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Chapter13: Definitions
42
13 Definitions
LAT
E
Xhassupportformakingnewcommandsofmanydifferentkinds.
13.1 \newcommand&\renewcommand
\newcommandand\renewcommanddefineandredefineacommand,respectively. Synopses:
\newcommand[*]{cmd}[nargs][optarg]{defn}
\renewcommand[*]{cmd}[nargs][optarg]{defn}
*
The*-formofthesecommandsrequiresthattheargumentsnotcontainmultiple
paragraphsoftext(not\long,inplainT
E
Xterms).
cmd
Thecommandnamebeginningwith\.For\newcommand,itmustnotbealready
definedandmustnotbeginwith\end;for\renewcommand,itmustalreadybe
defined.
nargs
Anoptionalintegerfrom1to9specifyingthenumberofargumentsthatthe
commandwilltake. Thedefaultisforthecommandtohavenoarguments.
optarg
Ifthisoptionalparameterispresent,itmeansthatthecommand’sfirstargu-
mentisoptional. Thedefaultvalueoftheoptionalargument t (i.e.,ifitisnot
specifiedinthecall)isoptarg,or,ifthatargumentispresentinthe\newcommand
buthasanemptyvalue,thestring‘def’.
defn
Thetexttobesubstitutedforeveryoccurrenceofcmd;aconstructoftheform
#nindefnisreplacedbythetextofthenthargument.
13.2 \newcounter
Synopsis:
\newcounter{cnt}[countername]
The \newcounter command d defines s a a new counter named d cnt. . The e new counter is
initializedtozero.
Giventheoptionalargument[countername],cnt willberesetwhenevercountername
isincremented.
SeeChapter14[Counters],page45,formoreinformationaboutcounters.
13.3 \newlength
Synopsis:
\newlength{\arg}
The\newlengthcommanddefinesthemandatoryargumentasalengthcommandwith
avalueof 0in. . Theargument t mustbeacontrolsequence,asin\newlength{\foo}. . An
erroroccursif\fooisalreadydefined.
See Chapter15[Lengths],page47,forhowtoset thenew lengthtoanonzerovalue,
andformoreinformationaboutlengthsingeneral.
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Chapter13: Definitions
43
13.4 \newsavebox
Synopsis:
\newsavebox{cmd}
Defines \cmd,whichmustbeacommandnamenot already defined,torefertoanew
binforstoringboxes.
13.5 \newenvironment&\renewenvironment
Synopses:
\newenvironment[*]{env}[nargs][default]{begdef}{enddef}
\renewenvironment[*]{env}[nargs]{begdef}{enddef}
These commands s define e or r redefine e an environment t env, that is, \begin{env}...
\end{env}.
*
The*-formofthesecommandsrequiresthatthearguments(notthecontents
oftheenvironment)notcontainmultipleparagraphsoftext.
env
The name of the environment. . For r \newenvironment, , env v must t not be
an existing environment, and d the e command \env must be undefined. . For
\renewenvironment,envmustbethenameofanexistingenvironment.
nargs
Anintegerfrom1to9denotingthenumberofargumentsofthenewly-defined
environment.Thedefaultisnoarguments.
default
Ifthisisspecified,thefirstargumentisoptional,anddefaultgivesthedefault
valueforthatargument.
begdef
Thetextexpandedateveryoccurrenceof\begin{env};aconstructoftheform
#ninbegdef isreplacedbythetextofthenthargument.
enddef
Thetextexpandedateveryoccurrenceof\end{env}. Itmaynotcontainany
argumentparameters.
13.6 \newtheorem
\newtheorem{newenv}{label}[within]
\newtheorem{newenv}[numbered_like]{label}
Thiscommanddefinesatheorem-likeenvironment. Arguments:
newenv
Thenameoftheenvironmenttobedefined;mustnotbethenameofanexisting
environmentorotherwisedefined.
label
Thetextprintedatthebeginningoftheenvironment,beforethenumber.For
example,‘Theorem’.
numbered
like
(Optional.) Thenameofanalreadydefinedtheorem-likeenvironment;thenew
environmentwillbenumberedjustlikenumbered
like.
within
(Optional.) Thenameofanalreadydefinedcounter,asectionalunit.Thenew
theoremcounterwillberesetatthesametimeasthewithincounter.
