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Chapter1:Aboutthisdocument
2
1 Aboutthisdocument
TheL
A
T
E
XdocumentpreparationsystemisimplementedasamacropackageforDonaldE.
Knuth’s T
E
X typesetting program. . LAT
E
X was originally y created d by Leslie Lamport; ; it
is nowmaintainedby agroupofvolunteers (http://latex-project.org). . The e official
documentationwrittenbytheLAT
E
Xprojectisavailablefromtheirwebsite.
ThepresentdocumentiscompletelyunofficialandhasnotbeenreviewedbytheL
A
T
E
X
maintainers. Do o not send d bug g reports or anything else e about this s document to o them.
Instead,pleasesendallcommentstolatexrefman-discuss@gna.org.
Thehomepageforthisdocumentishttp://home.gna.org/latexrefman. Thatpage
haslinkstothecurrentoutputinvariousformats,sources,mailinglists,andotherinfras-
tructure.
Ofcourse,therearemany,manyothersourcesofinformationaboutLAT
E
X. Herearea
few:
http://www.ctan.org/pkg/latex-doc-ptr
TwopagesofrecommendedreferencestoLAT
E
Xdocumentation.
http://www.ctan.org/pkg/first-latex-doc
Writingyourfirstdocument,withabitofbothtextandmath.
http://www.ctan.org/pkg/usrguide
TheguidefordocumentauthorsmaintainedaspartofL
A
T
E
X;thereareseveral
others.
http://tug.org/begin.html
IntroductiontotheT
E
Xsystem,includingLAT
E
X.
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Chapter2:OverviewofL
A
T
E
X
3
2 OverviewofL
A
T
E
X
WhatisL
A
T
E
X?
LAT
E
XtypesetsafileoftextusingtheT
E
XprogramandtheLAT
E
X“macropackage”for
T
E
X.Thatis,itprocessesaninputfilecontainingthetextofadocumentwithinterspersed
commandsthatdescribehowthetextshouldbeformatted. LAT
E
Xfilesareplaintextthat
canbewritteninanyreasonableeditor. Itproducesatleastthreefilesasoutput:
1. Themainoutputfile,whichisoneof:
.dvi
Ifinvokedaslatex,a“DeviceIndependent”(.dvi)fileisproduced. This
contains commands that t can be e translatedinto commands for virtually
anyoutput device. . Youcanview w such .dvioutput ofL
A
T
E
Xby usinga
programsuchasxdvi(displaydirectly),dvips(converttoPostScript),or
dvipdfmx(converttoPDF).
.pdf
Ifinvokedaspdflatex,a“PortableDocumentFormat”(.pdf)file.Typi-
cally,thisisaself-containedfile,withallfontsandimagesembedded.This
canbeveryuseful,butitdoesmaketheoutputmuchlargerthanthe.dvi
producedfromthesamedocument.
If invokedas s lualatex,a a .pdf file is createdusing the LuaT
E
X engine
(http://luatex.org).
If invoked d as xelatex, , a .pdf f file is created d using the XeT
E
X engine
(http://tug.org/xetex).
Manyotherless-commonvariantsofL
A
T
E
X(andT
E
X)exist,whichcanproduceHTML,
XML,andotherthings.
2. The“transcript”or.logfilethatcontainssummaryinformationanddiagnosticmes-
sagesforanyerrorsdiscoveredintheinputfile.
3. An“auxiliary” ” or .aux file. . This s is s used d by y L
A
T
E
X itself, for r things s suchas s cross-
references.
Anopen-endedlistofotherfilesmightbecreated. Wewon’ttrytolistthemall. . Xxx
components?
IntheL
A
T
E
Xinputfile,acommandnamestartswitha\,followedbyeither(a)astringof
lettersor(b)asinglenon-letter. Argumentscontainedinsquarebrackets,[],areoptional
whileargumentscontainedinbraces,{},arerequired.
LAT
E
Xiscasesensitive. Enterallcommands s inlowercaseunlessexplicitlydirectedto
dootherwise.
