroundwillbepositiveornegative) andarangeof 0–
2,000Vwithatleast1-mAcurrentcapability.AusedHP6516Awouldbegreat.
Functiongenerator.Doesn’tneedtobefancy.Somethingthatwillproducesine,
triangular,andsquarewavesatfrequenciesofuptoatleast1MHzwilldo.
xv
10-MHzpulsegenerator.Nothingexcessive.Werecommendsomethinglikea
GlobalSpecialtiesmodel4010.
SparePCwithatleast2-GHzPentium4processorand2-GBRAM.Youshould
installstudenteditionsof ExcelandMATLABtolog, plot,andanalyzethe
experimentaldatathatyouwillobtain.
Sincetheprimesubjectinquantumphysicsisthephoton(aparticleoflight),
youwillneedafewlasers.Fortunately,laserpointershavedroppeddramaticallyin
price, placinginour hands wonderful, well-behaved“photonsources” ” thatjusta
fewyearsagowouldhavebeenoutofthereachofanyonebutthemostadvanced
labsintheworld.Werecommendthatyouequipyourlabwiththefollowinglasers:
IRdiodelaser,980-nmwavelength,30-mWpower.
Helium-neon(HeNe)laser,632-nmwavelength(red),5-mWpower.
Redlaserpointer,670-nmwavelength,5-mWpower.
Greenlaserpointer,532-nmwavelength,5-mWpower.
Violetlaser,405-nmwavelength,100-mWpower.
Manyofthesetupsrequiremechanicalconstruction.Wehavetriedtokeepthis
toaminimumbyusingoff-the-shelfparts,butyouwillneedtodosomedrillingand
shaping.Mostoftheenclosuresaremadeofaluminum,soyoushouldhaveahandheld
drillwithafullsetofdrillbits.Youwillalsoneedagoodhacksaw,tinsnips,anda
nibbler,aswellasanassortmentoftoolstotapholes,bendmetalrods,andassemble
partstogether.
Inaddition,youshouldstartawell-organized“junkbox”tokeepyourelectronic
andopticalcomponents.Weuseplasticstackingshoeboxesthatareneatlylabeledto
keepourpartsorganized.Usefulpartsthatyoumaywanttocollectfromoldequip-
mentorsurplussalesinclude:
Capacitors,resistors,inductors,andotherpassiveelectroniccomponents.
Aluminumboxes,powersupplies,poweradapters,powercords,fuses,rocker
switches, panellights, panelmeters, prototypingboards, and d other parts to
buildandencloseinstruments.
High-voltagediodesandcapacitorsfrommicrowaveovens,oldTVs,andCRT
monitors.
Strongmagnetsfromdamagedharddrives.
OldoscilloscopeCRTscreens,eveniftheCRTsaredead.
High-speedop-amps,comparators,andotherlinearICs.
Light-emittingdiodes(LEDs)ofdifferentcolors.
Laser LEDs and laser modules from CD, DVD, and d Blu rayTM players/
recorders,andlaserpointers.
Lensesandhigh-qualitymirrors,suchasthosefoundinoldcameras,binoculars,
andprojectors.
xvi
PROLOGUE
High-voltageflybacktransformersfromoldcolorTVsandCRTmonitors.
Itemscontainingsmallamountsofradioactivematerialssuchasionization-type
smokedetectors,old-stylelanternmantles,andoldluminescentwatchhands.
Polarizersfromcameralenses,sunglasses,and3Dmovieglasses.
Lastly, a a word about whereto findbargaincomponents andinstruments—
storefrontsurplusstores(atleastthosedealingwithelectronicsandscience)areadis-
appearingbreed.MostsurplusistradedtodayoneBay
w
andotherInternetauction
sites (e.g., www.ebid.net, www.LabX.com, , etc.) The bestfinds s on eBay usually
comefrom estatesales, aswellasfrom peoplewhospecializeinbuying g surplus
lots from m the e government or r hi-tech companies s that t are going out of business.
Beforebiddingonanything,checkonthereputationoftheseller,andreadtheitem
descriptionverythoroughly.Fromourexperience,wecantellyouthat“unableto
test”mostoftenmeans“brokenandnotrepairable.”Especiallywhenbuyingonline,
caveatemptor!
Afewinterestingbrick-and-mortarsurplusstoresarestillaround. Theyhavea
presenceontheInternet,butyouwillfindthemostinterestingpiecesbyrummaging
throughtheirshelves.Ifyoutravelaround,trytotakeadetourandvisitthefollowing:
ApexElectronicsinthevicinityofLosAngeles,California:Youwillfindracks
andracksfullofelectronicsequipment,aswellasayardfullofjunk(including
rocketparts).Plantospendafulldaybrowsingorleaveempty-handedand
confused!
TheBlackHoleofLosAlamosinLosAlamos,NewMexico:Itissimilarin
charactertoApex,butisheavilyloadedwithatomicresearchsurplusfromthe
LosAlamosNationalLab.
FairRadioSalesinLima,Ohio:Youwillfindracksandpalletsfullofunclassi-
fiedsurplusequipment.ItisquitefarfromthemajorcitiesinOhio,butthedrive
isworthwhile,sinceitcontainsmanywonderfulone-of-a-kinditemsthatdon’t
makeitintotheircatalog.
Murphy’sSurplusWarehousenearSanDiego,California:Youwillfindsomeof
thebestsurplusmilitaryequipmenttobefound!Definitelyaworthwhileplaceto
visit.
SkycraftParts&Surplus,veryclosetoDisneyinOrlando,Florida:Verycool
store.Worthwhilevisiting, especiallyif youhavehaditwithMickeyMouse
andhisfriends!Itisfullofotherwiseunobtainablestuff, muchof itsurplus
directlyfromNASA’sKennedySpaceCenter.
SurplusSalesofNebraskainOmaha,Nebraska:Thisisaplacethatwehaven’t
visited,butweoftenpurchaseveryuniqueequipmentfromthemviatheirWeb
site. We e can just imagine what t unadvertised d jewels their r warehouse may
contain!
ForreadersinEurope,ArmyRadioSalesinLondon,UnitedKingdom,hasanexcellentselectionofuseful
items.Unfortunatelyhowever,theyareamail-onlybusiness.Youcannotvisittheirwarehouse.
YOUR QUANTUM PHYSICS LAB
xvii
Whetheryouareastudent,hobbyist,orpracticingengineer,wehopethatthis
bookwillhelpyoufindhoweasyitistounderstandtheprinciplesofquantumphysics
bybuildingandexperimentingwithsophisticatedsetupsatasmallfractionof the
comparablecommercialcost.
Foradditionalinformation, updated d software, , and d more informationon the
projectsdetailedinthisbookpleasevisitourWebsiteat:www.prutchi.com.
xviii
PROLOGUE
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