Atmostoneofnumbered
likeandwithincanbespecified,notboth.
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Chapter13: Definitions
44
13.7 \newfont
Synopsis:
\newfont{cmd}{fontname}
Definesacontrolsequence\cmd,whichmustnotalreadybedefined,tomakefontname
bethecurrentfont. Thefilelookedforonthesystemisnamedfontname.tfm.
Thisisalow-levelcommandforsettinguptouseanindividualfont. Morecommonly,
fontsaredefinedinfamiliesthrough.fdfiles.
13.8 \protect
Footnotes,linebreaks,anycommandthathasanoptionalargument,andmanymoreare
so-calledfragile commands. . When n afragilecommandis s usedincertaincontexts,called
movingarguments,itmustbeprecededby \protect. . Inaddition,anyfragilecommands
withintheargumentsmusthavetheirown\protect.
Someexamplesofmovingargumentsare\caption(seeSection9.10[figure],page19),
\thanks(see Section19.1 [\maketitle], page 63),andexpressions intabularandarray
environments(seeSection9.24[tabular],page31).
Commands which are e not fragile are e called d robust. . They y must not be preceded by
\protect.
Seealso:
http://www-h.eng.cam.ac.uk/help/tpl/textprocessing/teTeX/latex/latex2e-html/fragile.html
http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=protect
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Chapter14: Counters
45
14 Counters
EverythingLAT
E
Xnumbersforyouhasacounterassociatedwithit.Thenameofthecounter
isthesameasthenameoftheenvironmentorcommandthatproducesthenumber,except
withno\.(enumi–enumivareusedforthenestedenumerateenvironment.) Belowisalist
ofthecountersusedinLAT
E
X’sstandarddocumentclassestocontrolnumbering.
part
paragraph
figure
enumi
chapter
subparagraph
table
enumii
section
page
footnote
enumiii
subsection
equation
mpfootnote
enumiv
subsubsection
14.1 \alph\Alph\arabic\roman\Roman\fnsymbol: Printing
counters
Allofthesecommandstakeasinglecounterasanargument,forinstance,\alph{enumi}.
\alph
printscounter usinglowercaseletters: : ‘a’,‘b’,...
\Alph
usesuppercaseletters:‘A’,‘B’,...
\arabic
usesArabicnumbers:‘1’,‘2’,...
\roman
useslowercaseromannumerals:‘i’,‘ii’,...
\roman
usesuppercaseromannumerals: ‘I’,‘II’,...
\fnsymbol
printsthevalueofcounterinaspecificsequenceofninesymbols(conventionally
usedforlabelingfootnotes). Thevalueof f counter r must t bebetween1and9,
inclusive.
Herearethesymbols: yzx{kyyzz
14.2 \usecounter{counter}
Synopsis:
\usecounter{counter}
The\usecountercommandisusedinthesecondargumentofthelistenvironmentto
specifycountertobeusedtonumberthelistitems.
14.3 \value{counter}
Synopsis:
\value{counter}
The \valuecommandproducesthevalueof counter. . It t canbeusedanywhere LAT
E
X
expectsanumber,forexample:
\setcounter{myctr}{3}
\addtocounter{myctr}{1}
\hspace{\value{myctr}\parindent}
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Chapter14: Counters
46
14.4 \setcounter{counter}{value}
Synopsis:
\setcounter{\counter}{value}
The\setcountercommandsetsthevalueof\countertothevalue argument.
14.5 \addtocounter{counter}{value}
The\addtocountercommandincrementscounter bythe e amount specified by thevalue
argument,whichmaybenegative.