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Chapter3:Starting&ending
4
3 Starting&ending
Aminimalinputfilelookslikethefollowing:
\documentclass{class}
\begin{document}
your text
\end{document}
wherethe class s is s a validdocument class for LAT
E
X. SeeChapter r 4 [Document classes],
page5,fordetailsofthevariousdocumentclassesavailablelocally.
You may include e other LAT
E
X commands between the \documentclass s and d the
\begin{document}commands(thisareaiscalledthepreamble).
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Chapter4:Documentclasses
5
4 Documentclasses
Theclassofagivendocumentisdefinedwiththecommand:
\documentclass[options]{class}
The\documentclasscommandmustbethefirstcommandinaLAT
E
Xsourcefile.
Built-inLAT
E
Xdocumentclassnamesare(manyotherdocumentclassesareavailableas
add-ons;seeChapter2[Overview],page3):
article report book letter slides
Standardoptions aredescribedbelow.
4.1 Documentclassoptions
Youcanspecifyso-calledglobaloptionsorclassoptionstothe\documentclasscommand
byenclosingtheminsquarebracketsasusual. Tospecifymorethanone e option,separate
themwithacomma:
\documentclass[option1,option2,...]{class}
Hereisthelistofthestandardclassoptions.
Allofthestandardclassesexceptslidesacceptthefollowingoptionsforselectingthe
typefacesize(defaultis10pt):
10pt 11pt 12pt
Allofthestandardclassesaccepttheseoptionsforselectingthe papersize(default is
letterpaper):
a4paper a5paper r b5paper executivepaper r legalpaper letterpaper
Miscellaneousotheroptions:
draft,final
mark/donotmarkoverfullboxeswithabigblackbox;defaultisfinal.
fleqn
Putdisplayedformulasflushleft;defaultiscentered.
landscape
Selectslandscapeformat;defaultisportrait.
leqno
Putequationnumbersontheleftsideofequations;defaultistherightside.
openbib
Use“open”bibliographyformat.
titlepage,notitlepage
Specifieswhetherthetitlepageisseparate;defaultdependsontheclass.
Theseoptionsarenotavailablewiththeslidesclass:
onecolumn
twocolumn
Typesetinoneortwocolumns;defaultisonecolumn.
oneside
twoside
Selectsone-ortwo-sidedlayout;defaultisoneside,exceptforthebookclass.
The \evensidemargin n (\oddsidemargin n parameter r determines s the e distance
on even (odd) ) numbered pages between n the left side e of f the page and d the
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Chapter4:Documentclasses
6
text’s left margin. . The e defaults s vary with h the e paper r size andwhether one-
ortwo-sidelayout isselected. . Forone-sidedprintingthetextiscentered,for
two-sided,\oddsidemarginis40%ofthedifferencebetween\paperwidthand
\textwidth,with\evensidemargintheremainder.
openright
openany
Determinesifachaptershouldstartonaright-handpage;defaultisopenright
forbook.
The slides class offers theoptionclockfor printingthetimeat thebottomofeach
note.
Additionalpackagesareloadedlikethis:
\usepackage[options]{pkg}
Tospecifymore thanonepkg,youcanseparate themwithacomma,or use multiple
\usepackagecommands.
Anyoptionsgiveninthe\documentclasscommandthatareunknownbytheselected
documentclassarepassedontothepackagesloadedwith\usepackage.
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Chapter5:Fonts
7
5 Fonts
Twoimportant aspects s of selecting afont are specifyinga size and d a style. . The e LAT
E
X
commandsfordoingthisaredescribedhere.
5.1 Fontstyles
ThefollowingtypestylecommandsaresupportedbyLAT
E
X.
Thisfirstgroupofcommandsistypicallyusedwithanargument,asin\textit{italic
text}. Inthetablebelow,thecorrespondingcommandinparenthesisisthe“declaration
form”,whichtakesnoarguments. Thescopeofthedeclarationformlasts s untilthe next
typestylecommandortheendofthecurrentgroup.
Thesecommands,inboththeargumentformandthedeclarationform,arecumulative;
e.g.,, youcan say y either \sffamily\bfseries or \bfseries\sffamily toget boldsans
serif.
