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Chapter9:Environments
32
c
Acolumnofcentereditems.
|
Averticallinethefullheightanddepthoftheenvironment.
@{text}
This inserts text in every y row. . An n @-expression suppresses the
intercolumnspacenormallyinsertedbetweencolumns;anydesired
spacebeforetheadjacentitemmustbeincludedintext.
Toinsertcommandsthatareautomaticallyexecutedbeforeagiven
column,youhave toloadthe array packageandusethe>{...}
specifier.
An\extracolsep{wd}commandinan@-expressioncausesanex-
traspaceofwidthwdtoappeartotheleftofallsubsequentcolumns,
untilcountermandedbyanother\extracolsepcommand. Unlike
ordinaryintercolumnspace,thisextraspaceisnot suppressedby
an@-expression. An\extracolsepcommandcanbeusedonlyin
an@-expressioninthecolsargument.
p{wd}
Produces a column n witheach itemtypeset t ina parbox ofwidth
wd, as s if it t were e the argument of f a a \parbox[t]{wd} } command.
However,a\\maynotappearintheitem,exceptinthefollowing
situations:
1. insideanenvironmentlikeminipage,array,ortabular.
2. insideanexplicit\parbox.
3. inthescopeofa\centering,\raggedright,or\raggedleft
declaration.Thelatterdeclarationsmustappearinsidebraces
oranenvironmentwhenusedinap-columnelement.
*{num}{cols}
Equivalenttonumcopies ofcols,wherenumisapositiveinteger
andcolsisanylistofcolumn-specifiers,whichmaycontainanother
*-expression.
Parametersthatcontrolformatting:
\arrayrulewidth
Thickness of therulecreated d by y |,\hline,and\vline inthetabular and
arrayenvironments;thedefaultis‘.4pt’.
\arraystretch
Scalingofspacingbetweenrowsinthetabularandarrayenvironments;de-
faultis‘1’,fornoscaling.
\doublerulesep
Horizontaldistancebetweentheverticalrulesproducedby||inthetabular
andarrayenvironments;defaultis‘2pt’.
\tabcolsep
Halfthewidthofthespacebetweencolumns;defaultis‘6pt’.
Thefollowingcommandscanbeusedinsideatabularenvironment:
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Chapter9:Environments
33
9.24.1 \multicolumn
Synopsis:
\multicolumn{cols}{pos}{text}
The \multicolumn n command d makes an entry y that spans several l columns. . The e first
mandatoryargument,cols,specifiesthenumberofcolumnstospan.Thesecondmandatory
argument, pos,specifies s the formattingof theentry; ; c c for centered,l for flushleft,r for
flushright. Thethirdmandatoryargument,text,specifieswhattexttoputintheentry.
Here’sanexampleshowingtwocolumnsseparatedbyanen-dash;\multicolumnisused
fortheheading:
\begin{tabular}{r@{--}l}
\multicolumn{2}{c}{\bf Unicode}\cr
0x80&0x7FF
\cr
0x800&0xFFFF \cr
0x10000&0x1FFFF \cr
\end{tabular}
9.24.2 \cline
Synopsis:
\cline{i-j}
The\clinecommanddrawshorizontallinesacrossthecolumnsspecified,beginningin
columniandendingincolumnj,whicharespecifiedinthemandatoryargument.
9.24.3 \hline
The\hlinecommanddrawsahorizontallinethewidthoftheenclosingtabularorarray
environment.It’smostcommonlyusedtodrawalineatthetop,bottom,andbetweenthe
rowsofatable.
9.24.4 \vline
The\vlinecommandwilldrawaverticallineextendingthefullheightanddepthofits
row. An\hfillcommandcanbeusedtomovethelinetotheedgeofthecolumn. Itcan
alsobeusedinan@-expression.
9.25 thebibliography
Synopsis:
\begin{thebibliography}{widest-label}
\bibitem[label]{cite_key}
...
\end{thebibliography}
Thethebibliographyenvironmentproducesabibliographyorreferencelist.
Inthearticleclass,thisreferencelistislabelled“References”;inthereportclass,it
islabelled“Bibliography”.Youcanchangethelabel(inthestandardclasses)byredefining
thecommand\refname. Forinstance,thiseliminatesitentirely:
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Chapter9:Environments
34
\renewcommand{\refname}{}
Themandatorywidest-labelargumentistextthat,whentypeset,isaswideasthewidest
itemlabelproducedbythe\bibitemcommands.Itistypicallygivenas9forbibliographies
withlessthan10references,99foroneswithlessthan100,etc.