14.6 \refstepcounter{counter}
The\refstepcountercommandworksinthesamewayas\stepcounterSeeSection14.7
[\stepcounter], page 46,except t it alsodefines thecurrent \ref value tobetheresult of
\thecounter.
14.7 \stepcounter{counter}
The\stepcountercommandaddsonetocounterandresetsallsubsidiarycounters.
14.8 \day\month\year: Predefinedcounters
LAT
E
Xdefinescountersforthedayofthemonth(\day,1–31),monthoftheyear(\month,
1–12),andyear(\year,CommonEra). WhenT
E
Xstartsup,theyaresettothecurrent
valuesonthesystemwhereT
E
Xisrunning.Theyarenotupdatedasthejobprogresses.
The related d command d \today y produces a a string representing the e current day y (see
Section22.6[\today],page76).
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Chapter15: Lengths
47
15 Lengths
Alengthisameasureofdistance. ManyL
A
T
E
Xcommandstakealengthasanargument.
15.1 \setlength{\len}{value}
The\setlengthsets thevalueof\lentothevalue argument,whichcanbeexpressedin
anyunitsthatLAT
E
Xunderstands,i.e.,inches(in),millimeters(mm),points(pt),bigpoints
(bp,etc.
15.2 \addtolength{\len}{amount}
The\addtolengthcommandincrementsa“lengthcommand”\lenbytheamountspecified
intheamountargument,whichmaybenegative.
15.3 \settodepth
\settodepth{\gnat}{text}
The\settodepthcommandsetsthevalueofalengthcommandequaltothedepthof
thetextargument.
15.4 \settoheight
\settoheight{\gnat}{text}
The\settoheightcommandsetsthevalueofalengthcommandequaltotheheight
ofthetextargument.
15.5 \settowidth{\len}{text}
The\settowidthcommandsetsthevalueofthecommand\lentothewidthofthetext
argument.
15.6 Predefinedlengths
\width
\height
\depth
\totalheight
Theselengthparameters canbe usedintheargumentsofthebox-makingcommands
(seeChapter21[Boxes],page68). Theyspecifythenaturalwidth,etc.,ofthetextinthe
box. \totalheight t equals\height+\depth. . Tomakeaboxwiththetext t stretchedto
doublethenaturalsize,e.g.,say
\makebox[2\width]{Getastretcher}
Chapter16: Makingparagraphs
48
16 Makingparagraphs
Aparagraphisendedbyoneormorecompletelyblanklines—linesnotcontainingevena
%. Ablank k lineshouldnot appear where anew paragraphcannot bestarted,suchasin
mathmodeorintheargumentofasectioningcommand.
16.1 \indent
\indent produces s a a horizontal space whose e width h equals s the width h of the e \parindent
length,thenormalparagraphindentation. Itisusedtoaddparagraphindentationwhere
itwouldotherwisebesuppressed.
Thedefaultvaluefor\parindentis1emintwo-columnmode,otherwise15ptfor10pt
documents,17ptfor11pt,and1.5emfor12pt.
16.2 \noindent
Whenusedatthebeginningoftheparagraph,\noindentsuppressesanyparagraphinden-
tation.Ithasnoeffectwhenusedinthemiddleofaparagraph.
16.3 \parskip
\parskipisarubberlengthdefiningextraverticalspaceaddedbeforeeachparagraph. The
defaultis0ptplus1pt.
16.4 Marginalnotes
Synopsis:
\marginpar[left]{right}
The\marginparcommandcreatesanoteinthemargin. Thefirstlineofthenotewill
havethesamebaselineasthelineinthetextwherethe\marginparoccurs.
Whenyouonlyspecifythemandatoryargumentright,thetextwillbeplaced
 intherightmarginforone-sidedlayout;
 intheoutsidemarginfortwo-sidedlayout;
 inthenearestmarginfortwo-columnlayout.
The command\reversemarginpar places subsequent marginalnotes s inthe e opposite
(inside)margin. \normalmarginparplacestheminthedefaultposition.