You can alternatively use an environment t form m of the declarations; ; for r instance,
\begin{ttfamily}...\end{ttfamily}.
Thesecommandsautomaticallysupplyanitaliccorrectionifneeded.
\textrm(\rmfamily)
Roman.
\textit(\itshape)
Italics.
\emph
Emphasis(switchesbetween\textitand\textrm).
\textmd(\mdseries)
Mediumweight(default).
\textbf(\bfseries)
Boldface.
\textup(\upshape)
Upright(default). Theoppositeofslanted.
\textsl(\slshape)
Slanted.
\textsf(\sffamily)
Sansserif.
\textsc(\scshape)
Smallcaps.
\texttt(\ttfamily)
Typewriter.
\textnormal(\normalfont)
Maindocumentfont.
\mathrm
Roman,foruseinmathmode.
\mathbf
Boldface,foruseinmathmode.
Chapter5:Fonts
8
\mathsf
Sansserif,foruseinmathmode.
\mathtt
Typewriter,foruseinmathmode.
\mathit
(\mit)
Italics,foruseinmathmode.
\mathnormal
Foruseinmathmode,e.g.insideanothertypestyledeclaration.
\mathcal ‘Calligraphic’letters,foruseinmathmode.
Inaddition,thecommand\mathversion{bold}canbeusedforswitchingtoboldletters
andsymbolsinformulas. \mathversion{normal}restoresthedefault.
Finally,thecommand\oldstylenums{numerals}willtypesetso-called“old-style”nu-
merals,whichhavedifferingheightsanddepths(andsometimeswidths)fromthestandard
“lining”numerals. LAT
E
X’sdefault fontssupportthis,andwillrespect\textbf (but not
otherstyles;therearenoitalicold-stylenumeralsinComputerModern). Manyotherfonts
haveold-stylenumeralsalso;sometimesthetextcomppackagemustbeloaded,andsome-
times packageoptionsareprovidedtomakethemthedefault. . FAQentry: http://www.
tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=osf.
LAT
E
Xalsoprovidesthefollowingcommands,whichunconditionallyswitchtothegiven
style,thatis,arenotcumulative. Also,theyareuseddifferentlythantheabovecommands:
{\cmd...}insteadof\cmd{...}.Thesearetwoverydifferentthings.
\bf
Switchtoboldface.
\cal
Switchtocalligraphiclettersformath.
\em
Emphasis(italicswithinroman,romanwithinitalics).
\it
Italics.
\rm
Roman.
\sc
Smallcaps.
\sf
Sansserif.
\sl
Slanted(oblique).
\tt
Typewriter(monospace,fixed-width).
Somepeopleconsidertheunconditionalfont-switchingcommands,suchas\tt,obsolete
andonlythecumulativecommands(\texttt)shouldbeused.I(Karl)donotagree. There
areperfectlyreasonablesituationswhenanunconditionalfontswitchispreciselywhatyou
needtogetthedesiredoutput;foroneexample,see Section9.4[description],page17.
Bothsetsofcommandshavetheirplace.
5.2 Fontsizes
ThefollowingstandardtypesizecommandsaresupportedbyLAT
E
X. Thetableshowsthe
command name andthe correspondingactualfontsizeused (in points) ) with h the ‘10pt’,
‘11pt’, and ‘12pt’ document t size options, , respectively y (see Section4.1 1 [Document t class
options],page5).
Chapter5:Fonts
9
Command
10pt
11pt
12pt
\tiny
5
6
6
\scriptsize
7
8
8
\footnotesize
8
9
10
\small
9
10
10.95
\normalsize(default)
10
10.95
12
\large
12
12
14.4
\Large
14.4
14.4
17.28
\LARGE
17.28
17.28
20.74
\huge
20.74
20.74
24.88
\Huge
24.88
24.88
24.88
Thecommandsaslistedhereare“declarationforms”.Thescopeofthedeclarationform
lastsuntilthenexttypestylecommandortheendofthecurrentgroup. Youcanalsouse
theenvironmentformofthesecommands;forinstance,\begin{tiny}...\end{tiny}.