9.25.1 \bibitem
Synopsis:
\bibitem[label]{cite_key}
The\bibitemcommandgeneratesanentrylabelledbylabel. Ifthelabelargumentis
missing,anumberisautomaticallygeneratedusingtheenumicounter. Thecite
keyisany
sequenceofletters,numbers,andpunctuationsymbolsnotcontainingacomma.
Thiscommandwritesanentrytothe.aux filecontainingtheitem’s cite
key andla-
bel. Whenthe.auxfileisreadbythe\begin{document}command,theitem’s s labelis
associatedwithcite_key,causingreferencestocite
key witha\citecommand(seenext
section)toproducetheassociatedlabel.
9.25.2 \cite
Synopsis:
\cite[subcite]{keys
The keys argumentis alist ofone ormore citationkeys,separatedbycommas. . This
commandgeneratesanin-textcitationtothereferencesassociatedwithkeysbyentriesin
the.auxfile.
The text t of f the e optional subcite e argument appears s after r the citation. . For r example,
\cite[p.~314]{knuth}mightproduce‘[Knuth,p.314]’.
9.25.3 \nocite
\nocite{key_list}
The\nocitecommandproducesnotext,butwriteskey_list,whichisalistofoneor
morecitationkeys,onthe.auxfile.
9.25.4 UsingBibT
E
X
If youuse the BibT
E
X programby y OrenPatashnik (highly recommended d if you needa
bibliographyofmorethanacoupleoftitles)tomaintainyourbibliography,youdon’tuse
thethebibliographyenvironment(seeSection9.25[thebibliography],page33). Instead,
youincludethelines
\bibliographystyle{bibstyle}
\bibliography{bibfile1,bibfile2}
The\bibliographystylecommanddoes notproduceanyoutputofitsown. . Rather,
itdefinesthestyleinwhichthebibliographywillbeproduced: bibstylereferstoafilebib-
style.bst,whichdefineshowyourcitationswilllook. Thestandardstylenamesdistributed
withBibT
E
Xare:
alpha
Sorted alphabetically. . Labels s are e formed d from name of f author and d year of
publication.
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Chapter9:Environments
35
plain
Sortedalphabetically. Labelsarenumeric.
unsrt
Likeplain,butentriesareinorderofcitation.
abbrv
Likeplain,butmorecompactlabels.
Inaddition,numerousotherBibT
E
Xstylefilesexisttailoredtothedemandsofvarious
publications.Seehttp://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/biblio/bibtex/contrib.
The \bibliography commandis whatactuallyproducesthebibliography. . Theargu-
ment to o \bibliography y refers s to files s named bibfile.bib, which should contain n your
database inBibT
E
Xformat. Only y theentriesreferredtovia\citeand\nocite willbe
listedinthebibliography.
9.26 theorem
Synopsis:
\begin{theorem}
theorem-text
\end{theorem}
Thetheoremenvironmentproduces“Theoremn”inboldfacefollowedbytheorem-text,
wherethenumberingpossibilitiesfornaredescribedunder\newtheorem(seeSection13.6
[\newtheorem],page43).
9.27 titlepage
Synopsis:
\begin{titlepage}
text
\end{titlepage}
Thetitlepageenvironmentcreatesatitlepage,i.e.,apagewithnoprintedpagenumber
orheading. Italsocausesthefollowingpagetobenumberedpageone.Formattingthetitle
pageislefttoyou. The\todaycommandmaybeusefulontitlepages(seeSection22.6
[\today],page76).
Youcanusethe\maketitlecommand(seeSection19.1[\maketitle],page63)toproduce
astandardtitlepagewithoutatitlepageenvironment.
9.28 verbatim
Synopsis:
\begin{verbatim}
literal-text
\end{verbatim}
Theverbatimenvironmentisaparagraph-makingenvironmentinwhichLAT
E
Xproduces
exactlywhatyoutypein;forinstancethe\characterproducesaprinted‘\’. ItturnsLAT
E
X
intoatypewriterwithcarriagereturnsandblankshavingthesameeffectthattheywould
onatypewriter.
Theverbatimusesamonospacedtypewriter-likefont(\tt).
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Chapter9:Environments
36
9.28.1 \verb
Synopsis:
\verbcharliteral-textchar
\verb*charliteral-textchar
The\verbcommandtypesetsliteral-textasitisinput,includingspecialcharactersand
spaces,usingthetypewriter (\tt)font. . Nospacesareallowedbetween\verb b or\verb*
andthedelimiterchar,whichbeginsandendstheverbatimtext. Thedelimitermustnot
appearinliteral-text.