Whenyouspecifybotharguments,leftisusedfortheleftmargin,andrightisusedfor
therightmargin.
Thefirstwordwillnormallynotbehyphenated;youcanenablehyphenationthereby
beginningthenodewith\hspace{0pt}.
Theseparametersaffecttheformattingofthenote:
\marginparpush
Minimumverticalspacebetweennotes;default‘7pt’for‘12pt’documents,‘5pt’
else.
Chapter16: Makingparagraphs
49
\marginparsep
Horizontalspacebetweenthemaintextandthenote;default‘11pt’for‘10pt’
documents,‘10pt’else.
\marginparwidth
Width of the note itself; ; default t for r a a one-sided ‘10pt’ document t is s ‘90pt’,
‘83pt’for‘11pt’,and‘68pt’for‘12pt’;‘17pt’moreineachcaseforatwo-sided
document.Intwocolumnmode,thedefaultis‘48pt’.
The standardLAT
E
Xroutineformarginalnotes doesnot preventnotesfromfallingoff
thebottomofthepage.
Chapter17: Mathformulas
50
17 Mathformulas
TherearethreeenvironmentsthatputLAT
E
Xinmathmode:
math
Forformulasthatappearrightinthetext.
displaymath
Forformulasthatappearontheirownline.
equation The e same e as the displaymath environment t except t that t it adds an equation
numberintherightmargin.
The math h environment can n be used in both paragraph h and LR mode, , but t the
displaymathandequationenvironmentscanbeusedonlyinparagraphmode.Themath
anddisplaymathenvironmentsareusedsooftenthattheyhavethefollowingshortforms:
\(...\)
insteadof
\begin{math}...\end{math}
\[...\]
insteadof
\begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}
Infact,themathenvironmentissocommonthatithasanevenshorterform:
$ ... . $
insteadof
\(...\)
The\boldmathcommandchangesmathlettersandsymbolstobeinaboldfont. Itis
usedoutside ofmathmode. . Conversely,the\unboldmathcommandchangesmathglyphs
tobeinanormalfont;ittooisusedoutsideofmathmode.
The \displaystyledeclarationforcesthesizeandstyleoftheformula tobethat of
displaymath,e.g.,withlimitsaboveandbelowsummations.Forexample
$\displaystyle \sum_{n=0}^\infty x_n $
17.1 Subscripts&superscripts
To get anexpressionexp toappearasa subscript,youjust type _{exp}. . Togetexp p to
appearasasuperscript,youtype^{exp}. L
A
T
E
Xhandlessuperscriptedsuperscriptsandall
ofthatstuffinthenaturalway. Itevendoes s therightthingwhensomethinghasbotha
subscriptandasuperscript.
17.2 Mathsymbols
LAT
E
Xprovidesalmostanymathematicalsymbolyou’relikelytoneed. Thecommandsfor
generatingthemcanbeusedonlyinmathmode.Forexample,ifyouinclude$\pi$inyour
source,youwillgetthepisymbol()inyouroutput.
\|
\aleph
@
\alpha
\amalg
q(binaryoperation)
\angle
6
\approx
(relation)
\ast
(binaryoperation)
Chapter17: Mathformulas
51
\asymp
(relation)
\backslash
\(delimiter)
\beta
\bigcap
T
\bigcirc  (binaryoperation)
\bigcup
S
\bigodot
J
\bigoplus
L
\bigotimes
N
\bigtriangledown
5(binaryoperation)
\bigtriangleup
4(binaryoperation)
\bigsqcup
F
\biguplus
U
\bigcap
W
\bigwedge
V
\bot
?
\bowtie
./(relation)
\Box
(squareopenboxsymbol)
\bullet
(binaryoperation)
\cap
\(binaryoperation)
\cdot
(binaryoperation)
\chi
\circ
(binaryoperation)
\clubsuit
|
\cong
=
(relation)
\coprod
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