5.3 Low-levelfontcommands
Thesecommandsareprimarilyintendedforwritersofmacrosandpackages.Thecommands
listedhereareonlyasubsetoftheavailableones.
\fontencoding{enc}
Selectfontencoding.ValidencodingsincludeOT1andT1.
\fontfamily{family}
Selectfontfamily.Validfamiliesinclude:
 cmrforComputerModernRoman
 cmssforComputerModernSansSerif
 cmttforComputerModernTypewriter
andnumerousothers.
\fontseries{series}
Selectfontseries.Validseriesinclude:
 mMedium(normal)
 bBold
 cCondensed
 bcBoldcondensed
 bxBoldextended
andvariousothercombinations.
\fontshape{shape}
Selectfontshape.Validshapesare:
 nUpright(normal)
 itItalic
 slSlanted(oblique)
 scSmallcaps
Chapter5:Fonts
10
 uiUprightitalics
 olOutline
Thetwolastshapesarenotavailableformostfontfamilies.
\fontsize{size}{skip}
Setfontsize. Thefirstparameteristhefontsizetoswitchtoandthesecond
isthelinespacingtouse;thisisstoredinaparameternamed\baselineskip.
The unit ofbothparametersdefaults topt. . The e default \baselineskip for
theComputerModerntypefaceis1.2timesthe\fontsize.
Thelinespacingisalsomultipliedbythevalueofthe\baselinestretchpa-
rameter whenthe typesize changes;the defaultis 1. . However,thebestway
to “double space” a document, if you should be unlucky enough tohave to
producesuch,is tousethesetspacepackage; ; seehttp://www.tex.ac.uk/
cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=linespace.
\linespread{factor}
Equivalent to \renewcommand{\baselinestretch}{factor}, , and d therefore
must be e followedby y \selectfont t to have any y effect. . Best t specified d in the
preamble,orusethesetspacepackage,asdescribedjustabove.
Thechangesmadebycallingthefontcommandsdescribedabovedonotcome
intoeffectuntil\selectfontiscalled.
\usefont{enc}{family}{series}{shape}
The same as invoking \fontencoding, , \fontfamily, \fontseries s and
\fontshapewiththegivenparameters,followedby\selectfont.
Chapter6:Layout
11
6 Layout
Miscellaneouscommandsforcontrollingthegenerallayoutofthepage.
6.1 \onecolumn
The\onecolumndeclarationstartsanewpageandproducessingle-columnoutput.Thisis
thedefault.
6.2 \twocolumn
Synopsis:
\twocolumn[text1col]
The \twocolumn n declarationstarts s anew w page and produces two-column output. . If
the optional text1col l argument t is s present, , it is typeset t in n one-column mode e before e the
two-columntypesettingstarts.
Theseparameterscontroltypesettingintwo-columnoutput:
\columnsep
Thedistancebetweencolumns(35ptbydefault).
\columnseprule
Thewidthoftherulebetweencolumns;thedefaultis0pt,sothereisnorule.
\columnwidth
Thewidthofthecurrentcolumn;thisisequalto\textwidthinsingle-column
text.
Theseparameterscontrolfloatbehaviorintwo-columnoutput:
\dbltopfraction
Maximumfractionatthetopofatwo-columnpagethatmaybeoccupiedby
floats. Default t ‘.7’, , can beusefully y redefinedto(say) ‘.9’ ’ to avoidgoingto
floatpagessosoon.
\dblfloatpagefraction
The minimumfractionofafloatpagethat must be occupiedby floats,fora
two-columnfloatpage. Default‘.5’.
\dblfloatsep
Distancebetweenfloatsatthetoporbottomofatwo-columnfloatpage. De-
fault‘12ptplus2ptminus2pt’for‘10pt’and‘11pt’documents,‘14ptplus2pt
minus4pt’for‘12pt’.
\dbltextfloatsep
Distancebetweenamulti-columnfloatatthetoporbottomofapageandthe
maintext.Default‘20ptplus2ptminus4pt’.
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