The *-form m differs only in that spaces are printed with h a a “visible space” ” character.
(Namely,␣.)
9.29 verse
Synopsis:
\begin{verse}
line1 \\
line2 \\
...
\end{verse}
Theverseenvironmentisdesignedforpoetry,thoughyoumayfindotherusesforit.
The marginsare indentedonthe left andtheright,paragraphsarenot indented,and
thetextis not justified. . Separate e the lines ofeachstanza with\\,anduseone ormore
blanklinestoseparatethestanzas.
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Chapter10: Linebreaking
37
10 Linebreaking
ThefirstthingLAT
E
Xdoeswhenprocessingordinarytextistotranslateyourinputfileinto
asequenceofglyphs andspaces. . Toproduce e aprinteddocument,this sequencemust be
brokenintolines(andtheselinesmustbebrokenintopages).
LAT
E
Xusuallydoestheline(andpage)breakingforyou,butinsomeenvironments,you
do the line breakingyourself withthe \\ command, and youcanalways manuallyforce
breaks.
10.1 \\[*][morespace]
The\\commandtellsL
A
T
E
Xtostartanewline. Ithasanoptionalargument,morespace,
thatspecifieshowmuchextraverticalspaceistobeinsertedbeforethenextline. Thiscan
beanegativeamount.
The\\*commandisthesameas theordinary \\commandexceptthatittells LAT
E
X
nottostartanewpageaftertheline.
10.2 \obeycr&\restorecr
The\obeycrcommandmakesareturnintheinputfile(‘^^M’,internally)thesameas\\
(followedby\relax). Soeachnewlineintheinputwillalsobeanewlineintheoutput.
\restorecrrestoresnormalline-breakingbehavior.
10.3 \newline
The\newlinecommandbreaksthelineatthepresentpoint,withnostretchingofthetext
beforeit. Itcanonlybeusedinparagraphmode.
10.4 \-(discretionaryhyphen)
The\-commandtellsLAT
E
Xthatitmayhyphenatethewordatthatpoint. LAT
E
Xisvery
goodathyphenating,anditwillusuallyfindmostofthecorrecthyphenationpoints,and
almostneveruseanincorrectone. The\-commandisusedfortheexceptionalcases.
Whenyouinsert\-commandsinaword, the wordwillonly y behyphenatedatthose
pointsandnotatanyofthehyphenationpointsthatLAT
E
Xmightotherwisehavechosen.
10.5 \fussy
Thedeclaration\fussy(whichisthedefault)makesT
E
Xpickyaboutlinebreaking.This
usuallyavoidstoomuchspacebetweenwords,atthecostofanoccasionaloverfullbox.
This command d cancels s the e effect of a a previous s \sloppy command d (see Section n 10.6
[\sloppy],page37.
10.6 \sloppy
Thedeclaration\sloppymakesT
E
Xlessfussyaboutlinebreaking.Thiswillavoidoverfull
boxes,atthecostoflooseinterwordspacing.
Lastsuntila\fussycommandisissued(seeSection10.5[\fussy],page37).
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Chapter10: Linebreaking
38
10.7 \hyphenation
Synopsis:
\hyphenation{word-one word-two}
The\hyphenationcommanddeclaresallowedhyphenationpointswitha-characterin
thegivenwords. Thewordsareseparatedbyspaces. T
E
Xwillonlyhyphenateiftheword
matchesexactly,noinflections aretried. . Multiple e \hyphenation commandsaccumulate.
Some examples (the default T
E
Xhyphenationpatterns misses the hyphenations inthese
words):
\hyphenation{ap-pen-dix col-umns s data-base e data-bases}
10.8 \linebreak&\nolinebreak
Synopses:
\linebreak[priority]
\nolinebreak[priority]
Bydefault,the\linebreak(\nolinebreak)commandforces(prevents)alinebreakat
thecurrentposition. For r \linebreak,thespaces inthe linearestretchedout so thatit
extendstotherightmarginasusual.
Withtheoptionalargumentpriority,youcanconvertthecommandfromademandto
arequest. Thepriority y mustbeanumberfrom0to4. . Thehigherthenumber,themore
insistenttherequest.
Chapter11: Pagebreaking
39
11 Pagebreaking
L
A
T
E
Xstartsnewpagesasynchronously,whenenoughmaterialhasaccumulatedtofillup
apage. Usuallythishappensautomatically,butsometimesyoumaywanttoinfluencethe
breaks.
11.1 \cleardoublepage
The\cleardoublepagecommandendsthecurrentpageandcausesallfiguresandtables
that have so far r appearedin the e input t to o be printed. . Ina a two-sided printing style, , it
also makes the next page aright-hand(odd-numbered) page, producing ablank page if
necessary.
11.2 \clearpage
The\clearpage command d ends the current t page andcauses allfigures andtables that
havesofarappearedintheinputtobeprinted.
11.3 \newpage
The\newpagecommandendsthecurrentpage,butdoesnotclearfloats(see\clearpage
above).
11.4 \enlargethispage
\enlargethispage{size}
\enlargethispage*{size}
Enlarge the e \textheight t for the current page by the e specified amount; ; e.g.
\enlargethispage{\baselineskip}willallowoneadditionalline.
Thestarredformtriestosqueezethematerialtogetheronthepageasmuchaspossible.
Thisisnormallyusedtogetherwithanexplicit\pagebreak.
11.5 \pagebreak&\nopagebreak
Synopses:
\pagebreak[priority]
\nopagebreak[priority]
By default,the\pagebreak (\nopagebreak)commandforces(prevents)apage break
atthecurrentposition. With\pagebreak,theverticalspaceonthepageisstretchedout
wherepossiblesothatitextendstothenormalbottommargin.
Withtheoptionalargumentpriority,youcanconvertthe\pagebreakcommandfroma
demandtoarequest.Thenumbermustbeanumberfrom0to4. Thehigherthenumber,
themoreinsistenttherequestis.
Chapter12: Footnotes
40
12 Footnotes
Footnotes canbe e producedin one of two ways. . They y can be e produced with one com-
mand, the e \footnote e command. . They y can n also be produced with two commands, , the
\footnotemarkandthe\footnotetextcommands.
12.1 \footnote
Synopsis:
\footnote[number]{text}
The\footnotecommandplacesthenumberedfootnotetextatthebottomofthecurrent
page. Theoptionalargumentnumberchangesthedefaultfootnotenumber.
This commandcanonly be used d inouter r paragraphmode; ; i.e., you cannot t useitin
sectioningcommandslike\chapter,infigures,tablesorinatabularenvironment. (See
followingsections.)
12.2 \footnotemark
Withnooptionalargument,the\footnotemarkcommandputsthecurrentfootnotenumber
inthetext. Thiscommandcanbeusedininnerparagraphmode.Yougivethetextofthe
footnoteseparately,withthe\footnotetextcommand.
Thiscommandcanbeusedtoproduceseveralconsecutivefootnotemarkersreferringto
thesamefootnotewith
\footnotemark[\value{footnote}]
afterthefirst\footnotecommand.
12.3 \footnotetext
Synopsis:
\footnotetext[number]{text}
The\footnotetextcommandplacestextatthebottomofthepageasafootnote.This
command can come anywhere after r the \footnotemark command. . The e \footnotetext
commandmustappearinouterparagraphmode.
Theoptionalargumentnumberchangesthedefaultfootnotenumber.
12.4 Symbolicfootnotes
If you u want to use e symbols for footnotes, rather than n increasing numbers, , redefine
\thefootnotelikethis:
\renewcommand{\thefootnote}{\fnsymbol{footnote}}
The\fnsymbolcommandproducesapredefinedseriesofsymbols(seeSection14.1[\alph
\Alph\arabic\roman\Roman\fnsymbol],page45).Ifyouwanttouseadifferentsymbol
asyourfootnotemark,you’llneedtoalsoredefine\@fnsymbol.
Chapter12: Footnotes
41
12.5 Footnoteparameters
\footnoterule
Producestheruleseparatingthemaintextonapagefromthepage’sfootnotes.
Defaultdimensions: 0.4ptthick(orwide),and0.4\columnwidthlonginthe
standarddocumentclasses(exceptslides,whereitdoesnotappear).
\footnotesep
Theheightofthestrutplacedatthebeginningofthefootnote.Bydefault,this
issettothenormalstrutfor\footnotesizefonts(seeSection5.2[Fontsizes],
page8),thereforethereisnoextraspacebetweenfootnotes. Thisis‘6.65pt’
for‘10pt’,‘7.7pt’for‘11pt’,and‘8.4pt’for‘12pt’.
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